Peking opera, or Beijing opera, is the most dominant form of Chinese opera which combines music, vocal performance, mime and acrobatics. It arose in Beijing in the mid-Qing dynasty and became developed and recognized by the mid-19th century; the form was popular in the Qing court and has come to be regarded as one of the cultural treasures of China. Major performance troupes are based in Beijing and Shanghai; the art form is preserved in Taiwan, where it is known as Guójù. It has spread to other regions such as the United States and Japan. Peking opera features four main role types, dan and chou. Performing troupes have several of each variety, as well as numerous secondary and tertiary performers. With their elaborate and colorful costumes, performers are the only focal points on Peking opera's characteristically sparse stage, they use the skills of speech, song and combat in movements that are symbolic and suggestive, rather than realistic. Above all else, the skill of performers is evaluated according to the beauty of their movements.
Performers adhere to a variety of stylistic conventions that help audiences navigate the plot of the production. The layers of meaning within each movement must be expressed in time with music; the music of Peking opera can be divided into èrhuáng styles. Melodies include fixed-tune melodies and percussion patterns; the repertoire of Peking opera includes over 1,400 works, which are based on Chinese history and contemporary life. Traditional Peking opera was denounced as "feudalistic" and "bourgeois" during the Cultural Revolution and replaced with the revolutionary operas as a means of propaganda and indoctrination. After the Cultural Revolution, these transformations were undone. In recent years, Peking opera has attempted numerous reforms in response to sagging audience numbers; these reforms, which include improving performance quality, adapting new performance elements and performing new and original plays, have met with mixed success. "Peking opera" is the English term for the art form. "Beijing opera" is a more recent equivalent.
In China, the art form has been known by many names in different places. The earliest Chinese name, was a combination of the xipi and erhuang melodies; as it increased in popularity, its name became Jingju or Jingxi, which reflected its start in the capital city. From 1927 to 1949, when Beijing was known as Beiping, Peking opera was known as Pingxi or Pingju to reflect this change. With the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the name of the capital city was reverted to Beijing, the formal name of this theatre in Mainland China was established as Jingju; the Taiwanese name for this type of opera, Guoju, or "national drama", reflects disputes over the true seat of the Chinese government. Peking opera was born when the'Four Great Anhui Troupes' brought Hui opera, or what is now called Huiju, in 1790 to Beijing, for the eightieth birthday of the Qianlong Emperor on 25 September, it was staged for the court and only made available to the public later. In 1828, several famous Hubei troupes performed jointly with Anhui troupes.
The combination formed Peking opera's melodies. Peking opera is regarded as having formed by 1845. Although it is called Peking opera, its origins are in the southern Anhui and eastern Hubei, which share the same dialect of Xiajiang Mandarin. Peking opera's two main melodies and Erhuang, were derived from Han Opera after about 1750; the tune of Peking opera is similar to that of Han opera, therefore Han opera is known as the Mother of Peking opera. Xipi means'Skin Puppet Show', referring to the puppet show that originated in Shaanxi province. Chinese puppet shows always involve singing. Much dialogue is carried out in an archaic form of Mandarin Chinese, in which the Zhongyuan Mandarin dialects of Henan and Shaanxi are closest; this form of Mandarin is recorded in the book Zhongyuan Yinyun. It absorbed music from other operas and local Zhili musical art forms; some scholars believe that the Xipi musical form was derived from the historic Qinqiang, while many conventions of staging, performance elements, aesthetic principles were retained from Kunqu, the form that preceded it as court art.
Thus, Peking opera is not a monolithic form, but rather a coalescence of many older forms. However, the new form creates its own innovations; the vocal requirements for all of the major roles were reduced for Peking opera. The Chou, in particular has a singing part in Peking opera, unlike the equivalent role in Kunqu style; the melodies that accompany each play were simplified, are played with different traditional instruments than in earlier forms. Most noticeably, true acrobatic elements were introduced with Peking opera; the form grew in popularity throughout the 19th century. The Anhui troupes reached their peak of excellence in the middle of the century, were invited to perform in the court of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, established during the Taiping Rebellion. Beginning in 1884, the Empress Dowager Cixi became a regular patron of Peking opera, cementing its status over earlier forms like Kunqu; the popularity of Peking opera has been attributed to the simplicity of the form, with only a few voices and singing patterns.
