Afyonkarahisar Province called more Afyon Province, is a province in western Turkey. Adjacent provinces are Kütahya to the northwest, Uşak to the west, Denizli to the southwest, Burdur to the south, Isparta to the southeast, Konya to the east, Eskişehir to the north; the provincial capital is Afyonkarahisar. It covers an area of 14.230 km², the population is about 706.371. Afyonkarahisar province is divided into 18 districts: Afyonkarahisar Başmakçı Bayat Bolvadin Çay Çobanlar Dazkırı Dinar Emirdağ Evciler Hocalar İhsaniye İscehisar Kızılören Sandıklı Sinanpaşa Sultandağı Şuhut Media related to Afyonkarahisar Province at Wikimedia Commons Afyonkarahisar governor's official website Afyonkarahisar municipality's official website Pictures of the capital of Afyonkarahisar province. With old Fortress of Opium, nice old centre. Https://web.archive.org/web/20060622072815/http://www.turkeyforecast.com/weather/afyon/
Kula Volcanic Geopark
Kula Volcanic Geopark known as Kula Geopark, is a geopark, a protected area of geological heritage, located in Kula, western Turkey. It was recognized by UNESCO as a UNESCO Global Geopark in 2013, is the country's only geopark; the volcanic park is located in Manisa Province in western Turkey, covering an area of nearly 300 km2 in Kula district, stretches in the north into parts of Salihli district. The elevation of the area rises from 200 m in Salihli to 600 m in Kula; the volcanic field was first described by the Ancient Greek geographer Strabo in the encyclopedia Geographica, calling it Katakekaumene. The name means "burnt land" or "burnt country", refers to the pitch-black color of the lava in the dormant volcanic field Kula; the volcanic field attracted many travelers and researchers, including G. Kappel, W. J. Hamilton and H. E. Strickland, C. Texier, Bresh and A. von Premerstein, H. S. Washington and A. Philippson. In November 2011, an application was made to the European Geoparks Network and UNESCO.
Kula Geopark became Turkey's first geopark candidate of European Geoparks Network and UNESCO in March 2013. In September 2013, it was accepted as the country's first and only geopark by the European and the UNESCO-assisted Global Geoparks Network. In June 2013, the geopark was opened to tourism after construction of facilities including walkways and a visitor center; the more than 12 km long trails equipped with information panels connect the most interesting geosites in the geopark. The visitor center is an information center for tourists and a natural history museum for education in geology; the geological structure of the geopark is of a complex nature and is caused by the active tectonics of the Aegean region. It is one of the geologically youngest volcanic fields in Turkey. Three phases of eruption took place in the volcanism of the Quaternary period, some 1.1 million, 300 thousand and 15 thousand years ago. There are five maars in the geopark; the height of the small-sized scoria cones does not exceed 150 m.
Lava tubes or caves were formed by lava flow along its way. Lava tubes are formed when an active low-viscosity lava flow solidifies and forms a hard crust roof above the still-flowing lava stream. While some lava caves are accessible, others can be entered only with specialized caving equipment. Characteristic basalt columns, called "Burgaz volcanics" are formed in the first stage of lava flow; when thick lava flow cools contraction forces build up. While shrinking in the vertical direction does not form fractures, a network of fractures formed by horizontal shrinkage develop basalt columns. Basalt columns in the villages Sarnıç and Çakırca are higher than 20 m. There are hoodoos situated on the İzmir-Ankara state highway D300 near Yurtbaşı village, they are formed when soft rock is topped by harder stone. The formation process is ongoing, while some hoodoos fall down, new ones are being formed. In 1954, during road construction works near the Çakallar Volcanic Cone, more than 200 fossilized footprints were unearthed.
