Marthandam is a major trade centre in Kuzhithurai municipality across National Highway in the Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, India. Earlier days it was known by the name Thoduvetty, it was a portion of Kanyakumari district, added to the state of Tamil Nadu on 1 November 1956, it is the second largest town next to Nagercoil in the district. Marthandam derived its name from the ruler of Travancore, Sri Padmanabhadasa Vanchipala Anizham Tirunal Bala Marthanda Varma. Martandam is famous for honey, cashew nut processing and hand-embroidered motifs; the area is full of greenery, there is a river adjoining. It is a major trade centre due to its location bordering Kerala, it has the climatic conditions of Kerala. Southern Division, or Padmanabhapuram Division till 1921 and Trivandrum Division from 1921 to 1949, was one of the administrative divisions of the princely state of Travancore, it covered the five taluks of Agastiswaram, Kalkulam and Vilavancode and was administered by a civil servant of rank Diwan Peishkar equivalent to a District Collector in British India.
The Southern division was predominantly Tamil-speaking in contrast to the other three divisions where Malayalam was spoken. In 1920, the neighbouring Trivandrum was merged with the Southern division. In 1949, the princely state of Travancore was dissolved and the Southern Division was included in the Travancore-Cochin state of India. In 1956, the Tamil-speaking taluks of Southern Division were transferred to the neighbouring Madras State as per the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 and forms the present-day Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu; the Malayalam-speaking taluks of the erstwhile Trivandrum division form the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. The headquarters of the Southern Division were at Padmanabhapuram. Good Shepherd Matriculation Higher Secondary School. Abraham James Memorial Matriculation School. Abraham Memorial Higher Secondary School, Maruthancode. Aided Higher Secondary School, Arumana. Child Jesus matriculation school, Unnamalakada. Christ International School, Malamary.
Christuraja matriculation higher secondary school. Government Boys Higher Secondary School, Marthandam. Government Girls Higher Secondary School, Marthandam. Hindu vidhyalaya matriculation school. Infant Jesus Matriculation Higher Secondary School. L. M. S Boys higher secondary school L. M. S Girls higher secondary school. M. J. K. M. Malankara Syrian catholic higher secondary school. NVKS Higher Secondary school,Attoor. Pius XI Higher Secondary School, Thoothoor. Sacred heart international school. Seventh day higher secondary school. Sinclair Primary School Sree Krishna Vidhyalaya Matriculation School, Maruthancode. St. Joseph's Thiruthuvapuram. St. Aloysius Higher Secondary School, Kollencode. St. Anns Matriculation School, Kollencode. Vidya joythi matriculation higher secondary school. White memorial higher secondary school. Yettacode Higher Secondary School, Attoor. Nesamony Memorial Christian College. Immanual Arasar JJ College Of Engineering. Mar Ephraem College Of Technology. Immanuel Arasar College Of Education.
Marthandam College of Engineering and Technology. Maria College Of Technology. JSS college of pharmacy. Malankara Catholic College, Mariagiri. CSI Institute of Technology. BWDA Polytechnic College St. Jude's College, Thoothoor Annai Velankanni College, Tholayavattam. Government Hospital, Behind Marthandanthura Church, Kollencode-629160 Gurupatham Spine Care Centre Chellamkonam,Kappiyarai-629156 Grace Hospital, Near St. Antony's Church, Kollencode-629160 Rita Nursing Home, Near Bus Stand, Kollencode-629160 Lister Hospital. Williams Child Care Hospital. PPK Hospital. Dr. Isaac Bone & Joint Speciality Hospital. Dr. Suresh Eye Hospital. Arun Heart Care Centre. Jayaraj Hospital. Shalom Orthopaedic Hospital. Paul Chris ENT Clinic. Ultra physiotheraphy Clinic. JJI Health Centre. Vincy Ashramam Ayurveda Hospital J. D. Hospital. CSI Mission Hospital. Sugam Hospital. Sri Dhanvanthy Vaithiyasala. Shanthi Skin Clinic. Manju Nursing Home. Vinod Hospital. Jyothi Hospitals. Lissy Homeopathic Clinic. Government Hospital. Industrial Opportunities in Marthandam There are rubber, fruit based and wood-based industries.
