The Sleeth Site is an archaeological site located near Liverpool in Fulton County, Illinois. The side encompasses a 10-acre village area including a sizable midden; the site was occupied by people of the Spoon River Culture, a local culture within the Middle Mississippian culture. D. Cultural artifacts recovered from the site include a large number of projectile points and pottery shards from jars and bowls; the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 17, 1979
Wickliffe Mounds is a prehistoric, Mississippian culture archaeological site located in Ballard County, just outside the town of Wickliffe, about 3 miles from the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Archaeological investigations have linked the site with others along the Ohio River in Illinois and Kentucky as part of the Angel Phase of Mississippian culture. Wickliffe Mounds is controlled by the State Parks Service, which operates a museum at the site for interpretation of the ancient community. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it is a Kentucky Archeological Landmark and State Historic Site; the town at Wickliffe Mounds is located on a bluff above the Ohio River, was both a ceremonial and administrative center of an important chiefdom in the Mississippian culture. At its peak it had a population reaching into the hundreds; the site is dominated by two large platform mounds, with at least eight smaller mounds scattered around a central plaza area. Agriculture was based on the cultivation of maize as a staple, stored and supported denser populations and stratification of society.
The Mississippian culture peoples had trade with societies as far away as North Carolina and the Gulf of Mexico. As in most other Mississippian chiefdoms, the community of Wickliffe had a social hierarchy ruled by a hereditary chief; the site was inhabited between 1000 CE and 1350 CE. When Wickliffe began to be abandoned around 1300, the population had been relocating to the Twin Mounds Site, several miles to the northeast near the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Amateur and semi-professional excavations first began in the site around 1913 and continued sporadically for several decades. In 1932, Fain W. King, a lumberman, amateur archaeologist, Indian artifact collector from Paducah, a member of the Board of Regents of the Alabama Museum of Natural History, Tuscaloosa requested and paid for the Alabama Museum archaeology staff to conduct the excavations of the center portions of three mounds at the Wickliffe site including the cemetery, Mound C; the excavations were done under the direction of Dr. Walter B, Alabama State Geologist, David L. DeJarnette, the crew chief.
The first publicity flyer about the excavations was co-authored by TMN Lewis and Fain King and the first two separate journal articles about the excavations by each author said the work was undertaken as both a scientific and educational enterprise through which the public was enabled to examine a page of unwritten history. To defray the cost of operating the site a one dollar admission was charged for the one hour guided tour during the King era. In cooperation with his wife, Blanche Busey King, he opened the site for tourists under the name "Ancient Buried City"; the Kings' venture was controversial because they used sensational and misleading advertising, altered the site to make it more visually appealing, made dubious and exaggerated interpretations of the site. These actions put them directly in opposition to professional archaeologists who studied the site and did not want it disturbed; the Kings deeded the site to the Western Baptist Hospital in Paducah in 1946, that agreed to pay them a monthly stipend until both of their deaths.
The hospital continued to operate the site as a tourism business until 1983 the year Mrs. King died; that year the hospital donated the site to Murray State University, to be used for research and training students. In 1984 the site's historic importance was recognized and it was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In 2004, the site became the 11th State Historical Site of Kentucky and entered the control of the Kentucky State Parks. In addition to the freestanding Mound A, the major ceremonial mound, the museum park encloses three excavated mounds with archaeological features, to aid in their interpretation for visitors, it displays the outstanding collection of pottery and artifacts excavated on site. A mural with a birds-eye view of the Mississippian village on the bluff shows how the entire complex would have looked. Ceremonial Mound was the location of ceremonial structures; this would have been religious center of the community. Excavated in 1932 and in 1984–85, it has been determined that there are six phases of development.
The Architecture Building covers a mound, residential. You can see several layers of habitation revealed in this cut-away mound; this mound was built up over 200 years. Inside, visitors can look into the layers of this mound, it shows the evidence which archeologists used to identify this as a residential area, such as the layers of charred materials from cooking fires and the postholes for the poles that held the wattle and daub siding. The Cemetery Building covers the area used as the community's burial ground. Native American practices prohibit the display of the dead; the original remains were reinterred and artificial skeletons were placed to show the original burials. The exterior of the excavation has curtains with traditional designs to cover those remains that could not be removed; the burials are from the 13th century. They included many infants, as well as people with identifiable medical problems, including arthritis and various injuries; the Lifeways Building is the excavation of an early village/residential portion of the community.