Only a few of these footprints remain on the scene. It is considered; the age analyses indicate that the footprints are 10,000–12,000 years old corresponding to the Mesolithic Anatolia. These traces, which bear witness to one of the oldest interactions of human and active volcanoes in Anatolia are important for scientific and educational reasons
Yunusemre is a planned district and second level municipality in Manisa Province, Turkey. According to Law act no 6360, all Turkish provinces with a population more than 750,000, will be metropolitan municipalities and the districts within the metropolitan municipalities will be second level municipalities; the law creates new districts within the provinces in addition to present districts. These changes will be effective by the local elections in 2014. After 2014, what is now Manisa central district will be split into two. A part will be named Yunusemre and the name Manisa will be reserved for the metropolitan municipality. There will be 62 villages in the rural area of Yunusemre district. Now their official status became "neighborhood of Yunusemre"
Balıkesir Province is a province in northwestern Turkey with coastlines on both the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean. Its adjacent provinces are Çanakkale to the west, İzmir to the southwest, Manisa to the south, Kütahya to the southeast, Bursa to the east; the provincial capital is Balıkesir City. Most of the province lies in the Marmara Region except the southern parts of Bigadiç Edremit, Kepsut, İvrindi, Savaştepe and Sındırgı districts and ones of Ayvalık, Dursunbey, Gömeç and Havran, that bound the Aegean Region. Kaz Dağı, known as Mount Ida, is located in this province. Balıkesir province is famous for its olives, thermal spas, clean beaches, making it an important tourist destination; the province hosts immense deposits of kaolinite and borax, with some open-pit mines. The Kaz mountains are threatened with the expansion of gold mining using cyanide which puts the villagers' lives, the agricultural economy, tourism at risk. Balıkesir is home to a number including Kuş Cenneti National Park. Among the cultural attractions of Balıkesir are the ruins of Cyzicus and Saraylar on the Sea of Marmara and Antandrus.
There are a city museum and a fine arts centre in Balıkesir. There are a number of camping facilities in Erdek, Altınoluk, Akçay, Güre, Ören. Balıkesir Kuvayi Milliye Museum Bandırma Archaeological Museum Edremit Ayşe Sıdıka Erke Ethnography Museum Balıkesir National Photography Museum Edremit Tahtakuşlar Ethnography Museum Gönen Mosaic Museum Balıkesir Municipality's Devrim Erbil Modern Arts Museum Bigadiç Museum House Marmara District Palaces Open Air Museum Altınoluk Antardos Open Air Museum Erdek Belkıs Ruins Open Air Museum Daskyleon ruins Prokonnessos ruins Adyramytteon ruins Yortan ruins Erdek Kapıdağ region Kaz Dağı national park Kuş Cenneti national park Alaçam mountains Ayvalık Islands natural park Madra mountains Celebrating its 18th anniversary in 2010, the young Balıkesir University has been increasing its supports to the higher education of the province from the past to the future, it has been determined to meet the new age, the Age of Information, with 5 Faculties, 4 Applied Schools, 11 Vocational Schools giving vocational training for 2 years, 2 Graduate Schools, 2 Research Institutes and 9 Research Centers presenting modern academic services with dynamic, productive academic and administrative staff appropriate to the age.
BAU has aimed to be an educational institution of the 21st century and has taken special care to direct its experience from the past towards this objective. Other guiding objectives of BAU are to bring up democratic, independent, young citizens, loyal to Atatürk’s principles and revolutions and the basic principles of the Republic, respectful not only to their country and culture but to universal values as well. BAU forms an environment to produce information and knowledge to be benefited by the country and the world, to share it with both the society and the science world for the wealth and well-being of humanity. BAU is well aware of its responsibilities for both Turkish Higher science world, it fulfills the requirements of a modern institution of education with 25 000 students, 650 members of academic staff. BAU is aware that it is not only enough for a modern university to provide education of high quality but to produce science and technology; the students are encouraged to participate in social and sports activities.
The administration and academic personnel of the university support and direct a variety of extracurricular activities. BAU aims at meeting academic and research needs of students and administrative staff and of the society to enhance scientific productivity with modern libraries, increasing the number and quality of undergraduate programs and scientific studies. Çağış Campus The units listed below are all located on the main Çağış Campus, which lies on the outskirts of the city. Buses and minibuses provide regular services to Çağış Campus from the city center between the hours 07:00 and 23:00. Rectorate building, with administrative departments Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Faculty of Sciences and Arts School of Tourism and Hotel Management Balıkesir Vocational School Central Library Main Sports Hall Graduate School of Science Graduate School of Social Sciences NEF Campus NEF Campus, located in the center of the town, was the original site of the university; the units listed below are all located on this campus: Faculty of Education, School of Physical Education and Sports Teaching.
