Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Kuroshima, is one of the Satsunan Islands classed with the Ōsumi Islands, belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The island, 15.37 km² in area, has a population of 199 persons. The island can only be reached by ferry service to the city of Kagoshima on the mainland, as there is no airport. Travel time is about 6 hours; the islanders are dependent on fishing and seasonal tourism. Kuroshima is the westernmost of the Ōsumi islands, is located 110 kilometres south of Kagoshima; the island is of volcanic origin, has an area of 15.37 square kilometres. The highest elevation on the island is 620 metres. Above sea level, its climate is classified with a rainy season from May through September. The island is forested. Per local folklore, the island was one of the havens of the defeated Heike clan after they lost the Genpei War against the Minamoto clan; this is reflected in many local customs, the remains of late Heian period and early Kamakura period fortifications. During the Edo period, Kuroshima was part of Satsuma Domain and was administered as part of Kawabe District.
In 1896, the island was transferred to the administrative control of Ōshima District and from 1911 was part of the village of Toshima, Kagoshima. From 1946-1952, the southern seven islands in the Toshima group belonging to the Tokara archipelago came under the administration of the United States as part of the Provisional Government of Northern Ryukyu Islands. In 1979, the modern novelist Sawako Ariyoshi wrote a novel set on Kuroshima. Official home page
Shōwa Iōjima known as Shōwa Shintō, is one of the Satsunan Islands classed with the Ōsumi Islands, belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. A deserted volcanic island, it is located just off the northern shore of Kagoshima. Shōwa Iōjima is one of the Ōsumi islands, is located 2 kilometres north of Iōjima; the island has an area of 0.07 square kilometres with a coastline of 1.3 kilometres in length. The island is an exposed lava dome associated with the submarine Kikai Caldera, a stratovolcano rising from the ocean floor. Shōwa Iōjima came into existence during an eruption in 1934. On September 12, 1934, earthquakes began. On September 17, a plume of ash and smoke erupted from the ocean surface, by September 20 an island of ash and pumice began to form. Lava flows were confirmed on November 25, on December 7, the existence of a new island was confirmed; the volcanic peak on the island reached a height of about 30 meters by December 23, but on December 30, the island sank beneath sea level and disappeared.
However, the island reemerged on January 5 and on January 19 a strong eruption with black clouds of volcanic smoke, lava flows and an acidic rain began, continuing for several weeks. On March 8, residents of neighboring Iōjima made the first landing on the new island. By April 1, all volcanic activity and earthquakes ceased. At that time, the size of Shōwa Iōjima was estimated to be 0.18 square kilometres. Subsequent erosion has reduced it to its present size. Map of Shōwa Iōjima, Kagoshima by Geographical Survey Institute Kikai, Japan on Volcano World, Department of Geosciences at Oregon State University
Minamitane is a town located on Tanegashima, in Kumage District, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. As of June 2013, the town has an estimated population of 5,925 and a population density of 53.8 persons per km². The total area is 110.40 km². The headquarters of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency are located at the Tanegashima Space Center in Minamitane. Minamitane is located on the southern end of Tanegashima, bordered by the East China Sea to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east, the town of Nakatane to the north The climate is classified as humid subtropical with warm summers and mild winters. Precipitation is high throughout the year, but is highest in the months of May and September; the area is subject to frequent typhoons. Minamitane Village was established on April 1, 1889. In 1879, a government office was established in the village of Shimama overseeing the villages of Nishino and Sakai, while another government office was established in Kukinaga covering the villages of Hirayama and Nakano.
These former villages were merged to form Minamitane Village. Minamitane was upgraded to town status on October 15, 1956. Japan National Route 56 The Mangjeol family of South Korea trace their ancestry to a man from Shimama Village surnamed Amikiri who went to Korea during the colonial period and settled there, his son married a Korean woman, his grandson Amikiri Ichirō chose to remain in South Korea after its independence and naturalised as a South Korean citizen, changed his name to the Korean reading of its characters, Mangjeol Ilrang. Media related to Minamitane, Kagoshima at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Mishima is a village consisting of the inhabited islands of Iōjima and Takeshima and the uninhabited islands of Shōwa Iōjima and Denshima located in Kagoshima District, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The village office is located outside the village; as of June 2013, the village has an estimated population of 383 and a population density of 12.2 persons per km². The total area is 31.36 km². The islands of Miura Village are the northernmost of the Ryukyu archipelago, although now grouped together with the Ōsumi Islands, are physically an extension of the Tokara island arc. All of the islands are the exposed peaks of stratovolcanos rising from the ocean floor, most are volcanically active. Makurazaki Ibusuki Nishinoomote Minamisatsuma Minamikyūshū Minamiōsumi Nakatane Minamitane Yakushima The islands have been inhabited since at least the Jōmon period. During historic times, mentioned is made of the islands in the Heike monogatari and the Azuma Kagami, local legend states that the islands were a refuge for the defeated Heike clan following the Genpei War.
During the Edo period, the islands came under the control of the Shimazu clan of Satsuma Domain. After the Meiji Restoration, these islands were allotted to Kawanabe District of Satsuma Province, transferred to Ōshima District of Ōsumi Province in 1897. In 1908, the islands were grouped together with the Tokara Islands into Jitto Village, of which seven were inhabited. After World War II, from 2 February 1946 all of the Japanese islands south of 30th Latitude, including the Tokara Islands, were placed under United States military administration as part of the Provisional Government of Northern Ryukyu Islands. However, the three northern inhabited islands in the archipelago, known as the Kamimishima: Iōjima and Takeshima, remained under the control of Japan, were placed under the administration of the village of Mishima; the remaining Tokara Islands reverted to Japan on 10 February 1952 and are now administered as the village of Toshima. In 1973, the two villages were transferred to Kagoshima District.
Media related to Mishima, Kagoshima at Wikimedia Commons Mishima official website Mishima Islands travel guide from Wikivoyage
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word