The early homes were replaced by an elongated mound. The excavation shows the arrangement including numerous infant burials. In the lower Ohio River valley in Illinois and Indiana, the Mississippian-culture towns of Kincaid, Wickliffe and Angel Moun
Dogtooth Bend Mounds and Village Site
Dogtooth Bend Mounds and Village Site is an archaeological site located on the western shore of Lake Milligan in Alexander County, Illinois. The site includes a village site stretching northwest of the mounds; the village was inhabited by Middle Mississippian peoples from 900-1600 A. D, it served as a trade hub and a social center for residents of the surrounding farmland. Formal archaeological investigation of the site was initiated in 1950 by Irvin Peithman of Southern Illinois University; the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 23, 1978. List of archaeological sites on the National Register of Historic Places in Illinois
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Edwardsville is a city in Madison County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,293, it is the county seat of Madison County. The city was named in honor of Ninian Edwards Governor of the Illinois Territory. Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, the Edwardsville Arts Center, the Edwardsville Journal, the Madison County Record, the Edwardsville Intelligencer are here. Edwardsville High School and Metro-East Lutheran High School serve students in the area. Edwardsville is a part of Southern Illinois, the Metro East region, Greater St. Louis, it is part of the Edwardsville School District, which includes the villages of Glen Carbon and Moro, as well as the townships areas around them. A 2010 issue of Family Circle magazine named Edwardsville third of their "Top 10 Best Towns for Families." MCT Trails: Madison County Transit has developed more than 125 miles of scenic bikeways that weave throughout the communities of Edwardsville, nearby Glen Carbon and beyond, connects its MCTTrail system with its public bus system.
The trails are asphalt. Maps of the trails, which connect to neighborhoods, business districts, SIUE, more, are available on kiosks throughout the trail system or online at www.mcttrails.org. Watershed Nature Center: 46-acre wildlife preserve; the interpretive center displays native Illinois plants and animals and has education about the environment. Programming for children and adults is available. SIUE Campus: Located on 2,660 acres, the SIUE campus is one of the largest college campuses in the United States; the property includes rolling hills, acres of forests, extensive fields. Edwardsville Parks: Glik Park, City Park, Edwardsville Township Park, Leclaire Park, Lusk Park. Arts & Culture: Edwardsville Arts Center, Wildey Theater, Edwardsville Children's Museum, Madison County Historical Museum, Mannie Jackson Center for the Humanities. Edwardsville was incorporated in 1818; the first European-American settler was Thomas Kirkpatrick, who came in 1805, laid out a community, served as the Justice of the Peace.
He named the community after his friend Ninian Edwards territorial governor of Illinois. The Edwards Trace, a key trail in the settlement of Central Illinois, used Edwardsville as a northward launching point. In 1868 was founded The Bank of Edwardsville, still functioning regional bank. In 1890, St. Louis industrialist N. O. Nelson chose a tract of land just south of Edwardsville to build plumbing factories, he built a model workers' cooperative village called Leclaire. He offered workers fair wages with a share of the profits, he named the village in honor of the French economist Edme-Jean Leclaire. The village provided educational and recreational opportunities and made it financially possible for anyone to own his own home. Unlike company towns such as Pullman near Chicago, the welfare and quality of life for the workers and their families was a major concern. In 1934, the Village of Leclaire was incorporated into the City of Edwardsville; the area has a lake and park, baseball field, the Edwardsville Children's Museum in the former Leclaire schoolhouse.
