Haji Muhammad Mohaqiq, born 26 July 1955 in Balkh, is a politician in Afghanistan, serving as a member of the Afghanistan Parliament. He is the founder and chairman of the People's Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan. During the 1980s, he served with the mujahideen rebel forces fighting against the Soviet-backed Afghan government. After the withdrawal of the Soviet Union in 1989, Mohaqiq was appointed as the leader of the Hezb-e Wahdat for northern Afghanistan. Mohaqiq hails from Mazar-e-Sharif in Balkh Province, he is the son of Sarwar. He holds a bachelor's degree in Islamic studies from Iran. Mohaqiq speaks Persian and Arabic, he has been involved in Mujahideen activities after the April 1978 Saur Revolution. During the Afghan civil war in the early 1990s, he was regarded as a prominent leader fighting for his Hazara people. In the late 1990s, Mohaqiq joined the Northern Alliance in their resistance and struggle against the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. After the fall of the Taliban, he was appointed as the Vice President and the Minister of Planning in the interim government of Hamid Karzai.
Mohaqiq ran as a candidate in the 2004 Afghan presidential election. He came in third place with 11.7 % of the votes after Yunus Qanuni. A January 2009 article by Ahmad Majidyar of the American Enterprise Institute included Mohaqiq on a list of fifteen possible candidates in the 2009 Afghan presidential election. In the end, Mohaqiq opted to support President Karzai against his main challenger Abdullah Abdullah in the election. In 2010, Mohaqiq stopped supporting President Karzai because of Karzai's policy of appeasement towards the Taliban insurgents. In late 2011, Ahmad Zia Massoud and Abdul Rashid Dostum created the National Front of Afghanistan. Under the presidency of Mohammad Ashraf Ghani he served as second vice chief executive of the country. People's Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan
Hazaragi culture refers to the culture of the Hazara people, who live in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan, elsewhere around the world where the Hazara diaspora is settled as part of the wider Afghan diaspora. The culture of the Hazara people is rich in heritage, with many unique customs and traditions, shares influences with Persian and various Central Asian cultures; the Hazarajat region has an ancient history and was, at different periods, home to the Greco-Buddhist, Timurid civilisations, the Ghorid and Ghaznavid dynasties. In the early 13th century, the Mongols, led by Genghis Khan, settled in the region; each of these civilisations left visible imprints on the region's local culture. The Hazara people are descendants of the Mongol peoples who settled in the region in the thirteenth century, which attributes their Mongloid physical features. According to genetic evidence, the ethnic group has "patrimonial relations" to Turkic peoples and Mongols, at the same time is related to neighboring Persianate peoples thus making them a distinct ethnic group.
The Hazara native Hazaragi language is a variation of the Dari dialect of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan. The Hazara were traditionally pastoral farmers active in herding in the central and southeastern highlands of Afghanistan, they belong to the Shi'a denomination of Islam, following either the Twelver or Ismaili sects, with a small minority of Sunnis. There has been frequent discrimination against them due to ethnic reasons. During the 1940s, the Pashtun dominated government in Kabul implemented a variety of initiatives which sought to Pashtunize the ethnic group and suppress Hazara culture. Shighai Bazi buz kashi, horse riding sangirak stick dance daikundi qatar, jodo palkhamo ghulail running race thirkamani Hazara people Hazaragi dialect Hazara tribes Buzkashi
Maidan Wardak Province
Wardak Province called Wardag or Wardak, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central region of Afghanistan. It is divided into eight districts and has a population of 567,600; the capital of the province is Maidan Shar, while the most populous district in the province is Saydabad District. The name of the province is only Wardak according to Afghan constitution and IDLG approved documents During the communist times, the people of Wardak never gave significant support to the communist government. Wardak Province was significant during the Civil War in Afghanistan, due to its proximity with Kabul and its agricultural lands. Hezb-e Wahdat had significant presence in the area. Most of the area was captured by the Taliban around winter 1995; the security situation deteriorated in Maidan Wardak in 2008 and 2009. According to a report by Mohammad Osman Tariq Elias, both Logar and Wardak, by the end of 2008, were under de facto Taliban control; as of April 2009, the Ministry of the Interior had listed the entire province as "High Risk."On January 21, 2019 a Taliban attack on a military base and police training center in the province resulted in 12 deaths.