This allowed anyone to sing the arias themselves. At the time of its growth
Cinema of Hong Kong
The cinema of Hong Kong is one of the three major threads in the history of Chinese language cinema, alongside the cinema of China, the cinema of Taiwan. As a former British colony, Hong Kong had a greater degree of political and economic freedom than mainland China and Taiwan, developed into a filmmaking hub for the Chinese-speaking world. For decades, Hong Kong was the third largest motion picture industry in the world and the second largest exporter. Despite an industry crisis starting in the mid-1990s and Hong Kong's return to Chinese sovereignty in July 1997, Hong Kong film has retained much of its distinctive identity and continues to play a prominent part on the world cinema stage. In the West, Hong Kong's vigorous pop cinema has long had a strong cult following, now arguably a part of the cultural mainstream available and imitated. Economically, the film industry together with the value added of cultural and creative industries represents 5 per cent of Hong Kong's economy. Unlike many film industries, Hong Kong has enjoyed little or no direct government support, through either subsidies or import quotas.
It is a commercial cinema: corporate, concentrating on crowd-pleasing genres like comedy and action, relying on formulas and remakes. Hong Kong film derives a number of elements from Hollywood, such as certain genre parameters, a "thrill-a-minute" philosophy and fast pacing and film editing, but the borrowings are filtered through elements from traditional Chinese drama and art a penchant for stylisation and a disregard for Western standards of realism. This, combined with a fast and loose approach to the filmmaking process, contributes to the energy and surreal imagination that foreign audiences note in Hong Kong cinema. In 2010, the box office gross in Hong Kong was HK$1.339 billion and in 2011 it was HK$1.379 billion. There were 56 Hong Kong films and 220 foreign films released in 2011. In 2017, the box office gross was HK$1.85 billion compared with HK$1.95 billion in 2016. 331 films were released in 2017, dropped from 348 the year before. According to McDonald, a star system emerged in Hollywood as talent scouts and publicists were involved with finding performers and making them into stars.
In the vertically integrated Hollywood film industry of the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, these responsibilities were all undertaken by the studios themselves. The studios made the stars and, due to notoriously restrictive terms imposed by exclusive services contracts, the studios owned the stars; as is common in commercial cinema, the industry's heart is a developed star system. In earlier days, beloved performers from the Chinese opera stage brought their audiences with them to the screen. For the past three or four decades, television has been a major launching pad for movie stardom, through acting courses and watched drama and variety series offered by the two major stations. More important is the overlap with the Cantonese pop music industry. Many, if not most, movie stars have recording sidelines, vice versa. In the current commercially troubled climate, the casting of young Cantopop idols to attract the all-important youth audience is endemic. In the small and knit industry, actors are kept busy.
During previous boom periods, the number of movies made by a successful figure in a single year could reach double digits. Films are low-budget when compared with American films. A major release with a big star, aimed at "hit" status, will cost around US$5 million. A low-budget feature can go well below US$1 million. Occasional blockbuster projects by the biggest stars or international co-productions aimed at the global market, can go as high as US$20 million or more, but these are rare exceptions. Hong Kong productions can achieve a level of gloss and lavishness greater than these numbers might suggest, given factors such as lower wages and value of the Hong Kong dollar. Films in the Cantonese language have been made in Hong Kong since the beginning. In the 1950s, it became a center of Mandarin language film making after the Communist takeover in mainland China and the entertainment industry shifted from Shanghai to Hong Kong. From the 1960s to mid-1970s, Mandarin film productions became dominant those made by the Shaw Brothers studio in Hong Kong.