Several Nelson factory buildings were renovated and adapted for use as the historic N. O. Nelson Campus of Lewis and Clark Community College; the recognized Historic District has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Each year on the third Sunday in October, the Friends of Leclaire host the annual Leclaire Parkfest with food, live heritage music, historic displays & tours, children's activities, a book sale, more. In 1983, Edwardsville’s historic Saint Louis Street was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Dating back to 1809, this Historic District has a mile-long visual landscape. More than 50 historic homes date from the middle 19th century to early 20th century; the protection and preservation of Saint Louis Street is overseen by the Historic Saint Louis Street Association. Five Illinois governors came from Edwardsville: namesake Ninian Edwards, who became a territorial governor in 1809 and served as governor from 1826–1830. Former president Abraham Lincoln was in Edwardsville twice, as an attorney in the 1814 courthouse and a speaker outside the 1857 courthouse on Sept. 11, 1858.
The present county courthouse, a square, four-story neoclassical structure of white marble that rises to six stories at the back section, was constructed from 1913-15. According to the 2010 census, Edwardsville has an area of 20.165 square miles, of which 19.56 square miles is land and 0.605 square miles is water. As of the census of 2005, 24,047 people, 7,975 households, 5,199 families resided in the city; the population density was 1,549.2 people per square mile. There were 8,331 housing units at an average density of 600.6 per square mile. The city's racial makeup was 87.70% White, 8.66% African American, 1.69% Asian, 0.28% Native American, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 1.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.00% of the population. There were 10,000 households, out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families.
25.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44, the average family siz
Castalian Springs Mound Site
The Castalian Springs Mound State Historic Site is a Mississippian culture archaeological site located near the small unincorporated community of Castalian Springs in Sumner County, Tennessee. The site was first excavated in the 1890s and again as as the 2005 to 2011 archaeological field school led by Dr. Kevin E. Smith. A number of important finds have been associated with the site, most several examples of Mississippian stone statuary and the Castalian Springs shell gorget held by the National Museum of the American Indian; the site is owned by the State of Tennessee and is a State Historic Site managed by the Bledsoe's Lick Association for the Tennessee Historical Commission. The site is not open to the public; the Castalian Springs site is the largest of four Mississippian mound centers on the eastern edge of the Nashville basin, located on a flood terrace of a tributary creek of the Cumberland River. It was occupied from 1100 to 1450 CE, with the main occupation dating to 1200-1325 CE; the palisaded village and surrounding habitation area was 40 acres in size and consisted of a dozen platform mounds, a burial mound, plaza and a number of dwellings and civic structures.
The site was first noted in the early 1820s by Ralph E. W. Earl, who did extensive digging at the site, he described a low earthen embankment with raised earthen towers enclosing 16 acres, the remnants of what is now known to have been a wooden palisade. Earl described the principal mound inside the enclosure as being a compound structure consisting of a rectangular platform 600 feet long by 200 feet wide and 13 feet to 15 feet in height and aligned in an east-west direction. On the western end of the platform was a conical shaped mound with a flattened top 18 feet to 20 feet in height. On the southern side of the mound was a plaza, bordered on its eastern edge by a 120 feet in diameter 8 feet tall burial mound and on its western edge by another large platform mound. Outside of the palisade to southwest on the banks of Lick Creek was a stone mound 60 feet in diameter and 5.5 feet, similar examples of which have been found at the Beasley Mounds and Sellars Indian Mound sites. Over the years since Earls first description Euro-Americans have plowed the area for agricultural purposes and the main platform mound and a few raised impressions are all that are still visible of the embankment and the 12 platform mounds once contained within it.
Scattered throughout the area archaeologists have found stone box graves, mortuary caves and other features thought to be associated with the Castalian Springs site. The karst terrain of the area produced numerous small caves, one of, located a few hundred yards west of the Castalian Springs site. Known locally as the "Cave of the Skulls", this small cave was explored by Myer at sometime during one of his three excavation of the site. In the early 1890s and again in 1916-1917, amateur archaeologist William E. Myer excavated parts of the site, including the stone box graves, he excavated the large burial mound, which contained well over a hundred graves. Myer discovered several artifacts containing S. E. C. C. Imagery, including many shell gorgets which were acquired by the Museum of the American Indian in 1926; the State of Tennessee purchased the site in 2005, modern excavations were instituted by the Middle Tennessee State University. Dr. Kevin E. Smith conducted an archaeological dig school at the village site from 2005 through 2011.
