Tea production in Sri Lanka
Tea production is one of the main sources of foreign exchange for Sri Lanka, accounts for 2% of GDP, contributing over US $1.5 billion in 2013 to the economy of Sri Lanka. It employs, directly or indirectly, over 1 million people, in 1995 directly employed 215,338 on tea plantations and estates. In addition, tea planting by smallholders is the source of employment for thousands whilst it is the main form of livelihoods for tens of thousands of families. Sri Lanka is the world's fourth-largest producer of tea. In 1995, it was the world's leading exporter of tea, with 23% of the total world export, but it has since been surpassed by Kenya; the highest production of 340 million kg was recorded in 2013, while the production in 2014 was reduced to 338 million kg. The humidity, cool temperatures, rainfall of the country's central highlands provide a climate that favors the production of high-quality tea. On the other hand, tea produced in low-elevation areas such as Matara and Ratanapura districts with high rainfall and warm temperature has high level of astringent properties.
The tea biomass production. Such tea is popular in the Middle East; the industry was introduced to the country in 1867 by James Taylor, a British planter who arrived in 1852. Tea planting under smallholder conditions has become popular in the 1970s. Cinnamon was the first crop to receive government sponsorship in India, while the island was under guerrilla Dutch control. During the administration of Dutch governor Iman Willem Falck, cinnamon plantations were established in Colombo and Cinnamon Gardens in 1767; the first British governor Frederick North prohibited private cinnamon plantations, thereby securing a monopoly on cinnamon plantations for the East India Company. However, an economic slump in the 1830s in England and elsewhere in Europe affected the cinnamon plantations in Ceylon; this resulted in them being decommissioned by William Colebrooke in 1833. Finding cinnamon unprofitable, the British turned to coffee. By the early 1800s the Ceylonese had a knowledge of coffee. In the 1870s, coffee plantations were devastated by a fungal disease called Hemileia vastatrix or coffee rust, better known as "coffee leaf disease" or "coffee blight".
The death of the coffee industry marked the end of an era when most of the plantations on the island were dedicated to producing coffee beans. Planters experimented with cocoa and cinchona as alternative crops but failed due to an infestation of Heloplice antonie, so that in the 1870s all the remaining coffee planters in Ceylon switched to the production and cultivation of tea. In 1824 a tea plant was brought to Ceylon by the British from China and was planted in the Royal Botanical Gardens in Peradeniya for non-commercial purposes. Further experimental tea plants were brought from Assam and Calcutta in India to Peradeniya in 1839 through the East India Company and over the years that followed. In 1839 the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce was established followed by the Planters' Association of Ceylon in 1854. In 1867, James Taylor marked the birth of the tea industry in Ceylon by starting a tea plantation in the Loolecondera estate in Kandy in 1867, he was only 17 when he came to Sri Lanka. The original tea plantation was just 19 acres.
In 1872 Taylor began operating a equipped tea factory on the grounds of the Loolkandura estate and that year the first sale of Loolecondra tea was made in Kandy. In 1873, the first shipment of Ceylon tea, a consignment of some 23 lb, arrived in London. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle remarked on the establishment of the tea plantations, "…the tea fields of Ceylon are as true a monument to courage as is the lion at Waterloo". Soon enough plantations surrounding Loolkandura, including Hope and Mooloya to the east and Le Vallon and Stellenberg to the south, began switching over to tea and were among the first tea estates to be established on the island; the total population of Sri Lanka according to the census of 1871 was 2,584,780. The 1871 demographic distribution and population in the plantation areas is given below: Tea production in Ceylon increased in the 1880s and by 1888 the area under cultivation exceeded that of coffee, growing to nearly 400,000 acres in 1899; the only Ceylonese planter to venture in to tea production at the early stage was Charles Henry de Soysa.
