Hunan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed in South Central China. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of 210,000 km2, it is China's 7th most populous and the 10th most extensive province-level by area; the name Hunan means "south of the lake". The lake, referred to is Dongting Lake, a lake in the northeast of the province, its capital and largest city is Changsha, which abuts the Xiang River. Hunan's primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Tujia and Yao peoples; the province entered written Chinese history around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou dynasty, the province became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, the Han dynasty. At this time, for hundreds of years thereafter, the province was a magnet for settlement of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced and assimilated the original indigenous inhabitants, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains.
The agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods. To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was prevalent during the Eastern Jin dynasty and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu. Hunan and Hubei became a part of the province of Huguang until the Qing dynasty. Hunan province was created in 1664 from Huguang, renamed to its current name in 1723. Hunan became an important communications center due to its position on the Yangzi River, it was an important centre of scholarly activity and Confucian thought in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha. It was on the Imperial Highway constructed between northern and southern China; the land produced grain so abundantly. The population continued to climb until, by the nineteenth century, Hunan became overcrowded and prone to peasant uprisings.
Some of the uprisings, such as the ten-year Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806, were caused by ethnic tensions. The Taiping Rebellion began in the south in Guangxi Province in 1850; the rebellion spread into Hunan and further eastward along the Yangzi River valley. It was a Hunanese army under Zeng Guofan who marched into Nanjing to put down the uprising in 1864. Hunan was quiet until 1910 when there were uprisings against the crumbling Qing dynasty, which were followed by the Communist's Autumn Harvest Uprising of 1927, it was led by Hunanese native Mao Zedong, established a short-lived Hunan Soviet in 1927. The Communists maintained a guerrilla army in the mountains along the Hunan-Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang forces, they began the Long March to bases in Shaanxi Province. After the departure of the Communists, the KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war, they defended Changsha until it fell in 1944. Japan launched a plan to control the railroad from Wuchang to Guangzhou.
Hunan was unscathed by the civil war that followed the defeat of the Japanese in 1945. In 1949, the Communists returned once more; as Mao Zedong's home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976. However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao's death in 1976. In addition to Mao Zedong, a number of other first-generation communist leaders were from Hunan: President Liu Shaoqi. An example of a more recent leader from Hunan is former Premier Zhu Rongji. Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47'–114° 16' east longitude and 24° 37'–30° 08' north latitude. Hunan covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres, making it the 10th largest provincial-level division; the east and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, the Luoxiao Mountains to the east.
Mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the province, plains less than 20%. At 2115.2 meters above sea level, the highest point in Hunan province is Lingfeng. The Xiang, the Zi, the Yuan and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting in the north of Hunan; the center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River. Lake Dongting is the second largest freshwater lake of China; the Xiaoxiang area and Lake Dongting figure
The Qing dynasty the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, it was succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China, it was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In an unrelated development, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing, in 1644. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon.
He seized the capital. Resistance from the Southern Ming and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the Qing conquest of China proper by nearly four decades; the conquest was only completed in 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor reign. The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia; the early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs, while their title was Emperor, they used "Bogd khaan" when dealing with the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus, they adapted the ideals of the tributary system in dealing with neighboring territories. During the Qianlong Emperor reign the dynasty reached its apogee, but began its initial decline in prosperity and imperial control; the population rose to some 400 millions, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis.
Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, ruling elites failed to change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium Wars, European powers imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control; the Taiping Rebellion and the Dungan Revolt in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers; the initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi; when the Scramble for Concessions by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign "Boxers", the foreign powers invaded China, Cixi declared war on them, leading to defeat and the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.
After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform; the Wuchang Uprising on 11 October 1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912. Nurhaci declared himself the "Bright Khan" of the Later Jin state in honor both of the 12th–13th century Jurchen Jin dynasty and of his Aisin Gioro clan, his son Hong Taiji renamed the dynasty Great Qing in 1636. There are competing explanations on the meaning of Qīng; the name may have been selected in reaction to the name of the Ming dynasty, which consists of the Chinese characters for "sun" and "moon", both associated with the fire element of the Chinese zodiacal system.
