The Krauatungalung were an indigenous Australian tribe of East Gippsland, in Victoria. According to Norman Tindale, their inclusion as one of the 5 tribes constituting the Gunai is artificial, their descendants now identify themselves with the GunaiKurnai nation. According to A. W. Howitt the ethnonym Krauatungalung is composed of krauat and -galung, a suffix meaning'of'/'belonging to'. In their own language, they referred to themselves as Mukdhang, meaning'good speech' The Krauatungalung possessed an estimated 2,200 sq. miles of tribal territory, from Cape Everard to Lakes Entrance. It covered several rivers, the Cann, Brodribb and the Snowy River, its inland boundary was at the Black Mountain. Kroatungolung. Krow-ithun-koolo. Krowathun-Koolung. Krauatun-kurnai. Muk-dhang Gunggala-dhang; this was the Bidhawal exonym for them. Thangkwai; this was another exonym, meaning'rough speech'. Karnathun. (This was composed of ngatban and ka:nai
Koori is a demonym for Indigenous Australians from the approximate region of New South Wales and Victoria. For some people and organisations, the use of indigenous language regional terms is an expression of pride in their heritage; the word Koori is from the word gurri or guri in Awabakal, an indigenous Australian language, spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. It is sometimes spelt koorie. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrate's court in Victoria, that sentences Indigenous Australians who plead guilty. Koori Radio, a community radio-station based in Redfern, broadcasts to Sydney on a citywide licence, it forms part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the only radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Koori Mail is a national indigenous newspaper based in New South Wales; the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971.
There are a number of other names from Australian Aboriginal languages used to identify groups based on geography: Anangu in northern South Australia, neighbouring parts of Western Australia and Northern Territory Pama in northern Queensland Murri in southern Queensland Nunga in southern South Australia Nyoongar in southern Western Australia Palawah in Tasmania Wangai in central Western Australia Yamatji in the Gasgoyne and Pilbara regions of Western Australia Yolngu in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory List of Indigenous Australian group names Australian Aboriginal tribes Kulin Bangerang Cultural Centre. Australia's first Aboriginal museum
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging. Hunter-gatherer societies stand in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history. Following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. In West Eurasia, agriculture lead to widespread genetic changes when older hunter-gatherer populations were replaced by Middle Eastern farmers during the Neolithic who in turn were overrun by Indo-Europeans during the Bronze Age. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, many supplement their foraging activity with horticulture or pastoralism. During the 1970s, Lewis Binford suggested that early humans were obtaining food via scavenging, not hunting. Early humans in the Lower Paleolithic lived in forests and woodlands, which allowed them to collect seafood, eggs and fruits besides scavenging.
Rather than killing large animals for meat, according to this view, they used carcasses of such animals that had either been killed by predators or that had died of natural causes. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers survived in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover. According to the endurance running hypothesis, long-distance running as in persistence hunting, a method still practiced by some hunter-gatherer groups in modern times, was the driving evolutionary force leading to the evolution of certain human characteristics; this hypothesis does not contradict the scavenging hypothesis: both subsistence strategies could have been in use – sequentially, alternating or simultaneously. Hunting and gathering was the subsistence strategy employed by human societies beginning some 1.8 million years ago, by Homo erectus, from its appearance some 0.2 million years ago by Homo sapiens.
Prehistoric hunter-gatherers lived in groups that consisted of several families resulting in a size of a few dozen people. It remained the only mode of subsistence until the end of the Mesolithic period some 10,000 years ago, after this was replaced only with the spread of the Neolithic Revolution. Starting at the transition between the Middle to Upper Paleolithic period, some 80,000 to 70,000 years ago, some hunter-gatherers bands began to specialize, concentrating on hunting a smaller selection of game and gathering a smaller selection of food; this specialization of work involved creating specialized tools such as fishing nets and bone harpoons. The transition into the subsequent Neolithic period is chiefly defined by the unprecedented development of nascent agricultural practices. Agriculture originated as early as 12,000 years ago in the Middle East, independently originated in many other areas including Southeast Asia, parts of Africa and the Andes. Forest gardening was being used as a food production system in various parts of the world over this period.
Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions. In the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved, whilst undesirable species were eliminated. Superior introduced species were selected and incorporated into the gardens. Many groups continued their hunter-gatherer ways of life, although their numbers have continually declined as a result of pressure from growing agricultural and pastoral communities. Many of them reside in arid regions or tropical forests. Areas that were available to hunter-gatherers were—and continue to be—encroached upon by the settlements of agriculturalists. In the resulting competition for land use, hunter-gatherer societies either adopted these practices or moved to other areas. In addition, Jared Diamond has blamed a decline in the availability of wild foods animal resources. In North and South America, for example, most large mammal species had gone extinct by the end of the Pleistocene—according to Diamond, because of overexploitation by humans, one of several explanations offered for the Quaternary extinction event there.