The Castalian Springs Archaeological Project is a multi-year research project sponsored by the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Middle Tennessee State University, the Bledsoe's Lick Historical Association and the Tennessee Division of Archaeology. Its stated objectives are to develop an initial understanding of the size and extent of the site, to develop trails and other facilities on the site without negatively impacting archaeological deposits, to give university students training in the methods and techniques of professional field and laboratory archaeology, to emphasize to the public the value of archaeological research. A number of Mississippian stone statues have been dug up at the site, the first being sometime before 1823 when it is first mentioned. Since several others have been found, including one believed to have been dug from the platform section of the main mound and several from one of the associated village areas. In 1892 an etched stone tablet was discovered at the site by Myer.
The 9 inches by 12 inches limestone tablet is engraved with symbolic imagery associated with the S. E. C. C. Specifically the upper torso of a human figure ceremonially dressed as a raptorial bird with a sun symbol on its chest; the iconography is similar to depictions of the falcon dancer found on Mississippian copper plates excavated from locations across the Midwest and Southeast. The tablet was the second of only six such tablets that have been found in the Central Tennessee area. Another more famous engraved stone, the Thruston tablet, was found a short distance away from Castalian Springs site in 1878 on the banks of Rocky Creek in what is now Trousdale County, Tennessee; the tablet is 19 inches wide by 14 inches tall by 1 inch and on both sides depicts multiple figures dressed in S. E. C. C. Regalia, it is named for Gates P. Thruston, a Nashville lawyer turned avocational archaeologist who excavated many sites in the Nashville area and built up an extensive collection of artifacts though he did not discover the s
Sugarloaf Mound is the sole remaining Mississippian culture platform mound in St. Louis, Missouri, a city referred to in its earlier years as "Mound City" for its forty Native American earthen structures. Sugarloaf Mound is the last remaining of the mounds built within present-day St. Louis by a Native American culture that thrived in the area from A. D. 600-1300. The mound itself is the oldest human-made structure in the city of St. Louis. One of the city's best-known earthen structures, "Big Mound" was razed in the mid-1800s following a sale of the land to the North Missouri Railroad. In preparation for the 1904 World's Fair, an additional sixteen mounds were destroyed; the mounds in Forest Park had human remains associated with them. A group of mounds was near the St. Louis Art Museum and some were near the golf course. Today, about 80 mounds are preserved in the nearby Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site directly across the Mississippi River. Sugarloaf Mound is only one of about 40 mounds; the mounds were constructed by Native Americans that lived in the St. Louis area from about 600-1300 A.
D, the same civilization that built the mounds at Cahokia. Sugarloaf Mound is on the National Register of Historic Places; the mound got its name in the 18th century when St. Louisans noticed the shape resembled the loaves that sugar was transported in. Although the mound has not been excavated, it is assumed. Sugarloaf Mound measures 40 feet in height, 100 feet north/south and 75 feet east/west; the mound overlooks the Mississippi River. It is now located within the incorporated City of St. Louis, but used to be on the border between St. Louis and the autonomous city of Carondelet. In 1809 the mound was used as a survey landmark. A residence was constructed abutting Sugarloaf Mound in 1928, portions of the mound were impacted by a quarry and the construction of Interstate 55. Although suppressed in some online municipal records, the Sugarloaf Mound house was standing and still bore a mailing address of 4420 Ohio Street as of March 2013; the home and land was purchased by the Osage Nation in 2009 from a private owner, with the stated intention of preservation.
The home itself had been occupied until 2008. The Osage Nation does not claim a direct link to the construction of the mound, but claims a kindred heritage of mound building in the American Midwest. "Preservation" does not include the existing residence, but, by 2013, seems to point to an intention to restore Sugarloaf Mound to a condition similar to its configuration before the advent of Non-Native American architectural embellishments and razings. In the summer of 2017, the Osage Nation was able to remove the house from the mound; the home had been vacant and deteriorating since 2009Ultimately, the Osage Nation wants to build an interpretive center to the north of the mound, on property now owned by the Missouri Department of Transportation