A hoard or "wealth deposit" is an archaeological term for a collection of valuable objects or artifacts, sometimes purposely buried in the ground, in which case it is sometimes known as a cache. This would be with the intention of recovery by the hoarder. Hoards provide a useful method of providing dates for artifacts through association as they can be assumed to be contemporary, therefore used in creating chronologies. Hoards can be considered an indicator of the relative degree of unrest in ancient societies, thus conditions in 5th and 6th century Britain spurred the burial of hoards, of which the most famous are the Hoxne Hoard, Suffolk. Prudence Harper of the Metropolitan Museum of Art voiced some practical reservations about hoards at the time of the Soviet exhibition of Scythian gold in New York City in 1975. Writing of the so-called "Maikop treasure", Harper warned: By the time "hoards" or "treasures" reach museums from the antiquities market, it happens that miscellaneous objects varying in date and style have become attached to the original group.
Such "dealer's hoards" can be misleading, but better understanding of archaeology amongst collectors and the general public is making them less common and more identified. Hoards may be of precious metals, tools or less pottery or glass vessels. There are various classifications depending on the nature of the hoard. A founder's hoard contains broken or unfit metal objects, casting waste, complete objects, in a finished state; these were buried with the intention to be recovered at a time. A merchant's hoard is a collection of various functional items which, it is conjectured, were buried by a traveling merchant for safety, with the intention of retrieval. A personal hoard is a collection of personal objects buried for safety in times of unrest. A hoard of loot is a buried collection of spoils from raiding and is more in keeping with the popular idea of "buried treasure". Votive hoards are different from the above in that they are taken to represent permanent abandonment, in the form of purposeful deposition of items, either all at once or over time for ritual purposes, without intent to recover them.
Furthermore, votive hoards need not be "manufactured" goods, but can include organic amulets and animal remains. Votive hoards are distinguished from more functional deposits by the nature of the goods themselves, the places buried, the treatment of the deposit. Valuables dedicated to the use of a deity were not always permanently abandoned. Valuable objects given to a temple or church become the property of that institution, may be used to its benefit. Bactrian Gold Chausa hoard Kfar Monash Hoard Priam's Treasure Wonoboyo hoard Ziwiye hoard Ardagh Hoard Broighter Hoard Derrynaflan Hoard Dowris Hoard Mooghaun North Hoard Castine Hoard Oat Bin Hoard Saddle Ridge Hoard Megiddo Treasure, a small hoard found at Tel Megiddo List of hoards in Britain List of hoards in Ireland List of missing treasure Hacksilver Treasure Treasure trove
Hatu is a village in Lääne-Harju Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia. The manorial estate of Hatu dates from 1609, but the main building which can be seen today is much built only in 1864, it is constructed in an eclectic style and contains some original features in neo-Gothic and classical style, such as tiled stoves and doors. The property belonged to the Baltic German families of Ramm; the last owner before the Estonian Declaration of Independence and the ensuing land reforms was Fridolf Gustav-Adolf von Ramm
Estonia the Republic of Estonia, is a country in North East Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia, to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia; the territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2, water 2,839 km2, land area 42,388 km2, is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the third most spoken Finno-Ugric language; the territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B. C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Swedes and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries; this culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I.
Democratic, after the Great Depression Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II, Estonia was contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany being incorporated into the former as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991; the sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union since joining in 2004, the economic monetary Eurozone, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Schengen Area, of the Western military alliance of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy, among the fastest-growing in the EU. Estonia ranks high in the Human Development Index, performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties and press freedom. Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care, free education, the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD. One of the world's most digitally advanced societies, in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, in 2014 the first state to provide e-residency. In the Estonian language the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas, meaning "country people" or "people of the soil"; the land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning "Country Realm" or "Land Realm". One hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia derives it from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania; the historic Aesti were Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric. The geographical areas of the Aesti and of Estonia do not match, with the Aesti living farther south.
Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to an area called Eistland, as the country is still called in Icelandic, with close parallels to the Danish, Dutch and Norwegian terms Estland for the country. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name include Hestia. Esthonia was a common alternative English spelling before 1921. Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, when the ice from the last glacial era melted; the oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago; the earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to the Kunda culture, named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water. Subsistence activities consisted of hunting and fishing. Around 4900 BC appear ceramics of the neolithic period, known as Narva culture.