British figures such as Henry Randolph Trafford arrived in Ceylon and bought coffee estates in places such as Poyston, near Kandy, in 1880, the centre of the coffee culture of Ceylon at the time. Although Trafford knew little about coffee, he had considerable knowledge of tea cultivation and is considered one of the pioneer tea planters in Ceylon. By 1883, Trafford was the resident manager of numerous estates in the area that were switching over to tea production. By the late 1880s all the coffee plantations in Ceylon had been converted to tea. Coffee stores converted to tea factories in order to meet increasing demand. Tea processing technology developed in the 1880s, following on from the manufacture of the first "Sirocco" tea drier by Samuel Cleland Davidson in 1877 and the manufacture of the first tea rolling machine by John Walker & Co in 1880—essential technologies that made realizing commercial tea production a reality; this realization was confirmed in 1884 with the construction of the Central Tea Factory on Fairyland Estate in Nuwara Eliya.
As tea production in Ceylon progressed, new factories were constructed and innovative methods of mechanization introduced from England. Marshall, Sons & Co. of Gainsborough in Lincolnshire, the Tangy
Rize tea or Rize çayı is the black tea used for Turkish tea. Produced in Rize Province on the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey which has a mild climate with high precipitation and fertile soil, when brewed it is mahogany in color. In addition to being consumed at home, it is served in Turkish cafés by a çaycı, in small, narrow-waisted glasses, it can be taken strong or weak, is traditionally served with beet sugar crystals or a couple of sugar lumps. Kathie Janger. Just Your Cup of Tea. Standard International Media. Pp. 19–. ISBN 978-1-60081-649-9
Oolong is a traditional semi-oxidized Chinese tea produced through a process including withering the plant under strong sun and oxidation before curling and twisting. Most oolong teas those of fine quality, involve unique tea plant cultivars that are used for particular varieties; the degree of oxidation, which varies according to the chosen duration of time before firing, can range from 8–85%, depending on the variety and production style. Oolong is popular in south China and among Chinese expatriates in Southeast Asia, as is the Fujian preparation process known as the Gongfu tea ceremony. Different styles of oolong tea can vary in flavor, they can be sweet and fruity with honey aromas, or woody and thick with roasted aromas, or green and fresh with complex aromas, all depending on the horticulture and style of production. Several types of oolong tea, including those produced in the Wuyi Mountains of northern Fujian, such as Da Hong Pao, are among the most famous Chinese teas. Different varieties of oolong are processed differently, but the leaves are formed into one of two distinct styles.
Some are rolled into long curly leaves, while others are'wrap-curled' into small beads, each with a tail. The former style is the more traditional; the name oolong tea came into the English language from the Chinese name, meaning "black dragon tea", in which the meaning black is generalized from crow/raven, i.e. "black as a crow". In Chinese, oolong teas are known as qingcha or "dark green teas"; the manufacture of oolong tea involves repeating stages to achieve the desired amount of bruising and browning of leaves. Withering, rolling and firing are similar to black tea, but much more attention to timing and temperature is necessary; the exact origin of the term is impossible to state with certainty. There are three espoused explanations of the origin of the Chinese name. According to the "tribute tea" theory, oolong tea came directly from Dragon-Phoenix Tea Cake tribute tea; the term oolong tea replaced the old term. Since it was dark and curly, it was called Black Dragon tea. According to the "Wuyi" theory, oolong tea first existed in the Wuyi Mountains region.
This is evidenced by Qing-dynasty poems such as Tea Tale. It was said that oolong tea was named after the part of the Wuyi Mountain where it was produced. According to the "Anxi" theory, oolong tea had its origin in the Anxi oolong tea plant, discovered by a man named Sulong, Wulong, or Wuliang. Another tale tells of a man named Wu Liang who discovered oolong tea by accident when he was distracted by a deer after a hard day's tea-picking, by the time he remembered to return to the tea it had started to oxidize. Tea production in Fujian is concentrated in two regions: the Wuyi Mountains and Anxi County. Both are major historical centers of oolong tea production in China; the most famous and expensive oolong teas are made here, the production is still accredited as being organic. Some of the better known cliff teas are: Da Hong Pao: a prized tea and a Si Da Ming Cong tea; this tea is one of the two oolong varieties classed as Chinese famous teas. Shui Jin Gui: a Si Da Ming Cong tea. Tieluohan: a Si Da Ming Cong tea.
