Junichiro Koizumi is a Japanese politician, the 56th Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. He retired from politics when his term in parliament ended in 2009, is the sixth longest serving PM in Japanese history. Seen as a maverick leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, he became known as an economic reformer, focusing on Japan's government debt and the privatization of its postal service. In 2005, Koizumi led the LDP to win one of the largest parliamentary majorities in modern Japanese history. Koizumi attracted international attention through his deployment of the Japan Self-Defense Forces to Iraq, through his visits to Yasukuni Shrine that fueled diplomatic tensions with neighboring China and South Korea, he is a member of the Nippon Kaigi nationalist organization. Although Koizumi maintained a low profile for several years after he leaving office, he returned to national attention in 2013 as an advocate for abandoning nuclear power in Japan, in the wake of March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, which contrasted with the pro-nuclear views espoused by the LDP governments both during and after Koizumi's term in office.
Koizumi is a third-generation politician of the Koizumi family. His father, Jun'ya Koizumi, was director general of the Japan Defense Agency and a member of the House of Representatives, his grandfather, Koizumi Matajirō, called "Tattoo Minister" because of the big tattoo on his body, the leader of Koizumi Gumi in Kanagawa, was Minister of Posts and Telecommunications under Prime Ministers Hamaguchi and Wakatsuki and an early advocate of postal privatization. Born in Yokosuka, Kanagawa on January 8, 1942, Koizumi was educated at Yokosuka High School, he graduated with a Bachelor of Economics degree from Keio University. He attended University College London before returning to Japan in August 1969 upon the death of his father, he stood for election to the lower house in December. In 1970, he was hired as a secretary to Takeo Fukuda, Minister of Finance at the time and was elected as Prime Minister in 1976. In the general elections of December 1972, Koizumi was elected as a member of the Lower House for the Kanagawa 11th district.
He joined Fukuda's faction within the LDP. Since he has been re-elected ten times. Koizumi gained his first senior post in 1979 as Parliamentary Vice Minister of Finance, his first ministerial post in 1988 as Minister of Health and Welfare under Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita, he held cabinet posts again in 1992 and 1996–1998. In 1994, with the LDP in opposition, Koizumi became part of a new LDP faction, made up of younger and more motivated parliamentarians led by Taku Yamasaki, Koichi Kato and Koizumi, a group popularly dubbed "YKK" after the zipper manufacturer YKK. After Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa resigned in 1994 and the LDP returned to power in a coalition government and Hosokawa teamed up with Shusei Tanaka of New Party Sakigake in a strategic dialogue across party lines regarding Japan becoming a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Although this idea was not popular within the LDP and never came to fruition and Hosokawa maintained a close working relationship across party lines, with Hosokawa tacitly serving as Koizumi's personal envoy to China during times of strained Sino-Japanese relations.
Koizumi competed for the presidency of the LDP in September 1995 and July 1998, but he gained little support losing decisively to Ryutaro Hashimoto and Keizō Obuchi, both of whom had broader bases of support within the party. However, after Yamasaki and Kato were humiliated in a disastrous attempt to force a vote of no confidence against Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori in 2000, Koizumi became the last remaining credible member of the YKK trio, which gave him leverage over the reform-minded wing of the party. On April 24, 2001, Koizumi was elected president of the LDP, he was considered an outside candidate against Hashimoto, running for his second term as Prime Minister. However, in the first poll of prefectural party organizations, Koizumi won 87 to 11 percent, he defeated Hashimoto by a final tally of 298 to 155 votes. He was made Prime Minister of Japan on April 26, his coalition secured 78 of 121 seats in the Upper House elections in July. Within Japan, Koizumi pushed for new ways to revitalise the moribund economy, aiming to act against bad debts with commercial banks, privatize the postal savings system, reorganize the factional structure of the LDP.
