Ragnar Östberg was a Swedish architect, best known for designing Stockholm City Hall. Östberg was born in 1866 in Stockholm. Scharinska villan in Umeå in north Sweden is considered one of Östberg's best works during his youth.Östberg has become the most famous architect within the so-called "national romanticist" movement in Sweden. His body of work from the period range from public buildings, such as Stockholm City Hall, to mansions for influential families at the turn of the century, such as Scharinska villan or Nedre Manilla, built for the Bonnier family. Nedre Manilla, Djurgården, Stockholm Villa Ekarne, Djurgården, Stockholm Villa Pauli, Djursholm Scharinska villan, Umeå Aschanska villan, Umeå Teaterhuset, Umeå Prinsvillan, Danderyd Östermalms läroverk, "Östra Real", Stockholm Patent- och registeringsverket, Stockholm Stockholm City Hall Krematorium, Helsingborg Riksbron, Stockholm The rebuilt palace on the islet of Strömsborg Värmlands nation in Uppsala The Stagnelius School, Kalmar The Museum of Maritime History in Stockholm The Zorn Museum in Mora Cornell, Ragnar Östberg - en svensk arkitekt Söderberg, Svenska Män och Kvinnor del 8 Thelaus, Ragnar Östbergs byggnader i Umeå Monterumisi, Ragnar Östberg – Villa Geber, una casa nell’arcipelago.
Ediz. Italian and Swedish, In Edibus, Vicenza, ISBN 978-8897221517
The Swedish Empire was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries. The beginning of the Empire is taken as the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, who ascended the throne in 1611, its end as the loss of territories in 1721 following the Great Northern War. After the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, the empire was controlled for lengthy periods by part of the high nobility, such as the Oxenstierna family, acting as regents for minor monarchs; the interests of the high nobility contrasted with the uniformity policy. In territories acquired during the periods of de facto noble rule, serfdom was not abolished, there was a trend to set up respective estates in Sweden proper; the Great Reduction of 1680 put an end to these efforts of the nobility and required them to return estates once gained from the crown to the king. Serfdom, remained in force in the dominions acquired in the Holy Roman Empire and in Swedish Estonia, where a consequent application of the uniformity policy was hindered by the treaties by which they were gained.
After the victories in the Thirty Years' War, Sweden reached the climax of the great-power era during the Second Northern War, when its primary adversary, was neutralized by the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. However, in the further course of this war, as well as in the subsequent Scanian War, Sweden was able to maintain her empire only with the support of her closest ally, France. Charles XI of Sweden consolidated the empire, but a decline began with his son, Charles XII. After initial Swedish victories, Charles secured the empire for some time in the Peace of Travendal and the Treaty of Altranstädt, before the disaster that followed the king's war in Russia; the Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava put an end to Sweden's eastbound expansion, by the time of Charles XII's death in 1718 only a much-weakened and far smaller territory remained. The last traces of occupied continental territory vanished during the Napoleonic Wars, Finland went to Russia in 1809. In older Swedish history telling, Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII were heroic warriors.
Sweden emerged as a great European power under King Gustavus Adolphus. As a result of acquiring territories seized from Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as well as its involvement in the Thirty Years' War, Sweden found itself transformed into the leader of Protestantism. During the Thirty Years' War, Sweden managed to conquer half of the member states of the Holy Roman Empire; the fortunes of war would shift forth several times. After its defeat in the Battle of Nördlingen, confidence in Sweden among the Swedish-controlled German states was damaged, several of the provinces refused further Swedish military support, leaving Sweden with only a couple of northern German provinces. After France intervened on the same side as Sweden, fortunes shifted again; as the war continued, the civilian and military death toll grew, when it was over, it had led to severe depopulation in the German states. Although exact population estimates do not exist, historians estimate that the population of the Holy Roman Empire fell by one-third as a result of the war.