As the number and size of agricultural societies increased, they expanded into lands traditionally used by hunter-gatherers. This process of agriculture-driven expansion led to the development of the first forms of government in agricultural centers, such as the Fertile Crescent, Ancient India, Ancient China, Sub-Saharan Africa and Norte Chico; as a result of the now near-universal human reliance upon agriculture, the few contemporary hunter-gatherer cultures live in areas unsuitable for agricultural use. Archaeologists can use evidence such as stone tool use to track hunter-gatherer activities, including mobility. Most hunter-gatherers are semi-nomadic and live in temporary settlements. Mobile communities construct shelters using impermanent building materials, or they may use natural rock shelters, where they are available; some hunter-gatherer cultures, such as the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and the Yakuts, lived in rich environments that allowed them to be sedentary or semi-sedentary.
Hunter-gatherers tend to have an egalitarian social ethos, although settled hunter-gatherers are an exception to this rule. Nearly
The Jardwadjali are Indigenous Australians of the State of Victoria, whose traditional lands occupy the lands in the upper Wimmera River watershed east to Gariwerd and west to Lake Bringalbert. The Jardwadjali language was mutually intelligible with Djab wurrung, with which it shared shares 90 percent of common vocabulary. Sub-dialects include Jagwadjali and Nundadjali. Norman Tindale located the Jardwadjali at the Upper Wimmera River, their land, he states, extended over 3,500 sq. miles, reaching southwards to the Morton Plains and Grampians. The western borders lay as far as Mount Arapiles and Mount Talbot, while their eastern frontier went beyond Glenorchy and Stawell, they went north as far as around Lake Buloke. He adds that by the time white colonization began, they had penetrated south to Casterton and Hamilton; the Jardwadjali were divided into several hordes. Djappuminyou. Lake Buloke was used as the site where several tribes travelled joined the Jardwadjali in order to conduct ceremonies.
It was thought that areas of traditional Jardwadjali land showed signs of human occupation dating back no more than 5,000 years. Recent research has established a longer timeframe, from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene, where the record of habitation becomes much richer. Archaeological evidence of occupation in Gariwerd many thousands of years before the last ice-age. One site in the Victoria Range has been dated from 22,000 years ago, it is that first contact with Europeans was through smallpox epidemics which arrived with the First Fleet in 1788 and spread through the trading networks of indigenous Australians and killed many people in two waves before the 1830s. One Wotjobaluk account called the disease thinba micka and that it killed large numbers of people, disfigured many more with pock-marked faces, came down the Murray River sent by malevolent sorcerers to the north. According to Norman Tindale, by the time white incursion began, the Jaadwa were on the move southwards as far as Casterton and Hamilton.
In 1836 the squatter Edward Henty was exploring Jardwadjali land from the south, the start of the European invasion. A further wave of European occupation occurred from the north in 1840 with Lieutenant Robert Briggs squatting near Lake Lonsdale; the explorer Major Thomas Mitchell passed through the lands of the Jardwadjali people in 1836 and named many geographical features, including the Grampian mountains which he named after the range of mountains in Scotland. The Jardwadjali called these mountains Gariwerd, gar meaning'pointed mountain'. To the Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung peoples Gariwerd was central to the dreaming of the creator and buledji Brambimbula, the two Bram brothers, who were responsible for the creation and naming of many landscape features in western Victoria. Jardwadjali people formed the nucleus of the Australian Aboriginal cricket team in England in 1868, although efforts were made by the Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines to stop the tour; the team played 47 matches, winning 14, losing 14, drawing 19 games.
There were no aboriginal missions established in Jardwadjali territory, so by the 1860s and 1870s many Jardwadjali were forced to locate at Ebenezer Mission in Wergaia country on the Wimmera River, at Lake Condah mission in Dhauwurd Wurrung country. Settlement was marked by resistance to the invasion by driving off or stealing sheep which resulted in conflict and sometimes a massacre of aboriginal people. Few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court. After the massacre at Fighting Hills, John Whyte travelled to Melbourne to inform Governor La Trobe in person of the massacre; the depositions of the Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright who had investigated the massacre were disallowed. No trial was held. At the time aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law; the incidents listed below are just the cases. Neil Black, a squatter in Western Victoria writing on 9 December 1839 states the prevailing attitude of many settlers:'The best way is to go outside and take up a new run, provided the conscience of the party is sufficiently seared to enable him without remorse to slaughter natives right and left.