There was a short-lived period whereby Hokkien films were produced in Hong Kong, there were films made in the Teochew dialect. Cantonese films made a comeback in the 1970s, since the 1980s, films have been made in Cantonese. For decades, films were shot silent, with dialogue and all other sound dubbed afterwards. In the hectic and low-budget industry, this method was faster and more cost-efficient than recording live sound when using performers from different dialect regions. Many busy stars would not record their own dialogue, but would be dubbed by a lesser-known performer. Shooting without sound contributed to an improvisatory filmmaking approach. Movies went into production without finished scripts, with scenes and dialogue concocted on the
Yu Jim-yuen was the master of the China Drama Academy, one of the main Peking Opera Schools in Hong Kong from which Jackie Chan, Sammo Hung, Yuen Biao, Yuen Qiu, Yuen Wah, Corey Yuen received their training. He was the father of early wuxia actress Yu So-chow, who appeared in more than 150 movies, but his only film was The Old Master, in 1979, as Wen Ren-yang, he died of a heart attack in Los Angeles, United States. In 1988, the film Painted Faces was released; the story dealt with the lives of the children in the China Drama Academy, Sammo Hung played the part of Master Yu. Peking Opera School Beijing opera Yu Jim Yuen on IMDb The Old Master
The Big Boss
The Big Boss is a 1971 Hong Kong martial arts action film written and directed by Lo Wei, with assistance from Bruce Lee, was Lee's first major film. It stars Maria Yi, James Tien and Tony Liu. Written for Tien, the leading role was given to Lee instead when the film's original director, Ng Kar-seung, was replaced by Lo; the film was a critical success and excelled at the box office. Lee's strong performance overshadowed Tien a star in Hong Kong, made Bruce Lee famous across Asia. Cheng Chao-an is a Chinese man who moves to Thailand to live with his adopted family and work in an ice factory, he meets his cousin Hsu Chien and Hsu's younger brother by accident when Hsu Chien stands up to local street thugs. Cheng refrains from getting involved, as he swore to his mother to never participate in any fighting, he wears a jade amulet around his neck as a reminder of his pledge. Cheng begins his work at the ice factory; when an ice block is accidentally broken, a bag of white powder falls out. Two of Cheng's cousins pick up the bag and are told to see the manager that night.
The factory is a front for a drug smuggling ring led by Hsiao Mi. When Cheng's cousins refuse to join them, the manager sends his thugs to kill them and dispose of their bodies, thereby keeping the secret safe. Hsu Chien and another cousin go to Hsiao's compound to find out. Hsu threatens to go to the police. Hsiao sets his gang on the duo as a result, they are killed; when the workers at the ice factory learn that Hsu is missing as well, they start a riot, which leads to a brawl with the hired thugs. During the chaos, one of the thugs accidentally breaks Cheng's amulet. Enraged, Cheng beats some of the thugs, causing them to flee immediately. To cool down the tensions, the ice factory manager makes Cheng a foreman, inviting him to a dinner that night; this causes much unease for Cheng's family and friends, who believe that Cheng is growing arrogant and spending more time reveling in his new position than helping to look for their brothers. They grow to resent him, all except Chiao Mei. Cheng gets drunk at the dinner party and is seduced by Sun Wu Man, a prostitute who attended the dinner.
She warns Cheng that his life is in danger and reveals that Hsiao Mi is running a drug trafficking operation. After Cheng leaves, Hsiao's son, Hsiao Chiun, sneaks in and kills Sun by throwing a knife at her heart. Cheng breaks into the factory and first finds the drugs before discovering a hand, the head of Sun, the head of Hsu Chien in the iceblocks, he is surrounded by a group of his men. Cheng fights his way out, killing many gangsters in the process, he returns home to find that his remaining family members have been murdered, while Chiao Mei has gone missing. Mourning his loss by a river, he vows to exact his revenge at all costs if it means breaking his oath of non-violence. Cheng subsequently storms Hsiao Mi's mansion to fight his men. Meanwhile, one of Hsiao Mi's disgruntled slaves frees Chiao Mei, being held hostage by Hsiao Mi in a different compound, she runs away to get help from the Thai police. Cheng kills Hsiao Mi after a fierce fight. Once he knows that Chiao Mei is safe, he surrenders to the Thai police when they arrive at the mansion.
