Lulusar is group of mountain peaks and a lake in the Kaghan Valley in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The highest peak has a height of 11,200 ft above sea level. Lulusar Lake known as Lulusir is a lake at 3,410 m, is the primary headwaters of the Kunhar River, it flows southwest through the entire length of Kaghan Valley passing Jalkhand, Kaghan, Jared and Balakot until its confluence with the Jhelum River. It is accessible by any kind of vehicle. Lulusar-Dudipatsar National Park Lake Saiful Muluk - Kaghan Valley Dudipatsar Lake - Kaghan Valley Ansoo Lake - Kaghan Valley Mahodand Lake - Kalam Valley Kundol Lake - Kalam Valley Daral Lake - Swat Valley List of lakes in Pakistan
Saiful Muluk is a mountainous lake located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park. The lake is a source of the Kunhar river. At an elevation of 3,224 m above sea level, the lake is located above the tree line, is one of the highest lakes in Pakistan. Saiful Muluk is located in the Mansehra district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, about 9 kilometres north of Naran, in the northern part of Kaghan Valley. Malika Parbat, the highest peak in the valley is near the lake; the lake is accessible from the nearby town of Naran during the summer season but access during winter is limited. Saiful Muluk was formed by glacial moraines that blocked the water of the stream passing through the valley; the Kaghan Valley was formed in the greater Pleistocene Period dating back 300,000 years when the area was covered with ice. Rising temperatures and receding glaciers left a large depression. Melting water collected into the lake; the lake holds many species of blue-green algae.
Large brown trout are found in the lake, up to about seven kilograms. About 26 species of vascular plant exist in the area, with Asteraceae the most found species. Other species found in the region are: Ranunculaceae, Cruciferae, Apiaceae, Leguminosae and Polygonaceae; the Lake Saiful Muluk is named after a legendary prince. A fairy tale called, it tells the story of the prince of Persia named Prince Saiful Malook who fell in love with a fairy princess named Princess Badri-ul-Jamala at the lake. Lulusar Lake Katora Lake Dudipatsar Lake Mahodand Lake Ratti Gali Lake http://www.saifulmuluk.com/location/saif-ul-muluk-lake/ About Saiful Malook Lake SaifulMuluk PTDC Official website Kaghan Valley & Lake Saiful Muluk - Pictures Full text of the fairytale associated with the lake
The Kūnaṛ River known in its upper reaches as the Mastuj, Chitral, or Kama River, is about 480 km long, located in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and eastern Afghanistan. It emerges just south of the Broghil Pass, in the upper part of Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa near the Afghan border; the river system is fed by melting glaciers and snow of the Hindu Kush mountains. The Kunar River is a tributary of the Kabul River, in turn a tributary of the Indus River; the river rises in the far north glaciated Hindu Kush mountains of Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Downstream as far as the town of Mastuj it is known as the "Mastuj River" from there to its confluence with the Lotkoh River just north of the important regional centre of Chitral, it is called the "Chitral River", before flowing south into the upper Kunar Valley of Afghanistan. At the confluence in Asadabad Chaga Sarai, it meets with Pech River and empties into the Kabul River just to the east of the city of Jalalabad in Afghanistan.
The combined rivers flow eastwards into Pakistan again following the Grand Trunk Road through the Khyber Pass, joining the Indus River at the city of Attock. Before the political division of the area divided the Kunar and Chitral Valley between the modern nation states of Afghanistan and Pakistan, it had formed an important trade route, being the easiest way to travel from the Pamir Mountains' passes to the plains of the subcontinent. While navigable in parts by expert kayakers, etc... it is more precise to say its valley forms a trade route since, like nearly all of the rivers in Africa and Asia, it is not navigable for commerce or transport. "At about six miles from Jellalabad, we quitted the valley of the Cabul river, entered that of the Kama or Kooner river. I have not seen so fine a valley as this anywhere; the Kama is a large rapid stream, with about a mile of rich soil on either side, sometimes more. The villages are large and well peopled." - Major - General Augustus Abbott, mid 19th century The river has great untapped hydropower potential which could be harnessed for cheap hydro electricity generation.