At least 30 people were reported to be injured. The attack came during a time of intense daily violence throughout the country. Wardak province is located in the eastern region of Afghanistan; the capital of Wardak province is Maidan Shar, located about 35 km from Kabul. Wardak province covers an area of 9,934 km2, it is mountainous like the rest of the country with many valleys. The majority of its residents live in rural areas; the most populated areas are along the Kabul–Kandahar Highway. The rest of the province is thinly populated, with villages concentrated in areas with available irrigation and water sources. Famous passes include the Hajigak Pass; the current governor of the province is Mohammad Halim Fidai. His predecessor was Abdul Jabbar Naeemi; the town of Maidan Shar serves as the capital of the province. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are conducted by the Afghan National Police along with the Afghan Local Police; the provincial police chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul.
The ANP is backed including the NATO-led forces. In terms of industry, one marble factory is working in the province, there are marble mines in the provincial center and Sayed Abad District although no mining is undertaken there due to the government ban; the majority of commercial activity in Maidan Wardak is related to trade in agricultural and livestock products, although stone quarrying is a growing business in the area. The people from Maidan Wardak are expert in karez cleaning and repair and go to other parts of the country for this purpose. In Maidan Wardak, there are many natural resources like petroleum, iron and many historical artifacts that have been found by the people, but have been kept secret. Agriculture is a major source of revenue for 43% of households in Maidan Wardak province. Four fifths of rural households manage agricultural land or garden plots in the province. However, nearly a quarter of households in the province derive income from trade and services, around half of households earn some income through non-farm related labor.
The overall literacy rate in Wardak province is 25%. There are around 251 secondary schools in the province catering for 105,358 students. There are 2909 teachers teaching in these schools; as of 2013, the total population of Wardak province is about 567,600, multi-ethnic and a tribal society. According to the Institute for the Study of War, "Roughly 70 percent of the population is Pashtuns and Tajiks comprise the remainder of the population; the Tajiks live in northern districts of the province, while the Hazaras live in the western part of the province. Maydan Wardak has a small population of Qizilbashs, who are ethnically Persian and practice Shi’a Islam; the major Pashtun tribes are the Ghilzai and Wardak." Provinces of Afghanistan Wardak Province by the Institute for the Study of War Wardak Province by the Naval Postgraduate School
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
Hazāristān or Hazārajāt is a mountainous region in the central highlands of Afghanistan, among the Koh-i-Baba mountains in the western extremities of the Hindu Kush. It is the homeland of the Hazara people. "Hazārajāt denotes an ethnic and religious zone rather than a geographical one—that of Afghanistan's Turko-Mongol Shiʿites." Hazarajat is made up of the provinces of Bamyan, Daykundi and large parts of Ghazni, Urozgan and Wardak. The most populous towns in Hazarajat are Bamyan, Nili, Lal wa Sarjangal, Sang-e-Masha and Behsud; the Kabul, Helmand, Hari, Murghab and Kunduz rivers originate in Hazarajat. The name "Hazarajat" first appears in the 16th-century book Baburnama, written by Mughal Emperor Babur; when the famous geographer Ibn Battuta arrived in Afghanistan in 1333, he travelled across the country but did not record any place by the name of Hazarajat or any Hazara people. It was not mentioned by previous geographers, adventurers or invaders either; the name Hazarajat is used by the Hazara people, surrounding peoples to identify the historic Hazara lands.
