Architecture of Rajasthan
Māru-Gurjara architecture originated in the sixth century in and around areas of the state of Rajasthan in India during Gurjara Pratihara Empire. The name Maru Gurjara has its genesis in the fact that during ancient times and Gujarat had similarities in ethentic and political aspects of the society. Ancient name of Rajasthan was Marudesh. "Maru Gurjara art" means "art of Rajasthan". Māru-Gurjara Architecture show the deep understanding of structures and refined skills of Rajasthani craftmen of bygone era. Māru-Gurjara Architecture has two prominent styles Maru-Gurjara. According to M. A. Dhaky, Maha-Maru style developed in Marudesa, Sapadalaksha and parts of Uparamala whereas Maru-Gurjara originated in Medapata, Gurjaradesa-Arbuda, Gurjaradesa-Anarta and some areas of Gujarat. Scholars such as George Michell, M. A. Dhaky, Michael W. Meister and U. S. Moorti believe that Māru-Gurjara Temple Architecture is Western Indian architecture and is quite different from the North Indian Temple architecture.
There is a connecting link between Hoysala Temple Architecture. In both of these styles architecture is treated sculpturally. Styles of Rajasthani architecture include: Jharokha Chhatri Haveli Stepwell Johad JaliArchitecture in Rajasthan represents many different types of buildings, which may broadly be classed either as secular or religious; the secular buildings are of various scales. They include towns, wells, gardens and palaces. All these kinds of buildings were meant for civic purposes; the forts are included in secular buildings, though they were used for defense and military purposes. The typology of the buildings of religious nature consists of three different kinds: temples and tombs; the typology of the buildings of secular nature is more varied. The Dilwara Jain Temples of Mount Abu built between the 11th and 13th centuries CE are the best examples of Jain Architecture in Rajasthan; the Hill Forts of Rajasthan, a group of six forts built by various Rajput kingdoms and principalities during the medieval period are the best examples of Rajput Architecture.
The ensemble is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other forts include the Mehrangarh Jaigarh Fort; the walled city of Jaipur was formed in 1727 by Jai Singh II. Subsequently, the City Palace, Hawa Mahal, Rambagh Palace, Jal Mahal and Albert Hall Museum were built; the rulers of the princely states of Rajasthan continued the tradition of building elaborate palaces, such as the Lalgarh Palace in Bikaner, Monsoon Palace in Udaipur, Umaid Bhawan Palace in Jodhpur. Atherton, Cynthia Packert; the Sculpture of Early Medieval Rajasthan. BRILL. ISBN 9004107894
Postal Index Number
A Postal Index Number, or sometimes redundantly a PIN code, is a code in the post office numbering or postal code system used by India Post, the Indian postal entity. The code is six digits long; the PIN system was introduced on 15 August 1972 by Shriram Bhikaji Velankar, an additional secretary in the Union Ministry of Communications. The system was introduced to simplify the manual sorting and delivery of mail by eliminating confusion over incorrect addresses, similar place names, different languages used by the public. There are nine postal zones including eight regional zones and one functional zone; the first digit of the PIN indicates the zone. The second digit indicates the sub-zone, the third digit indicates the sorting district within that zone; the final three digits are assigned to individual post offices. The first digit of the PIN is allocated over the 9 zones as follows: 1 — Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Chandigarh 2 — Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand 3 — Rajasthan, Gujarat and Diu, Dadra and Nagar 4 — Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 5 — Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka 6 — Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Lakshadweep 7 — West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Nicobar Islands, Sikkim 8 — Bihar, Jharkhand 9 — Army Post Office and Field Post Office The first three digits of the PIN represent a specific geographical region called a sorting district, headquartered at the main post office of the largest city and is known as the sorting office.
A state may have one or more sorting districts depending on the volume of mail handled. The fourth digit represents the route; this is 0 for offices in the core area of the sorting district. The last two digits represent the delivery office within the sorting district starting from 01 which would be the General Post Office or head office; the numbering of the delivery office is done chronologically with higher numbers assigned to newer delivery offices. If the volume of mails handled at a delivery office is too large, a new delivery office is created and the next available PIN is assigned. Thus, two delivery offices situated next to each other will only have the first four digits in common; each PIN is mapped to one delivery post office which receives all the mail to be delivered to one or more lower offices within its jurisdiction, all of which share the same code. The delivery office can either be a General Post Office, a head office, or a sub-office which are located in urban areas; the post from the delivery office is sorted and routed to other delivery offices for a different PIN or to one of the relevant sub-offices or branch offices for the same PIN.