NEF Conference Hall, Halil İnalcık Conference Hall Sports Hall University Fitness Center Outdoor sports facilities Continuing Education Center Balıkesir is accessible on Turkey's most travelled road, linking the metropolises of İstanbul and İzmir. Hande Erçel-Actress and Model from Bandırma city. Hülya Avşar - Actress, producer from Ayvalık Fikret Hakan - Actor from Balıkesir Imam Birgivi - Muslim scholar from Balıkesir Zağanos Pasha - Ottoman military commander from Balıkesir Ömer Seyfettin - Renowned writer from Gönen Mehmet Çoban - Olympian Greco-Roman wrestler from Balıkesir Kurtdereli Mehmet Pehlivan - World
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Alaşehir, in Antiquity and the Middle Ages known as Philadelphia, is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. It is situated at the foot of the Bozdağ Mountain; the town is connected to İzmir by a 105 km railway. The longtime mayor is Gökhan Karaçoban, it stands on elevated ground commanding the extensive and fertile plain of the Gediz River, presenting an imposing appearance when seen from a distance. It has about 45 mosques. There are a fair trade. From one of the mineral springs comes a charged water popular around Turkey. Within Turkey, the city's name is synonymous with the dried Sultana raisins, although cultivation for the fresh fruit market, less labour-intensive than the dried fruit, has gained prominence in recent decades; as Philadelphia, Alaşehir was a important center in the Early Christian and Byzantine periods. It remained a strong center of Orthodox Christianity until the early 20th century, remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church. Alaşehir began as one of the first ancient cities with the name Philadelphia.
It was established in 189 BC by King Eumenes II of Pergamon. Eumenes II named the city for the love of his brother, who would be his successor, Attalus II, whose loyalty earned him the nickname, "Philadelphos" meaning "one who loves his brother"; the city is best known as the site of one of the seven churches of Asia in the Book of Revelation. Lacking an heir, Attalus III Philometer, the last of the Attalid kings of Pergamum, bequeathed his kingdom, including Philadelphia, to his Roman allies when he died in 133 BC. Rome established the province of Asia in 129 BC by combining Ionia and the former Kingdom of Pergamum. Philadelphia was in the administrative district of Sardis. In AD 17, the city suffered badly in an earthquake, the Roman emperor Tiberius relieved it of having to pay taxes. In response, the city granted honors to Tiberius. Evidence from coinage reveals. Under Caracalla, Philadelphia housed an imperial cult. A small theater located at the northern edge of Toptepe Hill is all that remains of Roman Philadelphia.
Although several ancient cities bore the name of Philadelphia, this is agreed to be the one listed among the seven churches written to by John in the Book of Revelation. Philadelphia is listed as the sixth church of the seven. A letter addressed to the Philadelphian church is recorded in Revelation 3:7-13. According to this letter, the Philadelphian Christians were suffering persecution at the hands of the local Jews, described as those "who say they are Jews and are not", whom the writer calls "the synagogue of Satan"; the city's history of earthquakes may lie behind the reference to making her church "a pillar in the temple". Aside from the peculiar fact that Smyrna was warned of temptation lasting "ten days" while Philadelphia was promised a total exemption from temptation, Philadelphia shares with Smyrna the distinction of receiving nothing but praise from Christ; this explains why modern Protestant churches sometimes use "Philadelphia" as a component in the local church's name as a way of emphasizing its faithfulness.
Philadelphia was a prosperous Byzantine city, called the "little Athens" in the 6th century AD because of its festivals and temples. This indicates that the city wasn't converted to Christianity. Ammia, the Christian prophetess, was from Philadelphia, however. In about the year 600 the domed Basilica of St. John was built, remains of which are the main archaeological attraction in the modern city; the Byzantine walls that once surrounded the city have all but crumbled away. A few remnants are still visible at the northeast edge of town, near the bus stand; the city was taken by the Seljuk Turks in 1074 and 1093–94. In 1098, during the First Crusade, it was recovered by Byzantine Emperor Alexios I. In the 11th to 15th centuries AD, it was the seat of the doux and stratopedarches of the Thrakesion theme, it was the center of several revolts against ruling Byzantine emperors- in 1182, led by John Komnenos Vatatzes, 1188–1205 or 1206, led by Theodore Mangaphas, a local Philadelphian, against Isaac II Angelos.
At that time, the bishopric of Philadelphia was promoted to metropolis. In the 14th century, Philadelphia was made the metropolis of Lydia by the Greek Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople, a status it still holds, it was granted this honor. The city was prosperous in the 13th and 14th centuries. By the 14th century, the city was surrounded by Turkish emirates but maintained nominal allegiance to the Byzantine emperor; the town remained prosperous through its strategic location. Philadelphia was an independent, neutral city under the influence of the Latin Knights of Rhodes, when taken in 1390 by Sultan Bayezid I and an auxiliary Christian force under the Byzantine emperor Manuel II after a prolonged resistance, by which time all the other cities of Asia Minor had surrendered to the Ottomans. Manuel had been forced by Bayezid to participate in subju
Akhisar is a county district and its town center in Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Western Turkey. Akhisar is the ancient city of Thyatira. With archaeological findings that are proving settlements going back to 3000 BC, Akhisar has been a busy trade center with its strategic location at the intersection of important roads during ancient and medieval ages. Akhisar hosted one of the Seven churches of Asia: Thyateira, mentioned in the Bible. Akhisar maintained its importance as a regional trade center during the Ottoman period. Today's Akhisar is still the business center in its region. Akhisar's name is internationally associated with tobacco; the fertile Akhisar Plain produces about 10% of total Turkish tobacco production. Akhisar's high-quality olives and olive oil are globally known; the town was the most important center in ancient North Lydia. Findings suggest a possible earlier period of pre-eminence under the Hittites. Persian occupation of the region took place around 500 BC. Thyateira was conquered by Alexander the Great.