Sweden founded overseas colonies, principally in the New World. New Sweden was founded in the valley of the Delaware River in 1638, Sweden laid claim to a number of Caribbean islands. A string of Swedish forts and trading posts was constructed along the coast of West Africa as well, but these were not designed for Swedish settlers. At the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War, the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 granted Sweden territories as war reparations. Sweden demanded Silesia, Pomerania (which had been in its possession since the Treaty of Stettin, a war indemnity of 20,000,000 Riksdaler. Through the efforts of Johan Oxenstierna and Johan Adler Salvius it obtained: Swedish Pomerania, the Swedish share of the former Duchy of Pomerania since the Treaty of Stettin, consisting of Western Pomerania, with the islands of Rügen and Wollin, as well as the towns of Stettin and Stralsund; these German possessions were to be held as fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire. This allowed Sweden a vote in the Imperial Diet and enabled it to "direct" the Lower Saxon Circle alternately with Brandenburg.
France and Sweden, became joint guarantors of the treaty with the Holy Roman Emperor and were entrusted with carrying out its provisions, as enacted by the executive congress of Nuremberg in 1650. After the peaces of Brömsebro and Westphalia, Sweden was the third-largest area of control in Europe by land area, only surpassed by Russia and Spain. Sweden reached its largest territorial extent during this time under the rule of Charles X Gustav after the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658; as a result of eighteen years of war, Sweden gained small and scattered possessions, but had secured control of three principal rivers in northern Germany—the Oder, the Elbe and the Weser—and gained toll-collection rights for those important commercial arteries. Two principal reasons for the small reparations were Queen Christina's impatience; as a result of Sweden's intervention, Swede
Karlbergskanalen is a canal in western central Stockholm, Sweden. Separating the island of Kungsholmen from the northern municipality Solna, it connects Ulvsundasjön to Karlbergssjön and thus forms the westernmost part of the nameless body of water which separates Kungsholmen from the northern city districts Vasastaden and Norrmalm. Two bridges are stretching over the canal: Modest in size Ekelundsbron, offering a maximum vertical clearance of 5.1 m, is over-shadowed by the forest of massive concrete pillars and wide roadways of the Essingeleden motorway passing high above the idyllic rural scenery below. Karlbergskanalen is surrounded by green spaces. Much of the character of the northern shore is dependent of the park of the nearby Karlberg Palace and the recreational space surrounding it. Along the southern shore is a walk continuing all the way to the Stockholm City Hall more than 2 km away. Parts of the residential buildings in the Stadshagen district is located next to the canal together with allotment gardens and a few older buildings, including the small but charming Mariedal palace built as a private residence in 1849.
Coordinates are: 59°20′24″N 18°08′52″E. Dug in 1832–1833, the canal was made 600 ell in length and 6 feet in depth. During the first decade, less than 400 ships and barges, some 4,000 rowing boats annually found use for it; the remain of the watercourse was dredged during the 1840s and the entire canal subsequently deepened during the 1860s to between 2.97–5.94 metres. The first primitive swing bridge was replaced until 1909 by a new steel swing bridge, still operated manually until replaced by a static concrete bridge in the 1950s. Geography of Stockholm "Fasta broar i Stockholm och skärgården". Sjöfartverket. 2007-11-06. Retrieved 2008-01-04. Arnholm, Bosse. "Karlbergskanalen: Från Ulvsundasjön till Karlbergssjön". Retrieved 2008-01-04. "Vattenprogram för Stockholm 2000 - Karlbergskanalen — Klara Sjö". Stockholm Vatten. Retrieved 2008-01-04. "Karlbergs-Bros Koloniförening - Historia". Karlbergs-Bros Koloniförening. Archived from the original on 2011-10-02. Retrieved 2008-01-04. Stockholmskällan - Aerial image of the area in 1898
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site consisting of buildings and machinery, or more a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another. Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules, fewer than a dozen workers have been called "glorified workshops". Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production. Large factories tend to be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some having rail and water loading and unloading facilities. Factories may either make discrete products or some type of material continuously produced such as chemicals and paper, or refined oil products. Factories manufacturing chemicals are called plants and may have most of their equipment – tanks, pressure vessels, chemical reactors and piping – outdoors and operated from control rooms.
Oil refineries have most of their equipment outdoors. Discrete products may be final consumer goods, or parts and sub-assemblies which are made into final products elsewhere. Factories may make them from raw materials. Continuous production industries use heat or electricity to transform streams of raw materials into finished products; the term mill referred to the milling of grain, which used natural resources such as water or wind power until those were displaced by steam power in the 19th century. Because many processes like spinning and weaving, iron rolling, paper manufacturing were powered by water, the term survives as in steel mill, paper mill, etc. Max Weber considered production during ancient times as never warranting classification as factories, with methods of production and the contemporary economic situation incomparable to modern or pre-modern developments of industry. In ancient times, the earliest production limited to the household, developed into a separate endeavour independent to the place of inhabitation with production at that time only beginning to be characteristic of industry, termed as "unfree shop industry", a situation caused under the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh, with slave employment and no differentiation of skills within the slave group comparable to modern definitions as division of labour.