The influence of both Tamil and Kerala artisans produces unique designs and furniture works. Wood industries and indirectly, employ a few thousand people, it has the climatic conditions of Kerala. It has a railway line connecting the capital of Kerala, with the southernmost tip of India, Kanyakumari. Marthandam is well connected to Chennai, Bangalore by rail service bus service to all over Tamil Nadu; the river Thamirabarani runs through the Marthandam city and every year a festival known as Vavubali will be celebrated at the banks of river Thamirabarani. Marthandam lies on the National Highway connecting the city of Nagercoil. A bus stand is located in Marthandam near the Market Road; the nearest airport is Trivandrum International Airport, 40 kilometres from Marthandam. It has a railway line connecting the capital of Kerala, with the southernmost tip of India, Kanyakumari. Kuzhithura station is found to be centered between Trivandrum — Kanyakumari railway route; this railway station collection is more than seven crore per annum and a daily passenger patronage of more than 50,000 people.
The station has two platforms and falls on the Kanyakumari—Trivandrum line in the Trivandrum Division of the Southern Railway zone. Most of all daily trains passing through the station h
Idukki is one of the 14 districts of Kerala state, created on 26 January 1972. At that time, the district headquarters was at Kottayam. In June 1976 it was moved to Painavu. Idukki which lies in the Western Ghats of Kerala. Idukki has the lowest population density. Idukki has a vast forest reserve area; the urban areas are densely populated. Idukki is known as the spice garden of Kerala; the name of the district is derived from the Tamil and Malayalam word Idukku, meaning narrow gorge Idukki has an area of 4,358 km2 and is the second largest District of Kerala. Rugged mountains and forests cover about 97 percent of the total area of the District. Idukki district consist of five taluks: Thodupuzha, Idukki and Peerumedu; the district borders the Kerala districts of Pathanamthitta to the south, Kottayam to the southwest, Ernakulam to the northwest and Thrissur to the north and Coimbatore, Dindigul and Theni Districts in Tamil Nadu to the east. The district is accessible only by road. Rail and airlink is not available.
National Highway NH 49 and State highways 13 and 33 passes through the district. Anamudi is the highest point in Kerala and South India. Anamudi and Meesapulimala are the 2 highest peaks in India south of the Himalayas, Anamudi is in the Kuttampuzha Panchayat of Adimali Block, in the Kannan Devan Hills Village of Devikulam taluk. Thirteen other peaks in the district exceed a height of 2,000 m; the Periyar, Thodupuzhayar and Thalayar are the important rivers of the district. Idukki Dam, Asia's largest Arch Dam is located at Idukki Township of Idukki Taluk; the point where the Periyar flows through the gorge formed between two high massive rocks known as "Kuravan" and "Kurathi" is the site of the Idukki arch dam. The Idukki Hydroelectic project caters for more than 60% of the power requirements of the state of Kerala. According to the 2011 census Idukki district has a population of 1,107,453; this ranks it as 416th among the 640 districts of India. The district has a population density of 254 inhabitants per square kilometre.
Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was −1.93%. Idukki has a sex ratio of 1006 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 92.2 per cent. According to the 2011 census, Hindus make up 46.76% of the population, Christians 45.92%, Muslims 7.32%. Idukki district is the first district in India to get connected with super-fast broad band system as a part of Digital India It is first to get BSNL 4G of whole country, making the number of 4G operators in the district to four besides Idea-Vodafone ltd,Jio,Airtel,the highest number of 4G operators in India. Munnar was the summer resort of the British Government in the south; the town is situated at the convergence of three mountain streams namely Muthirappuzha and Kundala. Munnar has some of the largest tea plantations in the world; this hill station, more than 5000 feet above sea level, is a tourist attraction noted for its scenic landscapes. Most of the native flora and fauna of Munnar have disappeared due to severe habitat fragmentation resultant from the creation of the plantations.