It is universally and distinctly understood that the chances are small indeed of a person taking up a new run being able to maintain possession of his place and property without having recourse to such means -- sometimes by wholesale...'George Robinson, the Chief Protector of Aborigines wrote in his journal in 1841 referring to the Portland Bay area where the Whyte Brothers had settled: "The settlers at the Bay spoke of the settlers up the country dropping the natives as coolly as if they were speaking of dropping cows. Indeed, the doctrine is being promulgated that they are not human, or hardly so and thereby inculcating the principle that killing them is no murder"Table: reported massacres in Jardwadjali country to 1859 In 1989 there was a proposal by Victorian Minister for Tourism, Steve Crabb to rename many geographical place names associated with aboriginal heritage in the area. There was much opposition to this proposal by European descendants; the Brambuk centre, representing five aboriginal communities, advocated a dual name for the main area: Gariwerd/Grampians.
Some of the changes included: Grampians to Gariwerd Mount Zero to Mura Mura Hall's Gap to Budja BudjaThe Bramb
Western Port but unofficially known as Western Port Bay, is a large tidal bay in southern Victoria, opening into Bass Strait. It is the second largest bay in the state. Geographically, it is dominated by the two large islands. Contrary to its name, it lies to the east of the larger Port Phillip, is separated from it by the Mornington Peninsula, it is visited by Australian fur seals and dolphins, as well as many migratory waders and seabirds. It is listed under the Ramsar Convention as a wetland of international significance; the area around the bay and the two main islands were part of the Boonwurrung nation's territory prior to European settlement. Western Port was first seen by Europeans in 1798 when an exploration crew in a whaleboat led by George Bass, journeyed south from Sydney to explore Australia's south eastern coastline. Due in most part to a lack of food, the expedition was halted, spending two weeks in Western Port before returning to Sydney; as it was the most westerly charted point at the time, it was named Western Port.
The bay is home to the three Marine National Parks—French Island, Churchill Island and Yaringa, while the land adjacent to the north is used for farming purposes including cattle and wineries. Today the bay is used for recreation. Western Port is around one hour from Melbourne by car and a small number of holiday villages with sandy swimming beaches lie on its shores. Prior to European settlement, the Bunurong people lived around Western Port living off shellfish, mutton birds and plant life; the bay was first explored by Europeans in 1797, when George Bass received permission from Governor Hunter in Sydney to sail a whaleboat along the unexplored section of coast south of Botany Bay. On such a rough stretch of water, Bass could not get more than halfway through the strait now known as Bass Strait; this voyage led to the recording of Western Port, so named because of its situation relative to every other known harbour on the coast at that time though it lies to the east of Port Phillip and the city of Melbourne.
Seal hunting was conducted here in the 19th century. In the year 1826 it was reported that the French had resolved to found a settlement at some Australian harbour – King George's Sound or Western Port; the British Government at once sent instructions to Sydney for Governor Darling to take possession of these places. As a result, Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, with orders to proceed to Western Port, on 18 November 1826, they took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of the bay near present-day Corinella, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the instance of Governor Darling about twelve months afterwards, as unfit for civilisation,Samuel Anderson established the third permanent European settlement in Victoria, after Portland and Melbourne, at Bass in 1835, it was only after the end of World War II that serious consideration was given to the development of the port, its flat shores north of Stony and Crib Points have become a centre for heavy industry.
A major river drainage system, it was inundated together with Port Phillip by the rising sea in the Holocene period. The waters of Western Port cover an area of 680 km² of which 270 km² are exposed as mud flats at low tide; the topography of Western Port is dominated by two large islands: Phillip Island. The coastline, including that of the islands, is some 263 km; the bay and its islands are criss-crossed by seven seismically active fault lines and experiences numerous minor earthquakes every year. In the northern reaches, several rivers and creeks drain into the bay and flow through extensive mangroves and sand banks before being channelled either side of French Island and into the open water in the southern reaches around Phillip Island. Several natural river paths and channels provide access for boats to the northern reaches; some of the major tributaries of Western Port are Bunyip River, Lang Lang River, Bass River, Cardinia Creek, Redbill Creek, Mosquito Creek, Brella Creek and Tankerton Creek.