Branch offices have limited postal services. Find Pincode – India Post
Tourism in Rajasthan
Rajasthan is one of the most popular tourist destinations in India, for both domestic and international tourists. Rajasthan attracts tourists for its historical forts, palaces and culture with its slogan'Padharo mahare desh'; every third foreign tourist visiting India travels to Rajasthan as it is part of the Golden Triangle for tourists visiting India. The palaces of Jaipur, lakes of Udaipur, desert forts of Jodhpur, Bikaner & Jaisalmer are among the most preferred destinations of many tourists and foreign. Tourism accounts for eight percent of the state's domestic product. Many old and neglected palaces and forts have been converted into heritage hotels. Tourism has increased employment in the hospitality sector; the main sweet of this place is ghevar. Rajasthan is known for its historical hill forts & palaces, it is claimed as best place for tourism related to palaces. Following are some of major palaces in Rajasthan. Umaid Bhawan Palace: It is the largest Royal Palace in Rajasthan, it is one of largest private residence in the world.
Lake Palace: It is now a luxury hotel located in Pichola Lake, Udaipur. Hawa Mahal: It is known as "Palace of Wind" or "Palace of Breeze" because there are more than 950 Windows in the Palace. Rambagh Palace: Formerly a Royal Palace now converted into a Heritage Hotel. Devi Garh Palace: Formerly a palace now converted into a Heritage Hotel, In 2006, The New York Times named it as one if leading luxurious hotel in Indian subcontinent. Rajasthan is known for its forts. Hill Forts of Palaces in Rajasthan are a part of world heritage. Chittor Fort Kumbhalgarh Fort Ranthambore Fort Gagron Fort Amber Fort Jaisalmer Fort Chittor Fort Lohagarh Fort Kumbhalgarh Fort Mehrangarh Fort Nahargarh Fort Neemrana Fort Palace Nahargarh Fort Bhatner fort Junagarh Fort Mehrangarh Fort Lohagarh Fort Taragarh Fort Jalore Fort Nagaur Fort Shergrah Fort Department of Tourism of Rajasthan Government organizes multiple fairs & festivals during the year; these festivals & fairs are great tourist attractions. Fairs organized in Rajasthan include: Camel Festival, Bikaner Nagaur Fair, Nagaur Kite Festival Desert Festival, Jaisalmer Baneshwar Fair, Baneshwar Gangaur Festival, Jaipur Mewar Festival, Udaipur Elephant Festival, Jaipur Urs Ajmer Sharif, Ajmer Summer Festival, Mt.
Abu Teej Festival, Jaipur Kajli Teej, Bundi Dussehra Festival, Kota Marwar Festival, Jodhpur Pushkar Fair, Ajmer Ajmer - Popular for shrine of Sufi Saikhllnt Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti and Digambar Jain Temple Soniji Ki Nasiyan. Barmer - Barmer and surrounding areas offer perfect picture of typical Rajasthani villages. Bhilwara - Popular for its textile industry. Hamirgarh Eco-park and Harni Mahadev temple are important tourist destinations. Bikaner - Famous for its havelis and the Karni Mata Temple in Deshnoke. Chittorgarh - Popular for its monument and fort Bundi - Popular for its forts and stepwell reservoirs known as baoris. Dausa -It is popular for "चाँद बावड़ी" and मेहंदीपुर बालाजी मंदिर. Jaipur- Known as pink city of India and the capital of Rajasthan. Jaisalmer - Famous for its golden fortress and some of the oldest Jain Temples and libraries. Jhalawar district - Caves like Binnayaga Buddhist caves, Hathiagor Buddhist Caves, Kolvi Caves are popular medieval architecture of India. Jodhpur - Famous for architecture & blue homes giving the name "Blue City" Kota - Known for its gardens and Chambal river safari.
Mount Abu - A hill station with 11th century Dilwara Jain Temples. Highest peak in the Aravalli Range of Rajasthan, Guru Shikhar is just 15 km from the main town. Nathdwara - This town near Udaipur hosts the temple of Shrinathji. Neemrana - home to the Neemrana fort Pushkar - It has the first and one of the few Brahma temples in the world. Ranakpur- Large Jain Temple complex with near 1444 pillars and exquisite marble carvings. Ranthambore - Situated near Sawai Madhopur; this town has one of the largest national park of India. Sariska Tiger Reserve - Situated in the Alwar district. Shekhawati - Located are small towns such as Mandawa and Ramgarh with frescoed havelis between 100 years to 300 years old, Vedic period Dhosi Hill. Udaipur - Known as the "Venice of India". Jodhpur - blue city in rajasthan Palace on Wheels List of attractions in Jaipur Tourist Attractions in Udaipur Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation, Official Website Rajasthan Tourism, Official website Govt. of Rajasthan
Climate of Rajasthan
The Climate of Rajasthan in northwestern India is arid or semi-arid and features hot temperatures over the year with extreme temperatures in both summer and winter. Under the Köppen climate classification the greater part of Rajasthan falls under Hot Desert and remaining portions of the state falls under Hot Semi Arid. Rajasthan receives variable rainfalls and thereby is prone to droughts. Due to the Desert Geography, Temperatures climb above 40 to 45 degrees Celsius in most places. Due to its location Rajasthan has summers as the longest season. In this time tourist activities are low; the army reduces its patrol time. The cold weather comes to an end in the middle of January; the climate in the cold weather is pleasant to cold. The state has two distinct periods of rainfall: rainfall due to the South-West Monsoon after summer and rainfall due to Western Disturbances. Rajasthan receives variable rainfalls and thereby is prone to droughts. Availability of water is less due to absence of lakes. Occasional floods in cities due to improper drainage occurs.