According to translations of Demosthenes and Herodotus, Naucratis was a, or the only, factory in the entirety of ancient Egypt. A source of 1983, states the largest factory production in ancient times was of 120 slaves within 4th century BC Athens. An article within the New York Times article dated 13 October 2011 states: "In African Cave, Signs of an Ancient Paint Factory" –... discovered at Blombos Cave, a cave on the south coast of South Africa where 100,000-year-old tools and ingredients were found with which early modern humans mixed an ochre-based paint. Although The Cambridge Online Dictionary definition of factory states: a building or set of buildings where large amounts of goods are made using machines elsewhere:... the utilization of machines presupposes social cooperation and the division of labour The first machine is stated by one source to have been traps used to assist with the capturing of animals, corresponding to the machine as a mechanism operating independently or with little force by interaction from a human, with a capacity for use with operation the same on every occasion of functioning.
The wheel was invented c. 3000 BC, the spoked wheel c. 2000 BC. The Iron Age began 1200–1000 BC. However, other sources define machinery as a means of production. Archaeology provides a date for the earliest city as 5000 BC as Tell Brak, therefore a date for cooperation and factors of demand, by an increased community size and population to make something like factory level production a conceivable necessity. According to one text the water-mill was first made in 555 A. D. by Belisarius, although according to another they were known to Pliny the Elder and Vitruvius in the first century B. C. By the time of the 4th century A. D. mills with a capacity to grind 3 tonnes of cereal an hour, a rate sufficient to meet the needs of 80,000 persons, were in use by the Roman Empire. The Venice Arsenal provides one of the first examples of a factory in the modern sense of the word. Founded in 1104 in Venice, Republic of Venice, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, it mass-produced ships on assembly lines using manufactured parts.
The Venice Arsenal produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16,000 people. One of the earliest factories was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721. By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins and other goods. Housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood in Staffordshire and Matthew Boulton at his Soho Manufactory were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system; the factory system began widespread use somewhat when cotton spinning was mechanized. Richard Arkwright is the person credited with inventing the prototype of the modern factory. After he patented his water frame in 1769, he established Cromford Mill, in Derbyshire, England expanding the village of Cromford to accommodate the migrant workers new to the area; the factory system was a new way of organizing labour made necessary by the developm
Västerbron is an arch bridge in central Stockholm, Sweden. With a total length exceeding 600 m, 340 m of which stretches over water, it is one of the major bridges in Stockholm, offering one of the most panoramic views of the central part of the city centering on Gamla stan, the old town, its inauguration on 20 November 1935 made it the second stationary connection between the southern and northern parts of the city, saving the citizens the effort of a ferry ride, required, or the congested detour through Gamla stan. Västerbron can be said to consist of three sections: Västerbron over Riddarfjärden - with two spans stretching over Riddarfjärden. Västerbron over Pålsundet - a simple arch bridge stretching over Pålsundet. Västerbron over Rålambshovsparken - a girderless floor construction stretching from Västerbroplan over Rålambshovsparken to Drottningsholmsvägen near Fridhemsplan; this is the section most Stockholmers would call "Västerbron proper". It consists of two arches together encompassing more than 600 m, including the viaducts in either side.
The southern arch next to Långholmen has a span of 204 m and, stretching over the navigable passage underneath, a vertical clearance of 26 m. The northern arch is smaller with a span of 168 m; this section is 24 m wide with a 19-metre-wide roadway flanked by 2.5-metre-wide pavements, dimensions applying to the other sections as well. Known as Pålsundsbron, this section stretches over 276 m, including viaducts, forming the southern arch leading over Pålsundet from Södermalm to Långholmen, it was built at the same time as Västerbron over Riddarfjärden and forms a continuous structure with it, both bridges having the same width and being made in steel. It was the first major bridge in Sweden with a welded steel superstructure. Two much smaller bridges allow cars and pedestrians to reach Långholmen, where the former Långholmen prison area have been transformed into a popular recreational area; the space under the bridge is being used for parked trailers in summer while acting as winter quarters for boats during the dark season.