He spoke of the need for a period of painful restructuring. See "Honebuto Hoshin". In the fall of 2002, Koizumi appointed Keio University economist and frequent television commentator Heizō Takenaka as Minister of State for Financial Services and head of the Financial Services Agency to fix the country's banking crisis. Bad debts of banks were cut with the NPL ratio of major banks approaching half the level of 2001; the Japanese economy has been through a slow but steady recovery, the stock market has rebounded. The GDP growth for 2004 was one of the highest among G7 nations, according to the International Monetary Fund and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Takenaka was appointed as a Postal Reform Minister in 2004 for the privatization of Japan Post, operator of the country's Postal Savings system. Koizumi moved the LDP away from its traditional rural agrarian base
House of Representatives (Japan)
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the National Diet of Japan. The House of Councillors is the upper house; the House of Representatives has 465 members, elected for a four-year term. Of these, 176 members are elected from 11 multi-member constituencies by a party-list system of proportional representation, 289 are elected from single-member constituencies. 233 seats are required for a majority. The overall voting system used to elect the House of Representatives is a parallel system, a form of semi-proportional representation. Under a parallel system the allocation of list seats does not take into account the outcome in the single seat constituencies. Therefore, the overall allocation of seats in the House of Representatives is not proportional, to the advantage of larger parties. In contrast, in bodies such as the German Bundestag the election of single-seat members and party list members is linked, so that the overall result respects proportional representation; the House of Representatives is the more powerful of the two houses, able to override vetoes on bills imposed by the House of Councillors with a two-thirds majority.
It can be dissolved by the Prime Minister at will, the most recent was by Shinzō Abe as on September 28, 2017. Japanese nationals aged 18 years and older may vote. Japanese nationals aged 25 years and older may run for office in the lower house; the House of Representatives has several powers not given to the House of Councillors. If a bill is passed by the lower house but is voted down by the upper house the House of Representatives can override the decision of the House of Councillors by a two-thirds vote in the affirmative. However, in the case of treaties, the budget, the selection of the prime minister, the House of Councillors can only delay passage, but not block the legislation; as a result, the House of Representatives is considered the more powerful house. Members of the House of Representatives, who are elected to a maximum of four years, sit for a shorter term than members of the House of Councillors, who are elected to full six-year terms; the lower house can be dissolved by the Prime Minister or the passage of a nonconfidence motion, while the House of Councillors cannot be dissolved.
Thus the House of Representatives is considered to be more sensitive to public opinion, is termed the "lower house". While the legislative term is nominally 4 years, early elections for the lower house are common, the median lifespan of postwar legislatures has in practice been around 3 years. For a list of individual members, see the List of members of the Diet of Japan. Shaded green: Ruling party/coalition before and after the lower house election red: Ruling party/coalition after the election = Change of government as a result of the lower house election blue: Ruling party/coalition until the election = Change of government as a result of the lower house election none: Opposition before and after the electionNote that the composition of the ruling coalition may change between lower house elections, e.g. after upper house elections. Parties who vote with the government in the Diet, but are not part of the cabinet are not shaded. Under the 1889 Meiji Constitution which took effect in 1890 and established the Imperial Diet, the House of Peers functioned as an aristocratic upper house in a format similar to the House of Lords in the Westminster system, or the Herrenhaus in the Prussian government of the time.
The elected House of Representatives served as the lower house of the Imperial Diet. In the Imperial Diet, both houses had to agree to legislation; the government and the prime minister leading it were neither responsible to nor elected by the Imperial Diet. But the right to vote on legislation and more the budget gave the House of Representatives leverage to force the government into negotiations. After an early period of frequent confrontation and temporary alliances between the cabinet and political parties in the lower house, parts of the Meiji oligarchy more sympathetic to political parties around Itō Hirobumi and parts of the liberal parties formed a more permanent alliance in form of the Rikken Seiyūkai in 1900; the confidence of the House of Representatives was never a formal requirement to govern. During the Taisho Political Crisis in 1913, a "no-confidence vote" against the 3rd Katsura Cabinet, accompanied by major demonstrations outside the Diet, was followed shortly by resignation.
Subsequently, in the period referred to as Taishō democracy, it became customary to appoint many ministers including several prime ministers from the House of Representatives – Hara Takashi became the first commoner as prime minister in 1918. In the same year, the Rice Riots had confronted the government with an unprecedented scale of domestic unrest, a socialist revolution brought the Prusso-German monarchy to its end, the system Meiji oligarchs had used as the main model for the Meiji constitution to consolidate and preserve Imperial power. Oligarchs fundamentally opposed to political parties such as Yamagata Aritomo became more inclined to cooperate with the parties to prevent a rise of socialism or other movements that might threaten Imperial rul
House of Councillors (Japan)
The House of Councillors is the upper house of the National Diet of Japan. The House of Representatives is the lower house; the House of Councillors is the successor to the pre-war House of Peers. If the two houses disagree on matters of the budget, treaties, or designation of the prime minister, the House of Representatives can insist on its decision. In other decisions, the House of Representatives can override a vote of the House of Councillors only by a two-thirds majority of members present; the House of Councillors has 242 members who each serve six-year terms, two years longer than those of the House of Representatives. Councillors must be at least 30 years old, compared with 25 years old in the House of Representatives; the House can not be dissolved. Of the 121 members subject to election each time, 73 are elected from the 47 prefectural districts and 48 are elected from a nationwide list by proportional representation with open lists. For a list of individual members, see the List of members of the Diet of Japan.