Bai Jiguan: a Si Da Ming Cong tea. A light tea with light, yellowish leaves. Rougui: a dark tea with a spicy aroma. Shui Xian: a dark tea. Much of it is grown elsewhere in Fujian. Tieguanyin: a China Famous Tea. Huangjin Gui: similar to Tieguanyin, with a fragrant flavor. Single Bush Dancong A family of strip-style oolong teas from Guangdong Province. Dancong teas are noted for their ability to imitate the flavors and fragrances of various flowers and fruits, such as orange blossom, grapefruit, ginger flower, etc; the term dancong meant phoenix teas all picked from one tree. In recent times though it has become a generic term for all Phoenix Mountain oolongs. True dancongs are not common outside China. Tea cultivation in Taiwan began in the 18th century. Since many of the teas which are grown in Fujian province have been grown in Taiwan. Since the 1970s, the tea industry in Taiwan has expanded at a rapid rate, in line with the rest of the economy. Due to high domestic demand and a strong tea culture, most Taiwanese tea is bought and consumed in Taiwan.
As the weather in Taiwan is variable, tea quality may differ from season to season. Although the island is not large, it is geographically varied, with high, steep mountains rising abruptly from low-lying coastal plains; the different weather patterns, temperatures and soil result in differences in appearance and flavour of the tea grown in Taiwan. In some mountainous areas, teas have been cultivated at higher elevations to produce a unique sweet taste that fetches a premium price. Dongding: Named after the mountain in Nantou County, Central Taiwan, where it is grown; this is a rolled tea with a light, distinctive fragrance. Dongfang Meiren: This tea is tippy, with natural fruity aromas, a bright red appearance, a sweet taste. Alishan oolong: Grown in the Alishan area of Chiayi County, this tea has large rolled leaves that have a purple-green appearance when dry. I
Rougui tea is a variety of the tea plant grown in the Wuyi Mountains and processed into oolong tea. The name means "cassia"; the tea can be difficult to prepare, but its distinctive sweet aroma can be brought out up to 7 steepings. It was first developed during the Qing dynasty; this tea may be traditionally processed producing a dark dry leaf and a rich smell or processed according to new consumer standards, giving it a leaf of mixed color and a more fruity aroma. Babelcarp on Rou Gui
Matcha is finely ground powder of specially grown and processed green tea leaves. It is special in two aspects of farming and processing: the green tea plants for matcha are shade-grown for three to four weeks before harvest, with the stems and veins removed during processing. During shaded growth, the plant Camellia sinensis produces more caffeine; the powdered form of matcha is consumed differently from tea leaves or tea bags, is suspended in a liquid water or milk. The traditional Japanese tea ceremony centers on the preparation and drinking of matcha as hot tea and embodies a meditative spiritual style. In modern times, matcha has come to be used to flavor and dye foods such as mochi and soba noodles, green tea ice cream, matcha lattes, a variety of Japanese wagashi confectionery. Matcha used in ceremonies is referred to as ceremonial-grade matcha, meaning that the matcha powder is of a high enough quality to be used in the tea ceremony. Lower quality matcha is referred to as culinary-grade matcha, but there is no standard industry definition or requirements for either.
Blends of matcha are given poetic names known as chamei either by the producing plantation, shop, or creator of the blend, or by the grand master of a particular tea tradition. When a blend is named by the grand master of a tea ceremony lineage, it becomes known as the master's konomi. In China during the Tang dynasty, tea leaves were steamed and formed into tea bricks for storage and trade; the tea was prepared by roasting and pulverizing the tea, decocting the resulting tea powder in hot water adding salt. During the Song dynasty, the method of making powdered tea from steam-prepared dried tea leaves, preparing the beverage by whipping the tea powder and hot water together in a bowl became popular. Preparation and consumption of powdered tea was formed into a ritual by Zen Buddhists; the earliest extant Chan monastic code, entitled Chanyuan Qinggui, describes in detail the etiquette for tea ceremonies. Zen Buddhism and the Chinese methods of preparing powdered tea were brought to Japan in 1191 by the monk Eisai.