Bruce Lee as Cheng Chao-an, a young man who, along with his uncle, travels from Guangdong, China to Pak Chong, Thailand to stay with his cousins. Before departing, he swore an oath to his mother to not get into any fights while staying in Pak Chong; this is made legitimate by Cheng wearing his mother's jade amulet necklace to serve as a reminder to that oath he swore. Maria Yi as Chiao Mei, a typical "damsel in distress", she is Cheng's only female cousin. James Tien as Cousin Hsu Chien, a martial artist who gets into fights with the local gangs. Nora Miao as a local cold drinks vendor Lee Kwan as Cousin Ah Kun Han Ying-chieh as Hsiao Mi owner of an ice factory, a front for his drug dealing. Tony Liu as Hsiao Chiun, Hsiao Mi's son Kam San as Cousin Ah Shan Ricky Chik as Cousin Ah Chen Li Hua Sze as Cousin Ah Wong Malarin Boonak as Miss Wu Man Chan Chue as the ice factory manager Chom as the ice factory foreman Billy Chan Wui-ngai as Cousin Ah Pei Lam Ching-ying as Cousin Ah Yen Tu Chia-Cheng as Uncle Liu, Cheng's uncle Peter Chan Lung as Hsiao Mi's henchman The four years following the cancellation of The Green Hornet was a difficult and frustrating time for Bruce Lee.
In 1970, he was incapacitated for several months after damaging a sacral nerve in his lower back while weightlifting. Money became tight as roles in Hollywood proved hard to come by, wife Linda had to work evenings at an answering service to help pay the bills. Bruce was still keen to develop film and TV projects in Hollywood, but Warner Bros. was reluctant to accept a TV script project he had developed, production on The Silent Flute had to be suspended indefinitely after a three-week trip to India with James Coburn and Stirling Silliphant to scout locations for the movie proved unproductive. In light of these recent events, Coburn suggested to Bruce that he try his luck in the growing Hong Kong film industry."In spring 1970, Bruce paid a visit to Hong Kong with his young son Brandon. Unbeknownst to Bruce, he had become famous
Li Lianjie, better known by his stage name Jet Li, is a Chinese film actor, film producer, martial artist, retired Wushu champion, born in Beijing. He is a naturalized Singaporean citizen. After three years of training with acclaimed Wushu teacher Wu Bin, Li won his first national championship for the Beijing Wushu Team. After retiring from competitive Wushu at age 19, he went on to win great acclaim in China as an actor, making his debut with the film Shaolin Temple, he went on to star in many critically acclaimed martial arts epic films, most notably as the lead in Zhang Yimou's Hero, Fist of Legend, the first three films in the Once Upon a Time in China series, in which he portrayed folk hero Wong Fei-hung. Li's first role in a non-Chinese film was as a villain in Lethal Weapon 4, his first leading role in a Hollywood film was as Han Sing in Romeo Must Die, he has gone on to star in many international action films, including in French cinema with the Luc Besson-produced films Kiss of the Dragon and Unleashed.
He co-starred in The One and War with Jason Statham, The Forbidden Kingdom with Jackie Chan, all three of The Expendables films with Sylvester Stallone, as the title character villain in The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor. Li was born in Beijing and was the youngest of two boys and two girls; when he was two years old, his father died and his family lived in poverty. Li was eight, he attended a non-sparring wushu event, followed by joining the Beijing Wushu Team which did a martial art display at the All China Games. Renowned coaches Li Junfeng and Wu Bin, made extra efforts to help the talented boy develop. Wu Bin bought food for Li's family because they could not afford to buy meat, essential for an athletes physical condition. A young Li competed against adults, in the Chinese Wushu Championships and won fifteen gold medals and one silver medal. My winning first place caused quite a sensation. I was 12 years old, the other two medalists were in their mid- to late twenties. During the awards ceremony, as I stood on the top step of the podium, I was still shorter than the 2nd and 3rd place medalists.