However, some species continue to survive and thrive in several protected areas nearby, including the new Kurinjimala Sanctuary to the east, the Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Manjampatti Valley and the Amaravati reserve forest of Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary to the north east, the Eravikulam National Park and Anamudi Shola National Park to the north, the Pampadum Shola National Park to the south and the proposed Palani Hills National Park to the east. These protected areas are known for several threatened and endemic species including Nilgiri Thar, the grizzled giant squirrel, the Nilgiri wood-pigeon, the gaur, the Nilgiri langur, the sambar, the neelakurinji. Vagamon is a hill station situated 1200 meters above sea level, 37 km from Pala and 42 km from Thodupuzha; this hill station provides option of paragliding or rock climbing for adventurous seekers. The place has many variety of fauna located in various parts of hilly region. Evergreen tress, tall grasses and shrubs are present in the lower regions of Vagamon.
Many rare species of birds, wild buffaloes and elephants can be located in the forests. The main attractions here are mist-covered mountains and lakes, Pilgrim centers – Kurishumala, Murugan temple, Burial chamber of Sufi saint and pine forests Ramakkalmedu is a hill station and a hamlet in the Idukki district, it is located about 15 km from Nedumkandam on the Munnar-Thekkady route. Ramakalmedu stands tall in the Western Ghats at a height of 3500 feet above sea level; the ecosystem of the area consists of grass land Shola forest type, laced by sporadic bamboo forests. Constant wind is another factor. Wind blows at a speed around 35 km/ hour at Ramakkalmedu throughout the year irrespective of the season and time. Tourism villages like Pushpakandam and Kuruvikanam near Ramakkalmedu is one of the places in Kerala where wind energy farm is installed, though it is private holdings; the capacity is at about 12.5 MW. This electricity is distributed to Kerala State Electricity Board. Ramakkalmedu has potential to produce more electricity, as it is said to be one of Asia's largest windiest area.
Thekkady is located about 257 km from Trivandrum, 140 km from Madurai City and Madurai Airport, 145 km from Cochin International Airport and 114 km from Kottayam railway station
Thiruvananthapuram known by its former name Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala. It is the most populous city in Kerala with a population of 957,730 as of 2011; the encompassing urban agglomeration population is around 1.68 million. Located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland, Thiruvananthapuram is a major Information Technology hub in Kerala and contributes 55% of the state's software exports as of 2016. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the "Evergreen city of India", the city is characterised by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills; the Ays ruled the present region of Thiruvananthapuram until the 10th century. With their fall in the 10th century, the city was taken over by the Chera dynasty; the city was taken over by the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century. In the 17th century the king Marthanda Varma expanded the territory and founded the princely state of Travancore and Thiruvananthapuram was made capital of Travancore. Following India's independence in 1947, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Travancore-Cochin state and remained capital when the new Indian state of Kerala was formed in 1956.
Thiruvananthapuram is a notable academic and research hub and is home to the University of Kerala, Kerala Technological University the regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University, many other schools and colleges. Thiruvananthapuram is home to research centers such as the National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Indian Space Research Organisation's Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, a campus of the Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research; the city is home to media institutions like Toonz India Ltd and Tata Elxsi Ltd, is home to Chitranjali Film Studio, one of the first film studios in Malayalam Cinema, Kinfra Film and Video Park at Kazhakoottom, India's first Infotainment Industrial park. Being India's largest city in the deep south, it is strategically prominent and hosts the Southern Air Command headquarters of the Indian Air Force, the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the upcoming Vizhinjam International Seaport.
Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist centre, known for the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, the beaches of Kovalam and Varkala, the backwaters of Poovar and Anchuthengu and its Western Ghats tracts of Ponmudi and the Agastyamala. In 2012, Thiruvananthapuram was named the best Kerala city to live in, by a field survey conducted by The Times of India. In 2013, the city was ranked the fifteenth best city to live in India, in a survey conducted by India Today; the city was selected as the best-governed city in India in the survey conducted by Janaagraha Centre for citizenship and democracy in 2017. The city takes its name from the Malayalam word thiru-anantha-puram IPA:, meaning "The City of Lord Ananta", referring to the deity of the Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple located in the city. Thiruvananthapuram is known in the literature, popular reference as Ananthapuri derived from the Sanskrit word Syanandurapuram, meaning "The City of Bliss" in Carnatic kirtanas composed by Swathi Thirunal, erstwhile Maharaja of Travancore.
The city was referred to as Trivandrum until 1991, when the government decided to reinstate the city's original name Thiruvananthapuram. Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient region with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BCE, it is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BCE. The city was the trading post of spices and ivory. However, the ancient political and cultural history of the city was entirely independent from that of the rest of Kerala; the early rulers of the city were the Ays. Vizhinjam, now a region in the present-day Thiruvananthapuram, was the capital of Ay dynasty. Vizhinjam was an important port city from as early as 2nd century BC. During the Ay dynasty rule, Thiruvananthapuram witnessed many battles in which the Chola and Pandyan dynasties attempted to capture the port town. After the death of king Vikramaditya Varaguna in 925 AD, the glory of the Ays departed and all their territories became part of the Chera dynasty.
During the 10th century, the Cholas sacked Vizhinjam and surrounding regions. The port in Vizhinjam and the historic education center of Kanthalloor Sala was destroyed by Cholas during this period. A branch of the Ay family, controlling the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, merged with the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century. In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering kingdoms of Attingal, Kayamkulam, Kottayam, Meenachil and Ambalapuzha. In 1729, Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital in 1745 after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram in Kanyakumari district; the kingdom of Travancore was dedicated by Marthanda Varma to the deity Sri. Padmanabha; the rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Padmanabha; the city developed into a significant artistic centre during this period. The golden age in the city's history was during the mid 19th century under the reign of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Maharaja Ayilyam Thirunal.
This era saw the establishment of the first English school, the Observatory, the General Hospital, the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library and the University College. The first mental hospital in the state was started during the same period. Sanskrit College, Ayurveda Co
Nagercoil is a city in the southernmost Indian district of Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu and a corporation. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanyakumari District in Tamil Nadu; the city, situated close to the tip of the Indian peninsula, lies in an undulating terrain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The present city of Nagercoil grew around Kottar, a mercantile town that dates back to the Sangam period. Kottar is now a locality within the city limits. For 735 years it was a central part of the erstwhile Travancore kingdom and Kerala State, till a decade after India's independence from Britain in 1947. In 1956, Kanyakumari District, along with the town, was merged with Tamil Nadu; the city is a centre for a range of economic activities in the small but densely-populated district, including tourism, wind energy, marine fish production and exports and cloves plantations, agro-crops, floral production, manufacture of fish nets, rubber products among other activities.‘Nagercoil Cloves’ is a distinct quality of dried cloves in the spices market, noted for its aroma.
Cloves and other spices are grown in estates in the Western Ghats, outside the city. Nagercoil is the nearest city corporation to the ISRO Propulsion Complex and the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant; the city, along with the district of Kanyakumari, stands at the top in many HDI parameters in Tamil Nadu state, including education, per capita income, health indices, etc. The municipality of Nagercoil was upgraded as a Municipal corporation on the eve of its 100th year as a city on February 14th 2019. Known as the Granary of Travancore, Nagercoil not only served as the food basket of Kerala, but was one among the important spice-trading centers in the kingdom of Travancore from the 14th century onward, maintained a trade network with Arab merchants from the pre-Islamic era. Various Tamil and Kerala kings fought over this rich agricultural land. Various historians cite that the land's climate and diverse, luxuriant vegetation had no comparison anywhere else in Tamil Nadu. According to the 2011 census, Nagercoil had a population of 224,849 with a female-male sex ratio of 1.05, well above the national average of 0.929 females/male.