Under construction Golen Gol power project is located on this river but its further development will lead the region on the path of progress. Chitral Kunar Province
The Indus River is one of the longest rivers in Asia. Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, India towards the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan and the Hindukush ranges, flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh, it is the longest river and national river of Pakistan. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2, its estimated annual flow stands at around 243 km3, twice that of the Nile River and three times that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers combined, making it one of the largest rivers in the world in terms of annual flow. The Zanskar is its left bank tributary in Ladakh. In the plains, its left bank tributary is the Panjnad which itself has five major tributaries, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej, its principal right bank tributaries are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Kabul, the Gomal, the Kurram.
Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayas, the river supports ecosystems of temperate forests and arid countryside. The northern part of the Indus Valley, with its tributaries, forms the Punjab region, while the lower course of the Indus is known as Sindh and ends in a large delta; the river has been important to many cultures of the region. The 3rd millennium BC saw the rise of a major urban civilization of the Bronze Age. During the 2nd millennium BC, the Punjab region was mentioned in the hymns of the Hindu Rigveda as Sapta Sindhu and the Zoroastrian Avesta as Hapta Hindu. Early historical kingdoms that arose in the Indus Valley include Gandhāra, the Ror dynasty of Sauvīra; the Indus River came into the knowledge of the West early in the Classical Period, when King Darius of Persia sent his Greek subject Scylax of Caryanda to explore the river, ca. 515 BC. This river was known to the ancient Indians in Sanskrit as Sindhu and the Persians as Hindu, regarded by both of them as "the border river".
The variation between the two names is explained by the Old Iranian sound change *s > h, which occurred between 850–600 BCE according to Asko Parpola. From the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the name passed to the Greeks as Indós, it was adopted by the Romans as Indus. The meaning of Sindhu as a "large body of water, sea, or ocean" is a meaning in Classical Sanskrit. A Persian name for the river was Darya, which has the connotations of large body of water and sea. Other variants of the name Sindhu include Assyrian Sinda, Persian Ab-e-sind, Pashto Abasind, Arab Al-Sind, Chinese Sintow, Javanese Santri. India is a Greek and Latin term for "the country of the River Indus"; the region through which the river drains into sea owes its name to the river. Megasthenes' book Indica derives its name from the river's Greek name, "Indós", describes Nearchus's contemporaneous account of how Alexander the Great crossed the river; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as "Indói" meaning "the people of the Indus".
The Rigveda describes several rivers, including one named "Sindhu". The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river, it is attested 176 times in its text, 94 times in the plural, most used in the generic sense of "river". In the Rigveda, notably in the hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, e.g. in the list of rivers mentioned in the hymn of Nadistuti sukta. The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein, except the Bramhaputra and the "Sindhu" which carry the masculine gender; this gender usage could mean that the Sindhu river was believed to be a warrior, thus one of the greatest among all the rivers in the whole world. In other languages of the region, the river is known as सिन्धु in Hindi and Nepali, سنڌو in Sindhi, سندھ in Shahmukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੰਧ ਨਦੀ in Gurmukhī Punjabi, اباسين in Pashto, نهر السند in Arabic, སེང་གེ་གཙང་པོ། in Tibetan, 印度 in Chinese, Nilab in Turki; the Indus River provides key water resources for Pakistan's economy – the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, Sindh.
The word Punjab means "land of five rivers" and the five rivers are Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej, all of which flow into the Indus. The Indus supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan; the ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet. The Indus flows northwest through Ladakh and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range; the Shyok and Gilgit rivers carry glacial waters into the main river. It bends to the south and descends into the Punjab plains at Kalabagh, Pakistan; the Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500–5,200 metres deep near the Nanga Parbat massif. It is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir; the Kabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in the plains of the Punjab and Sindh, where the flow of the river becomes slow and braided, it is joined by the Panjnad at Mithankot. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one tim
Attabad Lake is a lake in Gojal Valley, Gilgit Baltistan, an administrative region of Pakistan. The lake was created in January 2010 as a result of the Attabad Disaster. Attabad Lake has become one of the biggest tourist attractions in Gilgit-Baltistan offering activities like boating, jet skiing and other recreational activities; the lake was formed due to a massive landslide at Attabad Village in Hunza Valley in Gilgit-Baltistan, 14 kilometres upstream of Karimabad that occurred on 4 January 2010. The landslide blocked the flow of the Hunza River for five months; the lake flooding has displaced 6,000 people from upstream villages, stranded a further 25,000, inundated over 19 kilometres of the Karakoram Highway. The lake reached 21 kilometres long and over 100 metres in depth by the first week of June 2010 when it began flowing over the landslide dam submerging lower Shishkat and flooding Gulmit; the subdivision of Gojal has the greatest number of flooded buildings, over 170 houses, 120 shops.