The term might be linguistically compounded the suffix jat. Maqdesi, an Arab geographer, named Hazarajat as Gharj Al-Shar-Gharj meaning "mountain" area ruled by chiefs; the region was known as Gharjistan in the late Middle Ages, though the exact locations of main cities still remain unidentified. The name Hazarajat first appears in the 16th century Baburnama, written by Mughal Emperor Babur; the Hazarajat lies in the central highlands of Afghanistan, among the Koh-i Baba mountains and the western extremities of the Hindu Kush. "Its boundaries have been inexact and shifting, in some respects Hazārajāt denotes an ethnic and religious zone rather than a geographical one–that of Afghanistan’s Turko-Mongol Shiʿites. Its physical boundaries, are marked by the Bā-miān Basin to the north, the headwaters of the Helmand River to the south, Firuzkuh to the west, the Unai Pass to the east; the regional terrain is mountainous and extends to the Safid Kuh and the Siāh Kuh mountains, where the highest peaks are between 15,000 to 17,000 feet.
Both sides of the Kuh-e Bābā range contain a succession of valleys. The north face of the range descends steeply, merging into low foothills and short semi-arid plains, while the south face stretches towards the Helmand Valley and the mountainous district of Besud."Northwestern Hazarajat encompasses the district of Ghor, long known for its mountain fortresses. The 10th century geographer Estakhri wrote that mountainous Ghor was "the only region surrounded on all sides by Islamic territories and yet inhabited by infidels." The long resistance of the inhabitants of Ghor to the adoption of Islam provides an indication of the region's inaccessibility. The language of the inhabitants of Ghor differed so much from that of the people of the plains, that communication between the two required interpreters; the northeastern part of the Hazarajat, is the site of ancient Bamyan, a center of Buddhism and a key caravanserai on the Silk Road. The town is situated at a height of 7,500 feet and surrounded by the Hindu Kush to the north and Koh-i Baba to the south.
The Hazarajat was considered part of the larger geographic region of Khurasan, the porous boundaries of which encompassed the vast region between the Caspian Sea and the Oxus River, thus including much of what is today Northern Iran and Afghanistan. Hazarajat is mountainous, a series of mountain passes extend along its eastern edge. One of them, Salang Pass, is blocked by snow six months out of the year. Another, Shibar Pass, at a lower elevation, is blocked by snow only two months out of the year. Bamyan is the colder part of the region. Hazarajat is the source of the rivers that run through Kabul, Helmand, Murghab and Kunduz, during the spring and summer months, it has some of the greenest pastures in Afghanistan. Natural lakes, green valleys and caves are found in Bamyan; the area was ruled successively by the Achaemenids, Mauryas and Hephthalites before the Saffarids Islamized it and made it part of their empire. It was taken over by the Samanids, followed by the Ghaznavids and Ghurids before falling to the Delhi Sultanate.
In the 13th century, it was invaded by his Mongol army. In the following decades the Qarlughids emerged to create a short-lived local dynasty that offered a few decades of self-rule; the area became part of the Timurid dynasty, the Mughal Empire and the Durrani Empire, successively. When Alexander the Great travelled north into what is now Afghanistan, "his historians write that Alexander came across a strange people in the region who were more belligerent than the others; the description provided by Kent Corse about the mud houses of the people can be observed by any traveler today." In the 7th century, Hsuen Tsang wrote "that a swift spring gushes from Ho-sa-la and its water divides into several branches. The weather of this place is cold and it snows and hails there, its people are happy and free, they are skilled in magic craft and their language is different from the oth
Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. It is a municipality, forming part of the greater Kabul Province. According to estimates in 2015, the population of Kabul is 4.635 million, which includes all the major ethnic groups of Afghanistan. Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the world's 75th largest city. Kabul is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains, with an elevation of 1,790 metres making it one of the highest capitals in the world; the city is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. It is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia, a key location of the ancient Silk Road, it has been part of the Achaemenids followed by the Seleucids, Greco Bactrians, Indo Greeks, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Qarlughids, Timurids and Hotaks, until becoming part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. Kabul became the capital of Afghan Empire in 1776, during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani, the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani.