In years, Thyateira was captured successively by the Seleucid Empire, the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon, by Mithridates VI of Pontus, until the Roman Era that started in 80 BC. In 214 AD, the Roman Emperor Caracalla promoted the town to the status of a regional and administrative center with powers of adjudication; the city flourished under the Romans and became a large metropolis with 3 gymnasiums. As of the 2nd century AD, Christianity spread in western Anatolia by the actions of apostles like John the Evangelist and Paul. Thyatira is mentioned twice in the New Testament; the Book of Acts refers to a woman of Thyatira named Lydia, though the Apostle Paul converted her to Christ in Philippi of Macedonia, not Thyatira. The other occurrence is as one of the Seven Churches of Asia, in the church of, a woman identified as a prophetess and called "Jezebel" for deceiving some of the Christians there into compromising with idolatry and committing sexual immorality. After the partition of the Roman Empire in 395 and the upcoming of Islam at the beginning of the 7th century, raids by Arabs resulted in great loss of land for Byzantium and the region of Akhisar witnessed many battles between Byzantine and Arab forces.
In the 12th century, a large-scale inflow of Turkish tribes started. Akhisar swayed forth between Byzantine and Turkish rulers during for two centuries. In the 14th century, Turks under the Anatolian Beylik of Saruhan regained all Western Anatolian lands and Akhisar went under Turkish rule in 1307. Towards the end of the same century, Akhisar became part of the extending Ottoman Empire. Under Ottoman administration, Akhisar was at first a subdistrict in the sanjak of Saruhan within the larger vilayet of Kütahya; the sanjak of Saruhan was incorporated into the vilayet of Aydın until the end of the Ottoman Empire in 1922. In August 1922, as a result of the capture of the city by the Turkish nationalist army, an estimated of 7,000 local Greeks were killed. Since there has been no Christian community in Akhisar. In ancient times, Thyateira was an important center of activity, it was on the ancient roads from Istanbul to Pergamum and Ephesus. Thyateira was at the center of many small towns and villages which were administratively and politically bound to it.
Cloth and pottery trade was the main activity in town. Production of wool, brass goods, tanning were other commercial activities; the city remained as a center of trade activity for centuries. Akhisar's cloth and cords were reputable in Istanbul markets. Among the other agricultural merchandise were olives, olive oil, water melons and raisins; this high level of economical activity made Akhisar the most important subdistrict within the sanjak of Saruhan. The first Ottoman records about Akhisar date back to the 16th century; these records indicate that Akhisar was a district center which paid 40% more income tax than the seat of the Saruhan Sanjak, present-day Manisa. At the end of the 19th century, urban population had reached 30,000. In the Republican era, Akhisar pursued its development. Many modern avenues and streets were built. In recent years, a new stadium and grass soccer field were built, along with many parks and recreational areas. Many banks and tourist hotels are now lined up along the busy main street which connects the train station to the city center.
An industrial zone specializing in automotive repair and small parts production, along with a number of factories such as olive oil production plants, brick factories, tobacco factories were constructed. The Greater Akhisar Industrial Zone is under development. Since the city is located on the State Highway 565 between İzmir and Istanbul—Turkey's two most important ports—Akhisar Industrial Zone offers attractive investment opportunities for both domestic and foreign investors. Today chess is popular in Akhisar; every year during the Caglak Festival hundreds of children participate in chess events. In 2009 the World Youth Under 16 Chess Olympiad was held in Akhisar from September 24 through October 3. Ancient Akhisar is entirely covered by the buildings and streets of the modern town; however and ruins from ancient times and the Middle Ages can still be seen all over the town. One is likely to see ancient stones or columnheads in street corners in the older city. Tomb of State Hospital This is a man-made tomb in the city center with Hellenistic ruins.
However, some houseware findings on this hill reveal the existence of some primitive settlements dating back to 9000 BC. Archeologists assume that the h