It must have been quite a sight. According to Li, once, as a child, when the Chinese National Wushu Team went to perform for President Richard Nixon in the United States, he was asked by Nixon to be his personal bodyguard. Li replied, "I don't want to protect any individual; when I grow up, I want to defend my one billion Chinese countrymen!"Li is a master of several styles of wushu Chángquán and Fānziquán. He has studied other arts including Baguazhang, Xing Yi Quan, Zui Quan, Ying Zhao Quan and Tanglangquan, he did not learn Nanquan. He has mastered wushu's main weapons, such as Sanjiegun, Gùn, Jian. Jet Li's martial arts prowess contributed to his international fame; the fame gained by his sports winnings led to a career as a martial arts film star, beginning in mainland China and continuing into Hong Kong. Li acquired his screen name in 1982 in the Philippines when a publicity company thought his real name was too hard to pronounce, they likened his career to an aircraft, which "takes-off" as so they placed the name Jet Li on the movie posters.
Soon everybody was calling him by this new name, based on the nickname, "Jet," given to him as a young student, due to his speed and grace when training with the Beijing Wushu team. He made his debut with the 1982 film Shaolin Temple; some of his more famous Chinese films include: The Shaolin Temple series, which are considered to be the films which sparked the rebirth of the real Shaolin Temple in Dengfeng, China. Fist of Legend, a remake of Bruce Lee's Fist of Fury; the Fong Sai Yuk films about another Chinese folk hero. Li starred in the 1995 film High Risk, where Jet Li plays a Captain who becomes disillusioned after his wife is murdered by crime lords. Along the way, he pairs up with a wacky sell-out actor and proceeds to engage in a series of violent battles in a high-rise building; the setting is similar to both their Chinese film titles. This movie is notable in that director Wong Jing had such a terrible experience working with Jackie Chan in Jing's previous film City Hunter that he chose to make Cheung's character a biting satire of Chan.
Jet Li would publicly apologise to Chan for taking part in it. Li had two wuxia feature films released in 2011, The Sorcerer and the White Snake and Flying Swords of Dragon Gate. To promote tai chi, in 2012 Jet Li starred in a film titled Tai Chi and co-produced the movie with Chen Kuo-Fu. Li portrayed Tai Chi master Yang Luchan. In 1998, he made his American film debut in Lethal Weapon 4 which marked the first time he had played a villain in a film, he agreed to do Lethal Weapon 4 after the producer Joel Silver promised to give him the leading role in his next film, Romeo Must Die, alongside late singer Aaliyah. The film became. Though Li spoke little English at the time of production, his performance as Chinese mafia hi
Ip Man (film series)
Ip Man is a series of Hong Kong biographical martial arts films starting with Ip Man in 2008 and followed by three sequels – Ip Man 2, Ip Man 3 and Ip Man 4. All four films are directed by Wilson Yip, written by Edmond Wong, produced by Raymond Wong and star Donnie Yen. Mandarin Films released the first two films in Hong Kong, which earned more than $37 million with a budget of around $24.6 million. The films are based on the life events of the Wing Chun master of the same name. Donnie Yen has mentioned each film has a unique theme, that the first Ip Man film was about "Survival", Ip Man 2 focuses on "Making a Living and Adaptation", while Ip Man 3 focuses on "Life" itself. Ip Man was written by Edmond Wong, it was Raymond Wong's idea to develop a biographical film about Wing Chun master Ip Man. Principal photography ended in August; the film was released in Hong Kong on 18 December 2008 by Mandarin Films, earned around US$21.8 million against the US$11.7 million budget. Donnie Yen portrayed the role of Ip Man in the film, set in the 1930s, focuses on events in Ip's life in the city of Foshan during the Sino-Japanese War.