Starting from around 3200 BC the Corded Ware culture appeared. The Bronze Age started around 1800 BC, saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements. A transition from hunting-fishing-gathering subsistence to single-farm-based settlement started around 1000 BC, was complete by the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC; the large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes. A more troubled and war-ridden middle Iron Age followed, with external threats appearing from different directions. Several Scandinavian sagas referred to major confrontations with Estonians, notably when Estonians defeated and killed the Swedish king Ingvar. Similar threats appeared in the east. In 1030 Yaroslav the Wise established a fort in modern-day Tartu. Around the 11th century, the Scandinavian Viking era around the Baltic Sea was succeeded by the Baltic Viking era, with seaborne
Muraste is a village in Harku Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia. It has a population of 1,435. Writer Erni Krusten was born in Muraste
Counties of Estonia
Counties are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Estonia. Estonian territory is composed of 15 counties, including 2 on islands; the government of each county is led by a maavanem who represents the national government at the regional level. Governors are appointed by the national government for a term of five years; each county is further divided into municipalities of two types: urban municipalities and rural municipalities. The number and name of the counties was not affected, but their borders were changed, by the administrative reform at the municipal elections Sunday 15 October 2017 which brought the number of municipalities down from 213 to 79. Population figures are those of 1 January 2018. In the first centuries AD, political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia. Two larger subdivisions appeared: the parish and the county; the parish consisted of several villages. Nearly all parishes had at least one fortress; the defense of the local area was directed by the parish elder.
The county was composed of several parishes headed by an elder. By the 13th century the following major counties had developed in Estonia: Saaremaa, Läänemaa, Harjumaa, Rävala, Virumaa, Järvamaa and Ugandi. Additionally there were several smaller elderships in central Estonia where danger of war was smaller – Vaiga, Mõhu, Nurmekund and Alempois; the exact number and borders of some elderships are disputed. The first documented mentioning of Estonian political and administrative subdivisions comes from the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, written in the 13th Century during the Northern Crusades; the Autonomy of the Estonia counties and parishes ended after conquered and divided between Denmark, Livonian Order, Bishopric of Dorpat and Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek. The name of Rävala became Reval, replacing the name of an Estonian town Lindanisse Tallinn. Ugandi and the smaller elderships disappeared from common usage. In the 1580s, after the Livonian war as Sweden had conquered Northern Estonia, Harju, Järva, Lääne and Viru counties were formed there.
Southern Estonia, which belonged to Poland 1582-1625, was divided into voivodships of Pärnu and Tartu. They all became counties; this administrative system remained as Estonia went under Russian rule as a result of the Northern War. In 1793 were formed Võru County in the south of Tartumaa, Viljandi County between Tartu and Pärnu counties, Paldiski County in the west of Harjumaa. In 1796 Paldiski County was joined with Harjumaa again; until 1888 Võrumaa and Viljandimaa were not independent from Tartumaa and Pärnumaa respectively. Several changes were made to the borders of counties after Estonia became independent, most notably the formation of Valga County and Petseri County. During the Soviet rule, Petseri County once again became a part of Russia in 1945. Hiiumaa seceded from Läänemaa in 1946, Jõgevamaa from Tartumaa in 1949 and Jõhvimaa from Virumaa in 1949. Counties were dissolved in 1950 as Estonian SSR was divided into regions and oblasts; until the 1960s the borders of regions changed until 15 of them were left.
Out of them, Põlva and Rapla regions became separate, while the others were corresponding to the pre-1950 counties. Counties were re-established on 1 January 1990 in the borders of the Soviet-era regions. Due to the numerous differences between the current and historical layouts, the historical borders are still used in ethnology, representing cultural and linguistic differences better. Ranked list of Estonian counties Flags of Estonian Counties Coats of arms of Estonian Counties ISO 3166-2:EE Municipalities of Estonia Administrative reform Estonia 2017 Local Government Reform Estonian Institute publication
Keila-Joa is a small borough in Lääne-Harju Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia. It has a population of 309; the Estonian name Keila-Joa means "Keila Falls", named after the river, distinguishing it from the town of Keila. There has been a manor house on the site of Keila-Joa manor since the 17th century; the present manor house was built in 1831-1833 and designed by St. Petersburg architect Andrei Stackenschneider; the manor represents one of the earliest examples of neo-Gothic architecture in Estonia. It was built for the family of count Alexander von Benckendorff and the building saw many prominent guests during the Imperial years, among others the Russian royal family, famous soprano Henriette Sontag and composer Alexei Lvov. From 1927 to 1940 it was used by the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. During the Soviet occupation it was used by the Red Army. Keila Waterfall Keila River Lääne-Harju Parish Keila-Joa at Estonian Manors Portal Keila-Joa.info virtual tour
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.