With its west-eastern direction this section stretches some 243 m over the parc Rålambshovsparken from the roundabout at Västerbroplan to Drottningholmsvägen, the major traffic route leading to the western suburbs. This section was suggested as an embankment cutting the park in two with only a small bridge leading over Rålambshovsleden below; because of the poor carrying capacity of the soil the embankment plans were substituted by the present concrete structure, a girderless slab carried by pillars. The first proposal for a bridge connecting Kungsholmen with Långholmen was made in 1903 when plans to relocate the main northern railway passing through Stockholm to the west of the central city were discussed; the proposal focused on a railway bridge however and, as the traffic in Stockholm at the time hardly could motivate a bridge of such dimensions, proposing a road-rail bridge was meant to emphasize the technical feasibility of such a bridge. The project was not mentioned again before the 1920s.
The relocation of the railway was brought up again and in 1925 three alternative designs for a road-rail bridge were produced, with a street bridge passing alternatively to the east, to the west, or above the railway. While most agreed the southern part of the bridge should connect with Långholmsgatan on Södermalm passing over Långholmen, the connection to Kungsholmen gave several possibilities. Before settling the present location with the northern end of the bridge landing on Rålambshov, two other alternatives were considered. A sunken rock north of the navigable course in Riddarfjärden, appropriate for a bridge foundation convinced the city council to commission the port authorities to launch an international competition for a bridge passing over the rock; the competition produced no less than 72 different designs, including arch bridges, girder bridges, cable bridges. Winner of the competition in 1930 was the German team of the architects Otto Rudolf Salvisberg, Wilhelm Büning and Wilhelm Maelzer.
The final design was approved by the city in 1931. Västerbron was built to the modern traffic centre at Slussen and while the bridge was being built many people were wondering, supposed to use it, believing its peripheral situation would prevent it from attracting any users. However, after only a year more than 12,000 cars used the bridge daily and before 1955 that number had increased fourfold using up all the capacity the bridge could offer. In 1955-56 the bridge was broadened 2 m; the increasing traffic following WWII continued to strain the capacity of Västerbron. Much of the north-southern traffic flow through the old city centre remained confined to the bridge until the inauguration in 1966 of Essingeleden, the motorway running parallel to Västerbron about 1.5 km to the west. Today Västerbron is still acting as a reserve when Essingeleden is being closed off for repair and other reasons. From its opening Västerbron was an important passageway of Stockholm’s tram network until the last four lines of the network, one of them line 4 crossed over Västerbron, was closed in September 1967 with the switch to right-hand side traffic.
In August 1993 a JAS 39 Gripen fighter aircraft crashed on Långholmen only a few meters from the bridge after a low altitude, low speed manoeuvre during an air show. The pilot ejected safely and only one person on the ground was injured
Stockholm City Hall
The Stockholm City Hall is the building of the Municipal Council for the City of Stockholm in Sweden. It stands on the eastern tip of Kungsholmen island, next to Riddarfjärden's northern shore and facing the islands of Riddarholmen and Södermalm, it houses offices and conference rooms as well as ceremonial halls, the luxury restaurant Stadshuskällaren. It is one of Stockholm's major tourist attractions. In 1907 the city council decided to build a new city hall at the former site of Eldkvarn. An architectural contest was held which in the first stage resulted in the selection of drafts by Ragnar Östberg, Carl Westman, Ivar Tengbom jointly with Ernst Torulf, Carl Bergsten. After a further competition between Westman and Östberg the latter was assigned to the construction of the City Hall, while the former was asked to construct Stockholm Court House. Östberg modified his original draft using elements of Westman's project, including the tower. During the construction period, Östberg reworked his plans, resulting in the addition of the lantern on top of the tower, the abandonment of the blue glazed tiles for the Blue Hall.