The residents had shortages of food and other items due to the blockage of the Karakoram Highway. By 4 June water outflow from the lake had increased to 100 m3/s. Water levels continued to rise in 18 June 2010 caused by a difference in the outflow and inflow of the new lake; as bad weather continued, the supply of food and other goods was stopped as all forms of transportation including helicopter service to Hunza could not resume. Victims of the landslide and expansion of the lake staged a sit-in protesting the lack of government action and compensation payments to them; as a result of the damming of Hunza River, five villages north of the barrier were flooded. One village, was submerged. Major portions of another village, was submerged. Around 40% of the village of Gulmit, which serves as the headquarters of Gojal Valley, was submerged. Significant portions of land in Hussain and Ghulkin villages of Gojal got submerged as a result of the surging lake; the entire population of Hunza and Gojal valley, up to 25,000 individuals, were affected as a result of the lake, due to difficulties of road access and reaching business markets and loss of land and agricultural products.
Attabad Lake has been visited by former Prime Ministers Yousuf Raza Gillani and Nawaz Sharif, by the Chief Minister of Punjab Shahbaz Sharif, Sharif announced Rs 100 million of aid for the victims from the Punjab government and Rs 0.5 million for the relatives of those who died in the landslide. Areas downstream from the lake remained on alert despite some officials believing that a major flood scenario was less as the river began flowing over the landslide dam during the first week of June 2010. Many people have been evacuated to 195 relief camps. Two hospitals downstream, the Kashrote Eye Vision Hospital and the Aga Khan Health Service, evacuated both their staff and equipment; some officials had incorrectly predicted that as soon as the lake began flowing over the landslide dam, an 18-metre wave would hit the areas downstream. As of 14 June 2010, the water level continued to rise. DawnNews reported that "242 houses, 135 shops, four hotels, two schools, four factories, several hundred acres of agricultural land" had been flooded, that villagers were receiving food and school fee subsidies.
They reported that 25 kilometres of six bridges were destroyed. Frontier Works Organization blasted the spillway of the lake first on 27 March 2012 and on 15 May 2012, lowering the lake's water level by at least 10 metres. Part of Karakorum Highway was submerged due to this landslide. On 14 September 2015, Prime Minister of Pakistan performed inauguration of realigned 24 km patch of KKH containing five tunnels at Attabad Barrier Lake; the five tunnels, together seven kilometres long, are part of the 24 km long portion of the Karakorum Highway, damaged in 2010 due to land sliding at Attabad. The realignment project is a construction masterpiece completed at the cost of $275 million; the realignment restored the road link between Pakistan and China and it is expected that significant amount of trade will be conducted between China and Pakistan using it. The KKH is a part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor and is expected to increase economic integration between those two nations; the Gojal Valley, worst affected as a result of this lake, is home to three small ethnic groups, namely the Wakhi and Domaki.
The entire population of Domaki speakers, a small minority and marginalised community, was displaced from their village of Shishkat. The Wakhi and Burushaski speaking minority ethnic groups have been affected as a result of the disaster. Tangjiashan Lake formed by a landslide Sarez Lake, a large lake formed by a landslide Red Lake, a mountain lake formed by a landslide 2010 Pakistan floods Landslide Lake on Hunza River Overflows into Spillway – Earth Observatory
In geography, a confluence occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river. Confluences are studied in a variety of sciences. Hydrology studies the characteristic flow patterns of confluences and how they give rise to patterns of erosion and scour pools; the water flows and their consequences are studied with mathematical models. Confluences are relevant to the distribution of living organisms as well; the United States Geological Survey gives an example: "chemical changes occur when a stream contaminated with acid mine drainage combines with a stream with near-neutral pH water. According to Lynch, "the color of each river is determined by many things: type and amount of vegetation in the watershed, geological properties, dissolved chemicals and biologic content – algae." Lynch notes that color differences can persist for miles downstream before they blend completely.