A total of 20,241 were under the age of six, constituting 10,122 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 0.17 % of the population respectively. The literacy rate of the city was 95.35%. The city had a total of 59,997 households. There were a total of 76,345 workers, comprising 244 cultivators, 1,155 main agricultural laborers, 2,271 in household industries, 67,050 other workers, 5,625 marginal workers, 110 marginal cultivators, 361 marginal agricultural laborers, 447 marginal workers in household industries and 4,707 other marginal workers; the major software companies present in Nagercoil are Hinduja Global Solutions, Navigant Consulting and American stock exchange NASDAQ. The city has small aerospace manufacturing plants and satellite fabricating firms serving the Indian Space Research Organisations facility in ISRO Propulsion Complex, Mahendragiri; the Regional Academic Centre for Space by Indian Space Research Organisation, one among the only six incubation centers for Space Startups in India, is under construction in Nagercoil.
The Integral Coach Factory has small scale windmill unit. The export of 95 tons of fruits and vegetables to the Gulf Countries through the Thiruvananthapuram airports is a major source of revenue for the city, with food processing companies generating a daily revenue of 16.7 lakh rupees and an annual revenue of 6.1 billion rupees. The flower market of Thovalai exports 350 tons of Flowers to Kerala and Middle Eastern countries generating an annual revenue of Rs.250 crore. The major cottage industries like Fish-net manufacturing, Rubber industries, Jewellery manufacturing are industries serving the domestic and export markets; the minor cottage industries include Surgical Gloves, Coir-making, floral trade, handloom-weaving, cashew nut, food-processing units, lace-making. Nagercoil has the highest per capita income of Rs.276,454, making it among the richest small cities in India. The city has an installed windmill capacity of 1500 MW catering to 20% of the state's renewable electricity needs. Muppandhal has emerged as the wind power hub, with plant owners eager to cash in on the Rs 2.90 per unit purchase price being offered by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board.
The architecture of Nagercoil consists of an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from those that predate the creation of the town, from the early Dravidian architecture and Kerala Architecture, to English Gothic Revival, to the 21st century contemporary. Although there are prehistoric and classical structures in the city, the architectural history of Nagercoil begins with the first small settlements from 3 A. D; the Roman naturalist and writer Pliny the Elder mentions Nagercoil as a commercial metropolis, having trade links with his contemporaneous Roman merchants, who traded and stayed in unique rock-walled, clay-roofed structures. This legacy can be found in some of the town's old heritage structures like the Nagaraja Temple, Nagercoil; the temple has two main deities and Nagaraja. The upadevathas are Shiva, Subrahmanya Swami, Ganesha and Dwarapalaka; as an ancient tradition the priests are Namboothiri Brahmins who are referred by the Pambumekkat mana in Thrissur, Kerala. The 14th century St. Francis Xavier's Cathedral, Kottar serves as a testimony to the mix of Roman and native architecture.
While Saint Xavier was doing missionary work at Kottar and its neighborhood, he averted an invasion of Padagas with the
The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from 1500 until 1949. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family from Padmanabhapuram, Thiruvananthapuram. At its zenith, the kingdom covered most of modern-day central and southern Kerala with the Thachudaya Kaimal's enclave of Irinjalakuda Koodalmanikkam temple in the neighbouring Kingdom of Cochin, as well as the district of Kanyakumari, now in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu; the official flag of the state was red with a dextrally-coiled silver conch shell at its center. In the early 19th century, the kingdom became a princely state of the British Empire; the Travancore Government took many progressive steps on the socio-economic front and during the reign of Maharajah Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, Travancore became the second most prosperous princely state in British India, with reputed achievements in education, political administration, public work and social reforms. The regions had many small independent kingdoms. During the peak time of Chera-Chola-Pandya, this region became a part of the Chera Kingdom.