Oskar Asker was employed as construction leader and Paul Toll, of the construction company Kreuger & Toll, designed the foundations. Georg Greve assisted in preparing the plans; the construction took twelve years, from 1911 to 1923. Nearly eight million red bricks were used; the dark red bricks, called "munktegel" because of their traditional use in the construction of monasteries and churches, were provided by Lina brick factory near Södertälje. Construction was carried out by craftsmen using traditional techniques; the building was inaugurated on 23 June 1923 400 years after Gustav Vasa's arrival in Stockholm. Verner von Heidenstam and Hjalmar Branting delivered the inaugurational speeches; the site, adjacent to Stadshusbron, being bordered by the streets of Hantverkargatan and Norr Mälarstrand to the north and west, the shore of Riddarfjärden to the south and east, allowed for a spacious layout. The building follows a rectangular ground plan, it is built around two open spaces, a piazza called Borgargården on the eastern side, the Blue Hall to the west.
The Blue Hall, with its straight walls and arcades, incorporates elements of a representative courtyard. Its walls are in fact without blue decorations, but it has kept its name after Östberg's original design, it is known as the dining hall used for the banquet held after the annual Nobel Prize award ceremony. The organ in the Blue Hall is with its 10,270 pipes the largest in Scandinavia. Above the Blue Hall lies the Golden Hall, named after the decorative mosaics made of more than 18 million tiles; the mosaics make use of motifs from Swedish history. They were executed by the Berlin, firm of Puhl & Wagner, after nine years of negotiations by Gottfried Heinersdorff for the commission; the southeast corner of the building adjacent to the shore, is marked by a monumental tower crowned by the Three Crowns, an old national symbol for Sweden. The tower is accessible by an elevator or by a stair of 365 steps; the eastern side of its base is decorated with a gold-plated cenotaph of Birger Jarl. Stadshuset is considered one of Sweden's foremost examples of national romanticism in architecture.
The unique site, overlooking Riddarfjärden, inspired a central motif of the construction, namely the juxtaposition of city architecture and water that represents a central feature of Stockholm's cityscape as a whole. The architectural style is one of refined eclecticism, blending massive, North European brick construction and playful elements reminiscent of oriental and venetian architecture, such as turrets adorned with golden starlets, decorated balconies, wooden masts, statues; the small park between the building and Lake Mälaren's shore is adorned with several sculptures, among them Carl Eldh's ensemble representing the three artists August Strindberg, Gustaf Fröding and Ernst Josephson, as well as Eldh's bronze sculptures "Sången" and "Dansen". To the south-east of the City Hall, facing Riddarholmen, is a pillar 20 meters tall with a statue of Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson on top. Geography of Stockholm Stockholm Court House Media related to Stockholm City Hall at Wikimedia Commons Stockholm City: Official city hall pages CityMayors.com: Stockholm City Hall Stockholm360.net: Virtual Tour of Stockholm City Hall — with 360 x 180 degree panoramas
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but from violence and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945. A war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European great powers; these states employed large mercenary armies, the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence. The war was preceded by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples.
The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose, granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much more intolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the Protestant city of Prague. Ferdinand's policies were considered pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant; these events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Defenestration of Prague deposed the Emperor's representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war; the Protestant Bohemians ousted the Habsburgs and elected the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Frederick took the offer without the support of the Protestant Union.
The southern states Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor; the Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after. Protestant rulers across Europe unanimously condemned the Emperor's action. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony gave its support to the Protestant Union and decided to fight back. Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe. Habsburg Spain, wishing to crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs.
The Thirty Years' War devastated entire regions, resulting in high mortality among the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, the Southern Netherlands. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories; the war bankrupted most of the combatant powers. The Dutch Republic enjoyed contrasting fortune; the Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. The war altered the previous political order of European powers; the rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and dominant in the latter part of the 17th century. The Peace of Augsburg, signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the Diet of Speyer, ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, establishing that: Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion of their realms.
Subjects had to follow that emigrate. Prince-bishoprics and other states ruled by Catholic clergy were excluded and should remain Catholic. Prince-bishops who converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories. Lutherans could keep the territory they had taken from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau in 1552. Although the Peace of Augsburg created a temporary end to hostilities, it did not resolve the underlying religious conflict, made yet more complex by the spread of Calvinism throughout Germany in the years that followed; this added a third major faith to the region, but its position was not recognized in any way by the Augsburg terms, to which only Catholicism and Lutheranism were parties. The rulers of the nations neighboring the Holy Roman Empir