The character Qīng is associated with the water element. This association would justify the Qing conquest as defeat of fire by water; the water imagery of the new name may have had Buddhist overtones of perspicacity and enlightenment and connections with the Bodhisattva Manjusri. The Manchu name daicing, which sounds like a phonetic rendering of Dà Qīng or Dai Ching, may in fact have been derived from a Mongolian word "ᠳᠠᠢᠢᠴᠢᠨ, дайчин" that means "warrior". Daicing gurun may therefore have meant "warrior state", a pun, only intelligible to Manchu and Mongol people. In the part of the dynasty, however the Manchus themselves had forgotten this possible meaning. After conquering "China proper", the Manchus identified their state as "China", referred to it as Dulimbai Gurun in Manchu; the emperors equated the lands of the Qing state as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, rejecting the idea that "China" only meant Han areas. The Qing emperors proclaimed that bo
The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology on Beaumont Street, England, is the world's first university museum. Its first building was erected in 1678–83 to house the cabinet of curiosities that Elias Ashmole gave to the University of Oxford in 1677; the present building was erected 1841–45. The museum reopened in 2009 after a major redevelopment. In November 2011, new galleries focusing on Egypt and Nubia were unveiled. In May 2016, the museum opened new galleries of 19th-century art; the museum opened on 24 May 1683, with naturalist Robert Plot as the first keeper. The building on Broad Street, which became known as the Old Ashmolean, is sometimes attributed to Sir Christopher Wren or Thomas Wood. Elias Ashmole had acquired the collection from the gardeners and collectors John Tradescant the Elder and his son, John Tradescant the Younger, it included antique coins, engravings, geological specimens, zoological specimens—one of, the stuffed body of the last dodo seen in Europe. The present building dates from 1841–45.
It was designed as the University Galleries by Charles Cockerell in a classical style and stands on Beaumont Street. One wing of the building is occupied by the Taylor Institution, the modern languages faculty of the university, standing on the corner of Beaumont Street and St Giles' Street; this wing of the building was designed by Charles Cockerell, using the Ionic order of Greek architecture. Sir Arthur Evans, appointed keeper in 1884 and retired in 1908, is responsible for the current museum. Evans found that the Keeper and the Vice-Chancellor had managed to lose half of the Ashmole collection and had converted the original building into the Examination Rooms. Charles Drury Edward Fortnum had offered to donate his personal collection of antiques on condition that the museum was put on a sound footing. A donation of £10,000 from Fortnum enabled Evans to build an extension to the University Galleries and move the Ashmolean collection there in 1894. In 1908, the Ashmolean and the University Galleries were combined as the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology.
The museum became a depository for some of the important archaeological finds from Evans' excavations in Crete. After the various specimens had been moved into new museums, the "Old Ashmolean" building was used as office space for the Oxford English Dictionary. Since 1924, the building has been established as the Museum of the History of Science, with exhibitions including the scientific instruments given to Oxford University by Lewis Evans, amongst them the world's largest collection of astrolabes. Charles Buller Heberden left £1,000 to the University, used for the Coin Room at the museum. In 2012, the Ashmolean was awarded a grant of $1.1m by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to establish the University Engagement Programme or UEP; the programme employs three Teaching Curators and a Programme Director to develop the use of the museum's collections in the teaching and research of the University. The interior of the Ashmolean has been extensively modernised in recent years and now includes a restaurant and large gift shop.
In 2000, the Chinese Picture Gallery, designed by van Heyningen and Haward Architects, opened at the entrance of the Ashmolean and is integrated into the structure. It was inserted into a lightwell in the Grade 1 listed building, was designed to support future construction from its roof. Apart from the original Cockerell spaces, this gallery was the only part of the museum retained in the rebuilding; the gallery houses the Ashmolean's own collection and is used from time to time for the display of loan exhibitions and works by contemporary Chinese artists. It is the only museum gallery in Britain devoted to Chinese paintings; the Sackler Library, incorporating the older library collections of the Ashmolean, opened in 2001 and has allowed an expansion of the book collection, which concentrates on classical civilization and art history. Between 2006 and 2009, the museum was expanded to the designs of architect Rick Mather and the exhibition design company Metaphor, supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund.
The $98.2 million rebuilding resulted in five floors instead of three, with a doubling of the display space, as well as new conservation studios and an education centre. The renovated museum re-opened on 7 November 2009. On 26 November 2011, the Ashmolean opened to the public the new galleries of Ancient Egypt and Nubia; this second phase of major redevelopment now allows the museum to exhibit objects that have been in storage for decades, more than doubling the number of coffins and mummies on display. The project received lead support from Lord Sainsbury's Linbury Trust, along with the Selz Foundation, Mr Christian Levett, as well as other trusts and individuals. Rick Mather Architects led the redesign and display of the four previous Egypt galleries and the extension to the restored Ruskin Gallery occupied by the museum shop. In May 2016, the museum opened new galleries dedicated to the display of its collection of Victorian art; this development allowed for the return to the Ashmolean of the Great Bookcase, designed by William Burges, described as "the most important example of Victorian painted furniture made.".
The main museum contains huge collections of fine art. It has one of the best collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings, majolica pottery, English silver; the archaeology department includes the bequest of Arthur Evans and so has an excellent collection of Greek and Minoan pottery. The depar
Chan, from Sanskrit dhyāna, is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism. It developed in China from the 6th century CE onwards, becoming dominant during the Tang and Song dynasties. After the Yuan, Chan less fused with Pure Land Buddhism. Chan spread south to Vietnam as Thiền and north to Korea as Seon, and, in the 13th century, east to Japan as Zen; the historical records required for a complete, accurate account of early Chan history no longer exist. The history of Chán in China can be divided into several periods. Zen as we know it today is the result of a long history, with many changes and contingent factors; each period had different types of Zen. Ferguson distinguishes three periods from the 5th century into the 13th century: The Legendary period, from Bodhidharma in the late 5th century to the An Lushan Rebellion around 765 CE, in the middle of the Tang Dynasty. Little written information is left from this period, it is the time of the Six Patriarchs, including Bodhidharma and Huineng, the legendary "split" between the Northern and the Southern School of Chán.
The Classical period, from the end of the An Lushan Rebellion around 765 CE to the beginning of the Song Dynasty around 950 CE. This is the time of the great masters of Chán, such as Mazu Daoyi and Linji Yixuan, the creation of the yü-lü genre, the recordings of the sayings and teachings of these great masters; the Literary period, from around 950 to 1250, which spans the era of the Song Dynasty. In this time the gongan-collections were compiled, collections of sayings and deeds by the famous masters, appended with poetry and commentary; this genre reflects the influence of literati on the development of Chán. This period idealized the previous period as the "golden age" of Chán, producing the literature in which the spontaneity of the celebrated masters was portrayed. Although McRae has reservations about the division of Chán-history in phases or periods, he distinguishes four phases in the history of Chán: Proto-Chán. In this phase, Chán developed in multiple locations in northern China, it is connected to the figures of Bodhidharma and Huike.
Its principal text is Four Practices, attributed to Bodhidharma. Early Chán. In this phase Chán took its first clear contours. Prime figures are the fifth patriarch Daman Hongren, his dharma-heir Yuquan Shenxiu, the sixth patriarch Huineng, protagonist of the quintessential Platform Sutra, Shenhui, whose propaganda elevated Huineng to the status of sixth patriarch. Prime factions are Southern School and Oxhead School. Middle Chán. In this phase developed the well-known Chán of the iconoclastic zen-masters. Prime figures are Mazu Daoyi, Shitou Xiqian, Linji Yixuan, Xuefeng Yicun. Prime factions are the Hongzhou school and the Hubei faction An important text is the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall, which gives a great amount of "encounter-stories", the well-known genealogy of the Chán-school. Song Dynasty Chán. In this phase Chán took its definitive shape including the picture of the "golden age" of the Chán of the Tang-Dynasty, the use of koans for individual study and meditation. Prime figures are Dahui Zonggao who introduced the Hua Tou practice and Hongzhi Zhengjue who emphasized Shikantaza.
Prime factions are the Caodong school. The classic koan-collections, such as the Blue Cliff Record were assembled in this period, which reflect the influence of the "literati" on the development of Chán. In this phase Chán is transported to Japan, exerts a great influence on Korean Seon via Jinul. Neither Ferguson nor McRae give a periodisation for Chinese Chán following the Song-dynasty, though McRae mentions "at least a postclassical phase or multiple phases"; when Buddhism came to China, it was adapted to understanding. Theories about the influence of other schools in the evolution of Chan vary and reliant upon speculative correlation rather than on written records or histories; some scholars have argued that Chan developed from the interaction between Mahāyāna Buddhism and Taoism, while others insist that Chan has roots in yogic practices kammaṭṭhāna, the consideration of objects, kasiṇa, total fixation of the mind. A number of other conflicting theories exist. Buddhist meditation was practiced in China centuries before the rise of Chán, by people such as An Shigao and his school, who translated various Dhyāna sutras (, which were influential early meditation texts based on the Yogacara meditation teachings of the Sarvāstivāda school of Kashmir circa 1st-4th centuries CE..
The five main types of meditation in the Dyana sutras are anapanasati. Other important translators of meditation texts were Kumārajīva, who translated The Sutra on the Concentration of Sitting Meditation, amongst many other texts; these Chinese translations of Indian Sarvāstivāda Yo
Wang Meng (painter)
Wang Meng was a Chinese painter during the Yuan Dynasty. Wang Meng was born in Wuxing, now known as Zhejiang, he was a maternal grandson of Zhao Mengfu, thus making him a descendant of the Song Dynasty's royal bloodline on his mother's side. Wang Meng was erroneously accused of conspiring against the Ming Emperor Taizu and spent the last five years of his life in jail. Wang Meng is considered to be one of the Four Masters of the Yuan Dynasty, along with Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen, Ni Zan, they famously refused to serve the Mongolian rulers of their country. In contrast to many renowned painters in previous history, these artists worked on paper instead of silk, an indication of the importance they gave to the calligraphic touch of the brush on paper, they painted landscapes, which they believed to be the visible key to the invisible reality. They restricted their acquaintanceship to each other, like-minded "wen ren". Wang Meng was the youngest of the group, the least famous in his own time, his style influenced Chinese painting.
In contrast to the spare style of his compatriots, his ropy brushstrokes piled one on the other to produce masses of texture combined in dense and involved patterns. Many artists were influenced by the works of Wang Meng centuries after his death, most notably Dong Qichang, his most famous works are the Ge Zhichuan Relocating, Forest Grotto at Juqu, Writing Books under the Pine Trees, The Simple Retreat, Dwelling in the Qingbian Mountains. Most of his masterpieces are now located in notable museums around the world, such as the Palace Museum, National Palace Museum, Shanghai Museum, Cleveland Museum of Art and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In 2011, a lesser known work of his from a private collection, titled Zhichuan Resettlement, was sold for 402.5 million yuan at art auction. Lee, Sherman E. A History of Far Eastern Art, Harry N. Abrams Inc. New York, NY Wang Meng and his painting gallery at China Online Museum Landscapes Clear and Radiant: The Art of Wang Hui, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Wang Meng Sung and Yuan paintings, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Wang Meng
Nanjing romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of 6,600 km2 and a total population of 8,270,500 as of 2016. The inner area of Nanjing enclosed by the city wall is Nanjing City, with an area of 55 km2, while the Nanjing Metropolitan Region includes surrounding cities and areas, covering over 60,000 km2, with a population of over 30 million. Situated in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949, has thus long been a major center of culture, research, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world's largest inland ports; the city is one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure, enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only less than that of a province.
Nanjing has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of "Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength" issued by the National Statistics Bureau, second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River Delta. It has been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honor of China, Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honor Award and National Civilized City. Nanjing boasts many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index; the ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers, according to the Nature Index strong in the chemical sciences. Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China.
It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters. Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu, one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the city served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It suffered severe atrocities including the Nanjing Massacre. Nanjing has served as the capital city of Jiangsu province since the establishment of the People's Republic of China, it boasts many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Art Museum; the city has a number of other names, some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city.
When it was the capital of a state, for instance during the ROC, Jing was adopted as the abbreviation of Nanjing. The city first became a Chinese national capital as early as the Jin dynasty; the name Nanjing, which means "Southern Capital", was designated for the city during the Ming dynasty, about six hundred years later. Nanjing is known as Jinling or Ginling and the old name has been used since the Warring States period in the Zhou dynasty. Archaeological discovery shows. Zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing in about 5000 years ago. In the late period of Shang dynasty, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan and established Wu state, the first stop is in Nanjing area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture. According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, King of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng in today's Nanjing area in 495 BC. In 473 BC, the State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the fort of Yuecheng on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate.
In 333 BC, after eliminating the State of Yue, the State of Chu built Jinling Yi in the western part of present-day Nanjing. It was renamed Moling during reign of Qin Shi Huang. Since the city experienced destruction and renewal many times; the area was successively part of Kuaiji and Danyang prefectures in Qin and Han dynasty, part of Yangzhou region, established as the nation's 13 supervisory and administrative regions in the 5th year of Yuanfeng in Han dynasty. Nanjing was the capital city of Danyang Prefecture, had been the capital city of Yangzhou for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang. Nanjing first became a state capital in AD 229, when the state of Eastern
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China through ancestry, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation. Han Chinese, the largest ethnic group in China, at about 92% of the population, are referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English, however there are dozens of other related and unrelated ethnic groups in China. A number of ethnic groups within China, as well as people elsewhere with ancestry in the region, may be referred to as Chinese people. Han Chinese people, the largest ethnic group in China, are referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English; the ethnic Chinese form a majority or notable minority in other countries, may comprise as much as 19% of the global human population. Other ethnic groups in China include the related Hui people or "Chinese Muslims", the Zhuang, Manchu and Miao, who make up the five largest ethnic minorities in mainland China with populations exceeding 10 million. In addition, the Yi, Tujia and Mongols each number populations between six and nine million.
The People's Republic of China recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, many of whom live in the special administrative regions of the country. However, there exists several smaller ethnicities who are "unrecognized" or subsumed as part another ethnic group; the Republic of China recognizes 14 tribes of Taiwanese aborigines, who together with unrecognized tribes comprise about 2% of the country's population. During the Qing dynasty the term "Chinese people" was used by the Qing government to refer to all subjects of the empire, including Han and Mongols. Zhonghua minzu, the "Chinese nation", is a supra-ethnic concept which includes all 56 ethnic groups living in China that are recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China, it includes established ethnic groups who have lived within the borders of China since at least the Qing Dynasty. The term zhonghua minzu was used during the Republic of China from 1911–1949 to refer to a subset of five ethnic groups in China; the term zhongguo renmin, "Chinese people", was the government's preferred term during the life of Mao Zedong.
The Nationality law of the People's Republic of China regulates nationality within the PRC. A person obtains nationality either by birth when at least one parent is of Chinese nationality or by naturalization. All people holding nationality of the People's Republic of China are citizens of the Republic; the Resident Identity Card is the official form of identification for residents of the People's Republic of China. Within the People's Republic of China, a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport or Macao Special Administrative Region passport may be issued to permanent residents of Hong Kong or Macao, respectively; the Nationality law of the Republic of China regulates nationality within the Republic of China. A person obtains nationality either by naturalization. A person with at least one parent, a national of the Republic of China, or born in the ROC to stateless parents qualifies for nationality by birth; the National Identification Card is an identity document issued to people who have household registration in Taiwan.
The Resident Certificate is an identification card issued to residents of the Republic of China who do not hold a National Identification Card. The relationship between Taiwanese nationality and Chinese nationality is disputed. Overseas Chinese refers to people of Chinese ethnicity or national heritage who live outside the People's Republic of China or Taiwan as the result of the continuing diaspora. People with one or more Chinese ancestors may consider themselves overseas Chinese; such people vary in terms of cultural assimilation. In some areas throughout the world ethnic enclaves known as Chinatowns are home to populations of Chinese ancestry. In Southeast Asia, Chinese people call themselves 華人, distinguished from or the citizens of the People's Republic of China or the Republic of China; this is so in the Chinese communities of Southeast Asia. The term Zhongguoren has a more ideological aspect in its use. Chinese Ethnic Minorities The Ranking of Ethnic Chinese Population, Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, Republic of China, archived from the original on 23 November 2013, retrieved 2008-11-02