During that era, when the region was part of the Chera empire, it was still known as Thiruvazhumkode. It was contracted to Thiruvankode, anglicised by the English to Travancore. In course of time, the Ay kingdom, part of the Chera empire, which ruled the Thiruvazhumkode area, became independent, the land was called Aayi desam or Aayi rajyam, meaning'Aayi territory'; the Aayis controlled the land from present-day Kollam district in the north, through Thiruvananthapuram district, all in Kerala, to the Kanyakumari district. There were the major one at Kollam and a subsidiary one at Thrippapur; the kingdom was thus called Venad. Kings of Venad had, at various times, travelled from Kollam and built residential palaces in Thiruvithamcode and Kalkulam. Thiruvithamcode became the capital of the Thrippapur Swaroopam, the country was referred to as Thiruvithamcode by Europeans after the capital had been moved in 1601 to Padmanabhapuram, near Kalkulam; the Chera empire had dissolved by around 1100 and thereafter the territory comprised numerous small kingdoms until the time of Marthanda Varma who, as king of Venad from 1729, employed brutal methods to unify them.
During his reign, Thiruvithamcode or Travancore became the official name. The Kingdom of Travancore was located at the extreme southern tip of the Indian subcontinent. Geographically, Travancore was divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands, the central midlands, the western lowlands. Venad was a former state at the tip of the Indian Subcontinent, traditionally ruled by rajas known as the Venattadis. Till the end of the 11th century AD, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom; the Ays were the earliest ruling dynasty in southern Kerala, who, at their zenith, ruled over a region from Nagercoil in the south to Trivandrum in the north. Their capital during the first Sangam age was in Aykudi and towards the end of the 8th century AD, was at Quilon. Though a series of attacks by the resurgent Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline of the Ays, the dynasty was powerful till the beginning of the 10th century; when the Ay power diminished, Venad became the southernmost principality of the Second Chera Kingdom.
An invasion of the Cholas into Venad caused the destruction of Kollam in 1096. However, the Chera capital, Mahodayapuram fell in the subsequent Chola attack, which compelled the Chera king, Rama varma Kulasekara, to shift his capital to Kollam. Thus, Rama Varma Kulasekara, the last emperor of the Chera dynasty, is the founder of the Venad royal house, the title of the Chera kings, was thenceforth kept by the rulers of Venad, thus the end of the Second Chera dynasty in the 12th century marks the independence of Venad. In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty and Chirava, merged in the Venad family, which set up the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan. While the Chrirava Moopan had his residence at Kollam, the Thrippappur Moopan resided at his palace in Thrippappur, 9 miles north of Thiruvananthapuram, was vested with the authority over the temples of Venad kingdom the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple.
The history of Travancore began with Marthanda Varma, who inherited the kingdom of Venad, expanded it into Travancore during his reign. After defeating a union of feudal lords and establishing internal peace, he expanded the kingdom of Venad through a series of military campaigns from Kanyakumari in the south to the borders of Kochi in the north during his 29-year rule; this rule included Travancore-Dutch War between the Dutch East India Company, allied to some of these kingdoms and Travancore. In 1741, Travancore won the Battle of Colachel against the Dutch East India Company, resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in the region. In this battle, the admiral of the Dutch, Eustachius De Lannoy, was captured and defected to Travancore. De Lannoy was appointed as Captain of His Highness' Body-guard and Senior Admiral and he modernised the Travancore army by introducing firearms and artillery. Travancore became the most dominant state in the Kerala region by defeating the powerful Zamorin of Kozhikode in the battle of Purakkad in 1755.
Ramayyan Dalawa, the Prime Minister of Marthanda Varma played an important role in this consolidation and expansion. On 3 J
Kottayam is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala, India. Though the district is 65 km south to Kochi, it is located in an area with biggest diameter and population, it is the only district having no border with either the other states. Kottayam City is known as Akshara Nagari and Chuvar Chitra Nagari. Kottayam is known as the city of three'L's - Literacy and Latex. Kottayam is the first town to achieve 100% literacy rate in India. On 27 September 2008, Kottayam district became the first tobacco free districts in India. Bordered by hills on the east and the Vembanad Lake and paddy fields of Kuttanad on the west, Kottayam has many unique characteristics. Panoramic backwater stretches, lush paddy fields, highlands and hillocks, rubber plantations and places associated with many legends give Kottayam District the enviable title: The land of letters, legends and lakes; the district is 15.35% urbanised. The district has its headquarters at Kottayam city, located at 9.36° N and 76.17° E. Pala or Kidangoor may be the center point of the district.