Article 102 of the Japanese Constitution provided that half of the councillors elected in the first House of Councillors election in 1947 would be up for re-election three years in order to introduce staggered six-year terms. The House had 250 seats. Two seats were added to the House in 1970 after the agreement on the repatriation of Okinawa, increasing the House to a total of 252. Legislation aimed at addressing malapportionment that favoured less-populated prefectures was introduced in 2000. Further reforms to address malapportinoment took effect in 2007 and 2016, but did not change the total number of members in the house. From 1947 to 1983, the House had 100 seats allocated to a national block, of which fifty seats were allocated in each election, it was intended to give nationally prominent figures a route to the House without going through local electioneering processes. Some national political figures, such as feminists Shidzue Katō and Fusae Ichikawa and former Imperial Army general Kazushige Ugaki, were elected through the block, along with a number of celebrities such as comedian Yukio Aoshima, journalist Hideo Den and actress Yūko Mochizuki.
Shintaro Ishihara won a record 3 million votes in the national block in the 1968 election. The national block was last seen in the 1980 election and was replaced with a nationwide proportional representation block in the 1983 election; the national proportional representation block was reduced to 96 members in the 2000 reforms. List of Speakers of the House of Councillors of Japan List of districts of the House of Councillors of Japan Specific BibliographyHayes, L. D. 2009. Introduction to Japanese Politics. 5th ed. New York: M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-2279-2 House of Councillors Website House of Councillors internet TV - Official site
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri
2010 Japanese House of Councillors election
The 22nd Elections to the House of Councillors for the upper house of the legislature of Japan were held on July 11, 2010. In the last election in 2007, the Liberal Democratic Party lost its majority to the Democratic Party, which managed to gain the largest margin since its formation in 1996; the House of Councillors is elected by halves to six-year terms. The seats up for election in 2010 were last contested in the 2004 election. On 11 June 2008, a non-binding censure motion was passed by parliament's opposition-controlled House of Councillors against Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda. Filed by the DPJ and two other parties, it was the first censure motion against a prime minister under Japan's post-war constitution. Ahead of the G8 summit, it attacked his handling of domestic issues including an unpopular medical plan and called for a snap election or his resignation. On 12 June a motion of confidence was passed by the lower house's ruling coalition to counter the censure. Fukuda abruptly announced.
Taro Aso won the subsequent election, held on 22 September 2008. In the 2009 lower house election, the DPJ gained an historic majority, being the first non-LDP party to hold a majority in that house since the LDP's formation and is scheduled to lead the second non-LDP government in the aforementioned time period. Following the election, Aso resigned as LDP president. Sadakazu Tanigaki was elected the leader of LDP on September 28, 2009; the House of Councillors election in 2010 was viewed as leading to the extinction of the LDP. Some of the LDP's most popular councillors, such as Yoichi Masuzoe and Kaoru Yosano, left the party prior to the election. However, the DPJ's popularity had been negatively impacted by fundraising scandals surrounding its president Yukio Hatoyama and secretary general Ichiro Ozawa, both of whom resigned on June 2, 2010. Naoto Kan became prime minister after Hatoyama's resignation and proposed a controversial increase in the consumption tax to shore up Japanese public finances.