Until the mid 20th century, the Koo-Wee-Rup Swamp adjoined the bay in the north, covering an area of 30–40 thousand hectares, extending inland to present-day Pakenham, prior to cultivation of the land by early settlers. The mangroves in the northern reaches are the only remnants of this swamp today. Western Port contains several small ones; the coastline around Phillip Island is of State significance because of its remnant coastal tussock grasslands and dune scrub, a rare vegetation community in Victoria. Western
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
Port Phillip, is a port in southern Victoria, Australia. It is nearly surrounded by the city of its suburbs. Geographically, the port covers 1,930 square kilometres and the shore stretches 264 km. Although it is shallow for its size, most of the port is navigable; the deepest portion is only 24 metres, half the region is shallower than 8 m. The volume of the water in the port is around 25 cubic kilometres. Before European settlement the area around Port Phillip was divided between the territories of the Wathaurong and Boonwurrung Nations, its waters and coast are home to seals, dolphins and many kinds of seabirds and migratory waders. The first Europeans to enter the port were the crews of HMS Lady Nelson, commanded by John Murray and, ten weeks HMS Investigator commanded by Matthew Flinders, in 1802. Subsequent expeditions into the bay took place in 1803 to establish the first settlement in Victoria, near Sorrento, but was abandoned in 1804. Thirty years settlers from Tasmania returned to establish Melbourne, now the state's capital city, at the mouth of the Yarra River in 1835 and Geelong at Corio Bay in 1838.
Today Port Phillip is the most densely populated catchment in Australia with an estimated 4.5 million people living around the bay. Port Phillip formed between the end of the last Ice Age around 8000 BCE and around 6000 BCE, when the sea-level rose to drown what was the lower reaches of the Yarra River, vast river plains and lakes; the Yarra and other tributaries flowed down what is now the middle of the bay, formed a lake in the southern reaches of the bay, dammed by The Heads, subsequently pouring out into Bass Strait. The Aboriginal people were in occupation of the area long before the bay was formed, having arrived at least 20,000 years ago and 40,000 years ago. Large piles of semi-fossilised sea-shells known as middens, can still be seen in places around the shoreline, marking the spots where Aboriginal people held feasts, they made a good living from the abundant sea-life, which included seals. In the cold season, they wore intricate feathered head-dresses. A dry period combined with sand bar formation, may have dried the bay out as as between 800 BCE and 1000 CE.
In 1800, Lieutenant James Grant was the first known European to pass through Bass Strait from west to east in HMS Lady Nelson. He was the first to see, crudely chart, the south coast from Cape Banks in South Australia to Wilsons Promontory in Victoria. Grant gave the name "Governor King's Bay" to the body of water between Cape Otway and Wilsons Promontory, but did not venture in and discover Port Phillip; the first Europeans to discover and enter Port Phillip, were the crew of the Lady Nelson, commanded by John Murray, which entered the bay on 15 February 1802. Murray called the bay Port King after the Governor of Philip Gidley King. On 4 September 1805, King formally renamed it Port Phillip, in honour of his predecessor Arthur Phillip. About ten weeks after Murray, Matthew Flinders in HMS Investigator found and entered the port, unaware Murray had been there; the official history of Nicholas Baudin's explorations in Le Géographe claimed they too had sighted the entrance at that time but this is certainly a embellishment or error, being absent from the ship's logs and Baudin's own accounts.
As a result of Murray's and Flinders' reports, King sent Lieutenant Charles Robbins in HMS Cumberland to explore Port Phillip fully. One of his party, Charles Grimes, became the first European to walk right round the bay, thus to discover the mouth of the Yarra, on 2 February 1803. King decided to place a convict settlement at Port Phillip to stake a claim to southern Australia ahead of the French. On 10 October 1803 a convoy of two ships HMS Calcutta and Ocean led by Captain David Collins carrying 402 people entered Port Philip Bay. After some investigation it was decided to establish the settlement at a spot known as Sullivan Bay close to where Sorrento now exists; the expedition landed at Sullivan Bay on 17 October 1803, the first of the "orders" issued by Collins bears that date. On 25 October, the King's birthday, the British flag was hoisted over the tiny settlement and a little salvo of musketry celebrated the royal occasion. On 25 November the first white child was born in Victoria and was baptised on Christmas Day, receiving the name of William James Hobart Thorne.
The first marriage took place on 28 November, when a free woman, Hannah Harvey was wedded to convict Richard Garrett. Lack of fresh water and good timber, led this, the first attempt at European settlement in Victoria, to be abandoned on 27 January 1804; when Collins left Port Phillip, the'Calcutta' proceeded to Sydney, the'Ocean' to Risdon Cove Tasmania, where they arrived on 15 February 1804. Prior to abandonment, a group of convicts including William Buckley, escaped from the settlement. Buckley took up residence in a cave near Point Lonsdale on the western side of the bay's entrance, The Rip. Port Phillip was left undisturbed until 1835, when settlers from Tasmania led by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner established Melbourne on the lower reaches of the Yarra. John Batman encountered Willia