Rubber Board campus located in Puthuppally has head office in Kottayam city. Hindustan Newsprint Limited and Rubber board are the central govt organizations in the district; the Headquarters of 2 significant religious communities in Kerala are located in Kottayam District: Nair Service Society and Indian Orthodox Church. Kottayam means the interior of a fort - Kotta + Akam. Rulers of Munjanad and Thekkumkur had their headquarters at Thazhathangadi near Kottayam town. Marthanda Varma of Travancore destroyed the palace and the Thaliyil Fort; the remnants of the palaces and forts are still seen here. Kottayam has played its role in all the political agitations of modern times. The'Malayali Memorial' agitation may be said to have had its origin in Kottayam; the Malayali Memorial sought to secure better representation for educated Travancoreans in the Travancore civil service against persons from outside. The Memorial, presented to the Maharaja Sri Moolam Thirunal was drafted at a public meeting held in the Kottayam Public Library.
The event marked the beginning of the modern political movement in the state. It was in Kottayam that the famous Vaikom Satyagraha, an epic struggle for the eradication of untouchability, took place. Scheduled castes and other backward classes in Travancore were denied not only entry into temples, but access to temple roads. Vaikom, the seat of a celebrated Siva Temple, was the venue of the symbolic satyagraha, it is of immense historic significance that national leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, C. Rajagopalachari, Acharya Vinoba Bhave and E. V. Ramaswami Naykar, associated with this struggle. The' Nivarthana' agitation of the early thirties, to secure adequate representation for the non-caste Hindus and Muslims in the state Legislature, enjoyed considerable support from this district; the district was a centre of the agitation led by the state Congress for responsible Government in Travancore. The agitation had a triumphant end, with the overthrow of Sir C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, the Dewan of Travancore.
The present Kottayam district was a part of the erstwhile princely state of Travancore. Earlier, the Travancore state consisted of two revenue divisions viz. the southern and northern divisions, under the administrative control of a'Diwan Peshkar' for each. In 1868 two more divisions Quilon and Kottayam were constituted; the fifth division Devikulam came next but only for a short period, which in course of time, was added to Kottayam. At the time of the integration of the state of Travancore and Cochin in 1949, these revenue divisions were renamed as districts and the Diwan Peshkars gave way to District Collectors, paving the way for the birth of the Kottayam District in July 1949 which included Kottayam, Thodupuzha, Vaikkom, Meenachil and Peermade taluks. Kottayam is known as the language-capital of Kerala. Major religious communities in Kottayam district are Christianity. NSS has its headquarters at Changanaserry. Mannam memorial is located here; the headquarters of Indian Orthodox Church is the Catholicate Palace located at Kottayam.
It is the official headquarters of the Malankara Metropolitan and the Catholicos Of The East who reigns on the Supreme Throne of St. Thomas the Apostle; the headquarters of Madhya Kerala diocese of church of south India is located at Kottayam. Kottayam has a tropical climate like that of the rest of Kerala, hence there are no distinct seasons in the area. Humidity rises to about 90 % during the rainy season. Kottayam gets rain from the south-west monsoon and the north-east monsoon; the average rainfall is around 3600 mm per year. The south-west monsoon ends in September; the north-east monsoon season is from October to November. Pre-monsoon rains during March to May is accompanied by lightning. December and February are cooler, while March and May are warmer; the highest temperature recorded here was 38.5 °C and the lowest was 15 °C. Kottayam district experienced the most intense red rainfall, heavy downpours occurred in 2001 during which the rain was coloured red, yellow and black. Kottayam has a vast network of rivers, ancient religious places, hill stations.
Some of the noted tourist places here are: Vembanad Lak
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go