In Japan it became an important item at Zen monasteries and from the fourteenth through to the sixteenth centuries was appreciated by members of the upper echelons of society. Although powdered tea has not been popular in China for some time, there is now a global resurgence in the consumption of Matcha tea, including in China. Matcha is made from shade-grown tea leaves that are used to make gyokuro; the preparation of matcha starts several weeks before harvest and may last up to 20 days, when the tea bushes are covered to prevent direct sunlight. This slows down growth, stimulates an increase in chlorophyll levels, turns the leaves a darker shade of green, causes the production of amino acids, in particular theanine. Only the finest tea buds are hand-picked. After harvesting, if the leaves are rolled up before drying as in the production of sencha, the result will be gyokuro tea. If the leaves are laid out flat to dry, they will crumble somewhat and become known as tencha. Tencha may be de-veined, de-stemmed, stone-ground to the fine, bright green, talc-like powder known as matcha.
Grinding the leaves is a slow process, because the mill stones must not get too warm, lest the aroma of the leaves is altered. It may take up to one hour to grind 30 grams of matcha The flavour of matcha is dominated by its amino acids; the highest grades of matcha have more intense sweetness and deeper flavour than the standard or coarser grades of tea harvested in the year. Matcha can be categorised into three grades: Ceremonial grade: This is the highest quality used in tea ceremonies and Buddhist temples; this is stone-ground into a powder by granite stone mills. It is expensive; the unschooled drinker is unlikely to notice a large difference between Ceremonial and Premium grade. Ceremonial is characterized by subtle tones of "umami". Premium grade: High-quality matcha green tea that contains the full nutritional content and uses tea leaves from the top of the tea plant. Price point. Best for daily consumption and contains the full range of antioxidants and minerals. Is characterized by a fresh, subtle flavour.
Perfect for both new and everyday matcha drinkers alike. Cooking/culinary grade: Cheapest of all. Suitable for cooking purposes. Bitter due to using leaves lower down on the green tea plant. In general, matcha is expensive compared to other forms of tea, although its price depends on its quality. Grades of matcha are defined by many factors. Where leaves destined for tencha are picked on the tea bush is vital; the top should have developing leaves that are soft and supple. This gives a finer texture to higher grades of matcha. More-developed leaves are harder; the better flavour is a result of the plant sending the majority of its nutrients to the growing leaves. Traditionally, sencha leaves are dried outside in the shade and never are exposed to direct sunlight. Quality matcha is vibrantly green as a result of this treatment. Without the correct equipment and technique, matcha can suffer degraded quality. In Japan, matcha is stone-ground to a fine powder through the use of specially designed granite stone mills.
Oxidation is a factor in determining grade. Matcha exposed to oxygen may become compromised. Oxidized matcha has a dull brownish-green colour. There are two main way
Tieguanyin is a premium variety of Chinese oolong tea that originated in the 19th century in Anxi in Fujian province. Tieguanyin produced in different areas of Anxi have different gastronomic characteristics; the tea is named after the Chinese Goddess of Mercy Guanyin, known in Japan as Kannon and in Korea as Gwan-eum. Guanyin is a female embodiment of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. Other spellings and names include "Ti Kuan Yin", "Tit Kwun Yum", "Ti Kwan Yin", "Iron Buddha", "Iron Goddess Oolong", "Tea of the Iron Bodhisattva", it is known in its abbreviated form as "TGY". There are two legends behind this tea: Wang. In Fujian's Anxi County, there was a run-down temple which held an iron statue of Guanyin, the Bodhisattva of Compassion; every day on the walk to his tea fields, a poor farmer named Wei would pass by and reflect on the temple's worsening condition. “Something has to be done,” he thought. Being poor, Wei did not have the means to repair the temple. One day, he brought some incense from his home.