Sometimes floods occur in western Rajasthan due to impervious base rocks. In some industrial and urban centers pollution has been reported occasionally. Climate of India Climatic regions of India Loo Thar Desert
Bharatpur State known as Bharatpore State, was a Hindu princely state in the Indian subcontinent. It was ruled by a Hindu Jats of Sinsinwar dynasty; the Royal House of Bharatpur traces their history to the 11th Century AD. They claim to be the descendants of Lord Krishna; the descendants of Bal Chand became leaders of the Jat caste and rose to considerable power during the Mughal decline in the late seventeenth century. Raja Ram Jat who faught against the Aurangzeb and ruined the remains of Akbar is known for setting up small fort at Sinsini, it was the key foundation of this kingdom. History of Jat Bharatpur state begins with the rebellion of Rajaam Jat who faught against the Aurangzeb and ruined the remains of Akbar is known for setting up small fort at Sinsini, it was the key foundation of this kingdom. At the end of the 17th century, Jat Baija, head of the village of Sansani, eliminated the Mughal Empire from this area to enlarge his territory, his descendents, Thakur Churaman Singh Singh, continued the expansion, the latter being the founder of the fortress of Bharatpur in 1724.
He is known as the first king of Bharatpur. His son Badan Singh received enhanced titles and honours, he was succeeded by Maharaja Surajmal. Maharaja Surajmal conquered a vast territory in north central India, including the Imperial cities of Agra and Delhi. Thereafter his son Maharaja Jawahar Singh conquered Delhi. After Jawahar Singh, his brother Ranjit Singh of Bharatpur defeated British for 13 times at Lohagarh. So Lohagarh Fort is the only fort of India, never won by Mughals or British; the Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana occupied the Gwalior Fort twice, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana from 1740 to 1756, Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana from 1780 to 1783. Maharaja Suraj Mal captured the Mughal stronghold Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774. After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh under resident ship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort. In August 1947 the state acceded to the newly independent Dominion of India.
In 1948 in became part of the Matsya Union and in 1949 was absorbed into Rajasthan. Members of the ruling family continue to be active in regional affairs. Several members of the family have served in the state legislature; the chronology of Sinsinwar Jat clan rulers of Bharatpur is: Gokula,? - 1670 Raja Ram, 1670–1688 Churaman, 1695–1721 Khanu Chand, Chief of the Sinsinwar Jats. His son Bhav Singh, married a daughter of Achal Singh of Sogharaia, had a son, Raja Badan Singh. Badan Singh, 1722–1756. 1st Raja of Bharatpur 1722/1756, of Deeg and founder of Bharatpur. He died 7 June 1756 at Deeg. Maharaja Brajendra Suraj Mal, 1756–1767. 2nd Maharaja of Bharatpur 1756/1763, born about 13 February 1707, created Raja Brajendra Bahadur, he took a large part in the numerous struggles of the first half of the 18th century between the Mughals, Marathas and Afghans and extended his borders until they included. Maharaja Jawahir Singh, 1763–1768, 3rd Maharaja of Bharatpur 1763/1768, he defeated the Raja of Jaipur in a war and was murdered at Agra in 1768 during hunting.
Maharaja Ratan Singh, 1768–1769 son of Maharaja Brajendra Surajmal Bahadur by Rani Ganga), 4th Maharaja of Bharatpur 1768/1771 or 1768/1769, married and had issue. He too was murdered after a short reign. Maharaja Keshri Singh, 1769–1771, 5th Maharaja of Bharatpur 1771 or 1769/1776, died 1776. Maharaja Nawal Singh, 1771–1776, Regent of Bharatpur 1771/1776, died 1776. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 1776–1805, 6th Maharaja of Bharatpur 1776/1805, during his reign, Najaf Khan, stripped the Jats of all their possessions leaving only the fort of Bharatpur and territory of nine lakhs in value, he died in 1805. Maharaja Randhir Singh, 1805–1823, 7th Maharaja of Bharatpur, died 1823. An 1805 siege by the British ended in the latter's withdrawal. Maharaja Baldeo Singh, 1823–1825, 8th Maharaja of Bharatpur and had issue, he died in 1825. Maharaja Durjan Sal, 1825–1826, 9th Maharaja of Bharatpur, opposed his cousin's accession and imprisoned him. British forces laid siege to Bharatpur for three weeks and on 18 January 1826, the fort was stormed by troops under Lord Combermere and dismantled, the Maharaja was imprisoned at Allahabad.
Maharaja Balwant Singh, 1825–1853, 10th Maharaja of Bharatpur 1826/1853, born 1819, he was
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte