Kollam district is one of 14 districts of the state of Kerala, India. The district has a cross-section of Kerala's natural attributes; the district has many waterbodies. Kallada river is one among them, the east side land of river is EastKallada and the west side land is WestKallada. Kallada Boat race is one among the famous festival events of district. Though it is a competition between two land sides of the river, many boat clubs from various place,s beyond the district participate in the event. Kollam is the capital of Kerala's cashew industry. Plains, lakes and backwaters, forests and rivers make up the topography of the district; the area had trading relationships with Ancient Rome. Kollam's temperature is steady throughout the year; the average temperature ranges from 25 to 32 degrees Celsius. Summer runs from March until May. Kollam receives an annual average rainfall of around 2,700 millimetres. Kollam receives both northeast monsoons. Winter is from November to February. According to the 2011 census Kollam district has a population of 2,629,703 equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada.
This gives it a ranking of 155th in India. The district has a population density of 1,056 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 1.72 percent. Kollam has a sex ratio of 1113 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 93.77 percent. In 2011 Indian Census Hindu population is 64.42%, Muslim 19.3%, Christian 16%. The Kollam Urban Agglomeration is the 6th most populous UA in the state. Kollam is placed 49th in the list of most populous urban agglomerations in India; the total urban population of the entire district is 1,187,158. The metropolitan area of Kollam includes Adichanalloor, Ayanivelikulangara, Elampalloor, Chengamanadau, Kollam, Kulasekharapuram, Meenad, Neendakara, Panayam, Paravur, Poothakkulam, Thodiyoor, Thrikkaruva and Vadakkumthala The history of the district's administration can be traced back to 1835, when the Travancore state consisted of two revenue divisions with headquarters at Kollam and Kottayam; when Travancore and Cochin were combined into Travancore-Cochin, Kollam was one of the three revenue divisions.
When the state of Kerala was formed in 1957, half portion of Chenkotta taluk was merged with the state of Madras. In 1957, the Cherthala, Mavelikara, Karthikapalli and Thiruvalla taluks were united to form the new district of Alappuzha. In 1983, Pathanamthitta taluk and Adoor taluk and seven villages of Kunnathur taluk were removed from Kollam district to form the new Pathanamthitta district. Police administration in Kollam is divided into two districts: rural; the City Police is headed by a City Police Commissioner, an IPS officer with the rank of SP. The rural police is headed by the Rural Superintendent of Police, with its headquarters at Kottarakkara. Both heads report to the Inspector General of Thiruvananthapuram Range; the Kollam City Police is divided into three subdivisions, each under an Assistant Commissioner of Police: Karunagappally and Chathannoor. Each subdivision is divided into circles, headed by the Circle Inspector of Police; each circle is divided into a number of police stations, headed by a Sub-Inspector of Police.
The Kollam Rural Police District is divided into two subdivisions, each under an Assistant Superintendent of Police / Deputy Superintendent of Police: Kottarakkara and Punalur. There are a total of 29 police stations, in 13 circles. Kollam city traffic is controlled by the City Traffic Police, with a Traffic Police Station located near the Asramam Ground. Kerala's first coastal police station was established in Kollam; the first police museum in India has a large collection of rare photographs. The museum has a room dedicated to officers killed in the line of duty; the forensic section has a large collection of photographs. The museum is located at the Kollam East Police Station. Kollam District now divided into two Revenue Divisions. 1) Kollam Kollam taluk Karunagapally taluk Kunnathur taluk2) Punalur Punalur taluk Kottarakara taluk Pathanapuram taluk Kollam is administratively divided into 6 taluks. They are Kollam, Kunnathur, Kottarakkara and Pathanapuram, which are subdivided into 104 villages.
The tahsildar is the revenue official in charge of each taluk. There are four municipalities in Kollam District. Punalur, Paravur and Kottarakkara are the municipalities. There is a long-standing demand for upgrading Pathanapuram & Anchal panchayaths into municipal status. Kollam district has three Lok Sabha constituencies, they include the Chavara, Eravipuram, Chathannoor and Punalur assembly constituencies. While the Kunnathur and Pathanapuram constituencies are in the Mavelikkara Lok Sabha constituency, the Karunagapally assembly constituency is in the Alappuzha Lok Sabha constituency. Kollam is connected by train service, it is connected to neighbouring states by bus service operated by the Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (K
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
J. Mercykutty Amma
J. Mercykutty Amma is an Indian politician and the Minister for Fisheries,Harbour Engineering,Cashew Industry, she is representing the Kundara constituency in Kerala after winning in the 2016 State Election
Kottarakkara transliterated as Kottarakara, is a vast developing town and municipality in Punalur Revenue Division and Kollam District, in Kerala state, India. The town is close to Kollam Port, which has a rich history linked to the early medieval period as well as a reputation as an important commercial and trading center. Kottarakkara lies 27 kilometres to the east of Kollam city centre. Kottarakkara known in the ancient days of the kings as the Elayadathu Swarupam, was a principality ruled by a branch of the Travancore Royal Family, it is the home of Kathakali, a well known dance drama which originated as Ramanattam created in the 17th century by Prince Kottarakkara Thampuran and patronized by the Raja of Kottarakkara in the early 19th century absorbing other dance forms of Krishnattam with further innovations. Kottarakkara, a compound word made up of the words Kottaram, meaning "palace", kara meaning "land" means "land of palaces"; the area which had several palaces was thus named "Kottarakkara."
Kottarakkara is a small principality close to Kollam. As a taluk headquarters, it has other small towns, it is surrounded by several other towns. Kottarakara Assembly Constituency is one among the 11 assembly constituencies in Kollam district. Adv P. Aisha Potty is the present MLA from Kottarakkara constituency. Kottarakkara comes under Mavelikkara, that represents a large area including Kottarakkara, Changanasseri, spread in Kollam and Kottayam districts. E Chandrasekaran Nair, D. Damodaran Potti, R. Balakrishna Pillai, E. Chandrasekaran Nair, C. Achutha Menon, Kottara Gopalakrishnan and R. Balakrishna Pillai are the former elected members represented Kottarakara Assembly Constituency in the past. NH 208 meets the MC road at Kottarakkara. Kottarakkara is linked with Kollam, both at a distance of 27 km, it is 72 km to 80 km to the south of Kottayam. Kottarakara has one of the Kerala's well connected KSRTC Hub, consist of various services across all the parts of kerala and interstate services. Local routes are connected by private bus services as well as State Transport.
It is well connected to the capital city of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram by KSRTC Fast Passenger, super fast, super deluxe, a/c low floor buses. Buses are ply to the district headquarters of Kollam and Pathanamthitta and to towns in Tamil Nadu like Coimbatore and Sengottai and Daily trips to Mookambika, Bangalore, Ooty, nagercoil, palani. Kottarakara depot of ksrtc is one of the top revenue earning depots of the state. Kottarakara railway station is located on the Kollam-Sengottai railway line. Kottarakara railway station, which connects to Kollam, Ernakulam, Palakkad, Nagercoil, Tirunelveli, Guruvayur and Punalur through the direct passenger, fast passenger and express train services. There are eight pairs of services right now and heard that many more services would be inducted in this route since the Punalur-Schengotta ghat section has been closed for Broad Gauge conversion. Once the conversion is over, this will serve as the shortest route from Kollam to Chennai and from Kollam Port & Cochin Port to Tuticorin Port.
Further, a new line from Chengannur to Thiruvananthapuram via Adoor and Pandalam is awaiting survey. Adoor will become a junction; the nearest airport is Trivandrum International Airport in Thiruvananthapuram. Lalithambika Antharjanam, novelist Veliyam Bharghavan, Former General Secretary, Communist Party of India Kakkanadan, novelist Bobby Kottarakkara, Malayalam actor K. B. Ganesh Kumar and politician -- Murali, Malayalam actor Kottarakkara Sreedharan Nair, actor R. Balakrishna Pillai, Former Minister, MLA, MP and Panchayat President, Chairman of the Kerala Congress. Saikumar, Malayalam actor Salim Yusuf - Physician and epidemiologist. Seventh day Adventist higher Secondary School, Kottarakara Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Kottarakkara St. Mary's Higher Secondary School, Kottarakara Mar Baselios English Medium School, Carmel Residential Senior Secondary School, Kottarakara Mar Gregorios memorial residential public school, Sri Vidyadhiraja Memorial Model HSS, Kottarakara. Govt. Boys' Higher Secondary School, Kottarakara, St. Gregorios High School, College Junction, Kottarakara, St. Gregorios Higher Secondary School, College Junction, Kottarakara Marthoma Girls' Higher Secondary School, Kottarakara St. Gregorios College University Institute of Technology IHRD College of Engineering, Thrikkannamangal MAMHS,Chengamanadu BRM Central School,Chengamanadu Mercy college of Nursing, Valakom Vijaya Nursing College Sree Sankara Sanskrit Vidhyapeedom, Edakkidam Evhss neduvathoor Karikom International Public School - Karikom, Kottarakara Govt.
Highersecondary School, Kottarakara, Marthoma High School, Kottarakara RVHS Higher Secondary School, Kottarakara GLPS,Valakom, Kottarakara GLPS,Panavely, Kottarakara Govt. Highersecondary School, Kottarakara, Govt. LPS,Vettikavala, kottarakkara Sree Narayana Guru Central School, Ezhukone Faifa ice cream's factory is situated in the outskirts of the town Kizhekketheruvu Parankamveettil.
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
Kundara (Assembly constituency)
Kundara is a legislative assembly constituency in Kollam district of Kerala, India. It is one among the 11 assembly constituencies in Kollam district; the constituency was named as Perinad Assembly Constituency. In 1957, it was formed Thrikkadavoor constituency. During the election of 1960, Thrikkadavur was a two-member constituency. In 1967, Kundara constituency was formed by dissolving Thrikkadavur. After the general assembly election held in 1967, P. K. Sukumaran of CPI became the first elected member from Kundara assembly constituency; as per the recent changes on assembly constituency delimitations, Kundara assembly constituency consists of 5 panchayaths from Kollam Taluk including Elampalloor, Nedumpana and Perinad. Panchayaths: 5 Railway stations: 3 Medical college hospital: 1 Government hospitals: 1