The sequel is set in the 1950s, when Ip Man moved to Hong Kong and attempts to promote Wing Chun in the region. It was intended to focus on his most famed disciple Bruce Lee; the film was directed by Yip and written by Edmond Wong, while Raymond Wong produced the film and was released in Hong Kong on 29 April 2010 by Mandarin Films. The film grossed more than $50 million against the budget of $12.9 million. Principal photography began in Shanghai on 25 March 2015, which Yip is again directing the film based on the script by Wong. Donnie Yen is again portraying the role of Ip Man, along with him Mike Tyson is playing a role of a street fighter. Bruce Lee's character was supposed to be featured in CGI, because the producers could not find an actor who could portray Lee convincingly, but Danny Chan was cast in the role. Principal photography for Ip Man 3 began on 25 March 2015, the film was released in Hong Kong on 24 December 2015. Max Zhang reprises his role as Cheung Tin Chi from Ip Man 3 in this spin-off film.
Directed by Yuen Woo-ping, it stars Tony Jaa, Dave Bautista and Michelle Yeoh. On 30 September 2016, Yen announced via Facebook that he and Wilson Yip would continue the franchise with Ip Man 4. Filming began in 2018; the film will take place in the 1960s, will see Ip Man travelling to the United States to work with Bruce Lee after the latter decides to open a Wing Chun school in Seattle. The trailer for Ip Man 4 came out on March 18, 2019 and Donnie Yen will be fighting against Scott Adkins. Ip Man Trilogy, a Blu-ray compilation that features the first three films in the series, was released by Well Go USA in November 2016; the Blu-ray includes special features such as deleted scenes, "behind-the-scenes" featurette and interviews with Donnie Yen and Mike Tyson. The Grandmaster Ip Man: The Final Fight The Legend Is Born: Ip Man
History of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, recorded as the twenty-first Shang king by the written records of Shang dynasty unearthed. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia; the Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River; these Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization; the Zhou dynasty supplanted the Shang, introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule.
The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, the country splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture and philosophy first developed during those troubled times. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty. Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history and philosophy, were selected through difficult government examinations.
China's last dynasty was the Qing, replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949, resulting in two de facto states claiming to be the legitimate government of all China. Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War. China was dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China. Traditional culture, influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world, form the basis of the modern culture of China. What is now China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than a million years ago. Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated to 1.36 million years ago. The archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxi Province has evidence of use of fire by Homo erectus, dated 1.27 million years ago, Homo erectus fossils in China include the Yuanmou Man, the Lantian Man and the Peking Man.
Fossilised teeth of Homo sapiens dating to 125,000–80,000 BC have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County in Hunan. Evidence of Middle Palaeolithic Levallois technology has been found in the lithic assemblage of Guanyindong Cave site in southwest China, dated to 170,000–80,000 years ago; the Neolithic age in China can be traced back to about 10,000 BC. The earliest evidence of cultivated rice, found by the Yangtze River, is carbon-dated to 8,000 years ago. Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is radiocarbon-dated to about 7000 BC. Farming gave rise to the Jiahu culture. At Damaidi in Ningxia, 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6000–5000 BC have been discovered, "featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, stars and scenes of hunting or grazing"; these pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BC, Dadiwan from 5800 BC to 5400 BC, Damaidi around 6000 BC and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BC.
Some scholars have suggested. Excavation of a Peiligang culture site in Xinzheng county, found a community that flourished in 5,500 to 4,900 BC, with evidence of agriculture, constructed buildings and burial of the dead. With agriculture came increased population, the ability to store and redistribute crops, the potential to support specialist craftsmen and administrators. In late Neolithic times, the Yellow River valley began to establish itself as a center of Yangshao culture, the first villages were founded. Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture, centered on the Yellow River from about 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Bronze artifacts have been found at the Majiayao culture site, The Bronze Age is represented at the Lower Xiajiadian culture site in northeast China. Sanxingdui located in what is now Sichuan province is believed to be the site of a major ancient city, of a unknown Bronze Age culture; the site was first discovered in 1929 and re-dis