Hydrodynamic behaviour of flow in a confluence can be divided into six distinct features which are called confluence flow zones. These include Stagnation zone Flow deflection zone Flow separation zone / recirculation zone Maximum velocity zone Flow recovery zone Shear layers Since rivers serve as political boundaries, confluences sometimes demarcate three abutting political entities, such as nations, states, or provinces, forming a tripoint. Various examples are found in the list below. A number of major cities, such as Chongqing, St. Louis, Khartoum, arose at confluences. Within a city, a confluence forms a visually prominent point, so that confluences are sometimes chosen as the site of prominent public buildings or monuments, as in Koblenz and Winnipeg. Cities often build parks at confluences, sometimes as projects of municipal improvement, as at Portland and Pittsburgh. In other cases, a confluence is an industrial site, as in Mannheim. A confluence lies in the shared floodplain of the two rivers and nothing is built on it, for example at Manaus, described below.
One other way that confluences may be employed by humans is as a sacred place in a religion. Rogers suggests that for the ancient peoples of the Iron Age in northwest Europe, watery locations were sacred sources and confluences. Pre-Christian Slavic peoples chose confluences as the sites for fortified triangular temples, where they practiced human sacrifice and other sacred rites. In Hinduism, the confluence of two sacred rivers is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing. In Pittsburgh, a number of adherents to Mayanism consider their city's confluence to be sacred. At Lokoja, the Benue River flows into the Niger. At Kazungula in Zambia, the Chobe River flows into the Zambezi; the confluence defines the tripoint of Zambia and Namibia. The land border between Botswana and Zimbabwe to the east reaches the Zambezi at this confluence, so there is a second tripoint only 150 meters downstream from the first. See Kazungula and Quadripoint, Gallery below for image; the Sudanese capital of Khartoum is located at the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile, the beginning of the Nile.
82 km north of Basra in Iraq at the town of Al-Qurnah is the confluence of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, forming the Shatt al-Arab. At Devprayag in India, the Ganges River originates at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda. Near Allahabad, the Yamuna flows into the Ganges. In Hinduism, this is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing. In Hindu belief the site is held to be a triple confluence, the third river being the metaphysical Sarasvati. Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, is where the Gombak River flows into the Klang River at the site of the Jamek Mosque; the Kolam Biru, a pool with elaborate fountains, has been installed at the apex of the confluence. The Nam Khan River flows into the Mekong at Luang Prabang in Laos; the Jialing flows into the Yangtze at Chongqing in China. The confluence forms a focal point in the city, marked by Chaotianmen Square, built in 1998. In the Far East, the Amur forms the international boundary between Russia; the Ussuri, which demarcates the border, flows into the Amur at a point midway between Fuyuan in China and Khabarovsk in Russia.
The apex of the confluence is located in a rural area, part of China, where a commemorative park, Dongji Square, has been built.
Banjosa Lake is an artificial lake and a tourist resort 18 kilometers from the city of Rawalakot in Poonch District of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. It is located at an altitude of 1,981 meters; the lake is surrounded by mountains, which make it charming and romantic. The Lake is accessible by a metallic road from Rawalakot; the weather in the area remains cold in Winter. In December and January snowfall occurs here and the temperature falls to -5 °C. During Summer, the temperature remains 16 °C to 25 °C; some rest houses and huts of AJK Tourism and Archeology Department, Pakistan Public Works Department and Pearl Development Authority are located here. A few hotels, guest houses and tuck shops exist near the lake. A market is located 1 kilometer away in Chotta Gala town where all the basic necessities of life are available. A few hotels and rest houses are located in this town. Toli Pir Rawalakot List of lakes in Pakistan