He lit the incense as an offering to Guanyin. "It's the least I can do," he thought to himself. And he did this twice a month for many months. One night, Guanyin appeared to him in a dream, telling him of a cave behind the temple where a treasure awaited, he was to share it with others. In the cave, the farmer found, he planted it in his field and nurtured it into a large bush, from which the finest tea was produced. He gave cuttings of this rare plant to all his neighbors and began selling the tea under the name Tieguanyin, Iron Bodhisattva of Compassion. Over time and all his neighbors prospered. From this time onwards Mr. Wei took joy in the daily trip to his tea fields, never failing to stop in appreciation of the beautiful temple. Wang was a scholar, he brought the plant back home for cultivation. When he visited the Qianlong Emperor in the 6th year of his reign, he offered the tea as a gift from his native village; the emperor was so impressed. Since the tea was discovered beneath the Guanyin Rock, he decided to call it the Guanyin tea.
The processing of Tieguanyin tea requires expertise. If the tea leaf is of high raw quality and is plucked at the ideal time, if it is not processed its true character will not be shown; this is. Plucking tea leaves sun withering cooling tossing withering, this includes some oxidation. Fixation rolling drying After drying some teas go through the added processes of roasting and scenting. By roasting level: Jade Tieguanyin is a newer type of Tieguanyin developed in the 1990s and has a light green jade color, it produces a flowery aroma and taste. It is more similar to green tea than Oolong. Baked Tieguanyin is the original style, it has a more complex taste profile and warm aroma, but the traditional baking technique has not been passed on well, so quality ones of this style are less seen in the market than "moderately baked" and "lightly baked" versions. Moderately baked Tieguanyin is a new breed that some argue has a good balance of floral aroma and complex taste, but it stores poorly. By harvest time: Spring Tieguanyin has the best overall quality.
Autumn Tieguanyin has strong aroma but less complex taste. Summer Tieguanyin is considered lower-quality. Summer Tieguanyin can be further divided into two types: one harvested in June to July, one harvested in August. Winter Tieguanyin is harvested in winter. Production of Winter Tieguanyin is low. Other categories: Guanyin Wang is the best of Jade Tieguanyin and Autumn Tieguanyin. Based on the different roasting methods and locations, there are various types of Tieguanyin. Anxi Tieguanyin Tea 安溪鉄観音 – Recently, this oolong is close to a green tea, with only a little oxidation. With a flowery and fresh delicate aroma character, the tea liquid is golden yellow. In the past, the tea was traditionally more roasted. Muzha Tieguanyin Tea 木柵鉄観音 – This traditional oolong is roasted and has a stronger taste and with roast nutty character. In Taiwan, the name Iron Goddess Tea is used to describe a type of oolong tea, roasted using the Iron Goddess Tea method, regardless of the type of tea leaves used. Therefore, Taiwanese Iron Goddess Tea could be made without.
The top varieties of Tieguanyin rank among the most expensive tea in the world, with one variety sold at around 3000 USD per kilogram. According to one source, it set the record for most expensive tea sold in the United Kingdom. However, that variety of Tieguanyin did not outsell a rarer Da Hong Pao oolong, the most expensive tea sold on the global market. List of Chinese teas
Genmaicha, is a Japanese brown rice green tea consisting of green tea mixed with roasted popped brown rice. It is sometimes referred to colloquially as "popcorn tea" because a few grains of the rice pop during the roasting process and resemble popcorn, or as "people's tea", as the rice served as a filler and reduced the price of the tea, making it more available for poorer Japanese. Today all segments of society drink genmaicha, it was used by people fasting for religious purposes or who found themselves to be between meals for long periods of time. The sugar and starch from the rice cause the tea to have a warm, nutty flavor, it is considered easy to make the stomach feel better. Tea steeped from genmaicha has a light yellow hue, its flavor is mild and combines the fresh grassy flavor of green tea with the aroma of the roasted rice. Although this tea is based on green tea, the recommended way to brew this tea is different: the water should be at about 80–85 °C, a brewing time of 3–5 minutes is recommended, depending on desired strength.
Genmaicha is sold with matcha added to it. This product is called matcha-iri genmaicha. Matcha-iri genmaicha has a similar flavor to plain genmaicha, but the flavor is stronger and the color more green than light yellow. In Korea, a similar tea is called hyeonminokcha, while the word hyeonmicha, a cognate of genmaicha, refers to an infusion of roasted brown rice in boiling water. List of Japanese green teas Mugicha, a tisane made from roasted barley Roasted grain beverage