In the early 19th century, the British occupied the city but after establishing foreign relations they were compelled to withdraw all forces from Afghanistan. The city was occupied by the Soviets in 1979 but they too abandoned it after the 1988 Geneva Accords were signed. A civil war in the 1990s between various rebel groups destroyed much of the city, resulting in many casualties. Kabul is known for its gardens and palaces, it was formerly a mecca for young western hippies. Since the removal of the Taliban from power in late 2001, the city began rebuilding itself with assistance from the international community. Despite the many terrorist attacks by anti-state elements, the city is developing and was the fifth fastest-growing city in the world as of 2012; the city is divided into 22 districts. Kabul is spelled as Cabool, Kabol, or Cabul; the origin of Kabul, who built it and when, is unknown. The Hindu Rigveda, composed between 1500–1200 BCE and one of the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism, the Avesta, the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, refer to the Kabul River and to a settlement called Kubha.
The Rigveda refers to Kubha as an "ideal city" and a vision of paradise set in the mountains and is full of poems in praise of the city. The Kabul valley was part of the Median Empire. In 549 BC, the Median Empire was annexed by Cyrus The Great and Kabul became part the Achaemenid Empire. During that period, Kabul became a center of learning for Zoroastrianism, followed by Buddhism. An inscription on Darius the Great's tombstone lists Kabul as one of the 29 countries of the Achaemenid Empire; when Alexander annexed the Achaemenid Empire, the Kabul region came under his control. After his death, his empire was seized by his general Seleucus, becoming part of the Seleucid Empire; the Greco-Bactrians took control of Kabul from the Seleucids lost the city to their subordinates in the Indo-Greek Kingdom around the mid-2nd century BC. Buddhism was patronized by the rulers and majority of people of the city were adherents of the religion. Indo-Scythians expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BC, but lost the city to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later.
Some historians ascribe Kabul the Sanskrit name of Kamboja. It is mentioned as Kophene in some classical writings. Hsuan Tsang refers to the city as Kaofu in the 7th century AD, the appellation of one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi who had migrated from across the Hindu Kush into the Kabul valley around the beginning of the Christian era, it was conquered by Kushan Emperor Kujula Kadphises in about 45 AD and remained Kushan territory until at least the 3rd century AD. The Kushans were Indo-European-speaking Tocharians from the Tarim Basin. Around 230 AD, the Kushans were defeated by the Sassanid Empire and replaced by Sassanid vassals known as the Indo-Sassanids. During the Sassanian period, the city was referred to as "Kapul" in Pahlavi scripts. Kapol in the Persian language means Royal Bridge, due to the main bridge on the Kabul River that connected the east and west of the city. In 420 AD the Indo-Sassanids were driven out of Afghanistan by the Xionite tribe known as the Kidarites, who were replaced in the 460s by the Hephthalites.
It became part of the surviving Turk Shahi Kingdom of Kapisa known as Kabul-Shahan. According to Táríkhu-l Hind by Al-Biruni, Kabul was governed by princes of Turkic lineage whose rule lasted for about 60 generations; the Kabul rulers built a defensive wall around the city to protect it from enemy raids. This wall has survived until today, it was held by the Tibetan Empire between 801 and 815. The Islamic conquest reached modern-day Afghanistan in 642 AD, at a time. A number of failed expeditions were made to Islamize the region. In one of them, Abdur Rahman bin Samana arrived to Kabul from Zaranj in the late 600s and converted 12,000 inhabitants to Islam before abandoning the city. Muslims were a minority until Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar of Zaranj conquered Kabul in 870 and established the first Islamic dynasty in the region, it was reported. Kábul has a castle celebrated for its strength, accessible only by one road. In it there are Musulmáns, it has a town, in which are infidels from Hind. Over the following centuries, the city was successively controlled by the Samanids, Ghurids, Kh