The campaign season was only three weeks long, which frustrated efforts to have policy debates between the two major parties and the numerous third parties in the election. The result of the election was declared on July 12, 2010; the ruling DPJ lost many of its seats and the opposition LDP gained more seats in comparison to the last election, held in 2007. Your Party performed well in this election, while the DPJ's junior coalition partner, the People's New Party, performed poorly. DPJ secretary-general Ichirō Ozawa had decided on an offensive strategy for nominating candidates in multi-member districts: The DPJ was to nominate two candidates in all MMDs with the exceptions of Niigata where an SDP-affiliated independent incumbent was in the race and Fukuoka where a PNP incumbent sought reelection; this strategy was reaffirmed after Ozawa's resignation in June 2010 though the DPJ's support rate had fallen by and winning both seats in a SNTV two-member district requires a high margin in terms of party votes and an equal distribution of votes on the two candidates.
The strategy failed: all two-member districts split seats evenly between DPJ and LDP in 2010. In some districts the party risked losing both seats due to vote splitting, a danger that did not materialize in the election result; the LDP on the other hand nominated only one candidate per MMD – exceptions being Miyagi and Tokyo –, thus concentrating all LDP votes on one candidate. The election results in MMDs gave 20 seats to the DPJ, 18 to the LDP, three to the Kōmeitō and three to Your Party; the only districts where the DPJ won two seats and an advantage in seats over the LDP were Tokyo where administrative reform minister Renhō received a record 1.7 million votes and Toshio Ogawa ranked fourth and DPJ stronghold Aichi where DPJ candidates only finished second and third behind LDP newcomer Masahito Fujikawa. Part of the LDP victory were the results in the 29 single-member districts where the DPJ received 7 million votes winning eight districts while the LDP received 8.25 million votes and 21 seats, among them seven pickups compared to the pre-election composition of the chamber: Aomori, Akita and Nagasaki from the DPJ Kagawa and Tokushima from the NRP, both from former LDP members, Tochigi, a two-member district until 2010 with seats held by DPJ and NRP.
The LDP gained seven additional seats in two-member districts, but seats it had lost by party switchovers or resignations: in Hokkaidō from the Sunrise Party, in Niigata where Naoki Tanaka had switched parties together with his wife Makiko from an SDP-affiliated independent, in Gifu from an ex-LDP independent, in Nagano a vacant seat held by the LDP, in Hiroshima and Fukuoka from the PNP and only in Shizuoka directly from the DPJ where the Democrats had held both seats up because of the resignation of Yukiko Sakamoto in 2009 and the DPJ's victory in the resulting by-election. The vote in the districts with three or five seats up went to the DPJ with a 3.5 million vote edge over the LDP, but produced only a two-seat difference in the House of Councillors: the LDP won six, the DPJ eight seats. If compared to the 2004 election when the same class of Councillors was last elected, the LDP only gained five prefectural district seats and lost three seats in the nationwide proportional representation.
Elected candidates in bold Notes: All incumbents not running for re-election in their prefectural electoral district are counted as retirements if they ran in the nationwide proportional representa
United Nations University
The United Nations University, established in 1973, is the academic and research arm of the United Nations. It is headquartered in Shibuya, Japan, with diplomatic status as a UN institution. Since 2010, UNU has been authorized by the United Nations General Assembly to grant degrees, it provides a bridge between the UN and the international academic, policy-making and private sector communities. The university is headed by a rector, who holds the rank of Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations. To date, there have been six Rectors at UNU; the current Rector, since March 2013, is Dr. David M. Malone of Canada. List of Rectors of United Nations University: The Council of UNU is the governing board of the University and is composed of 24 members who are appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations with the concurrence of the Director-General of UNESCO; the University was established in 1973 and formally began its activities in 1976 following the signature of the permanent headquarters agreement between the United Nations and Japan.
The creation of the United Nations University was set in motion by Secretary-General U Thant in 1969. Over the years, several Institutes of UNU were created to help with the research initiatives of the United Nations. Most notably, in 2007, a vice-rectorate was established in Bonn, Germany, as a way of strengthening UNU's presence in Europe. UNU-ViE is dedicated to developing knowledge-based sustainable solutions for global problems and is, therefore, an active organizer of international science policy dialogues for sustainability. In December 2009, the UN General Assembly amended the UNU Charter to make it possible for UNU to "grant and confer master's degrees and doctorates, diplomas and other academic distinctions under conditions laid down for that purpose in the statutes by the Council."In 2013, UNU-ISP announced its intention to seek accreditation from the National Institution for Academic Degrees and University Evaluation, the Japanese accreditation agency for higher education institutions.
UNU-IAS was formally accredited in April 2015, making it the first international organization to be recognized by the NIAD-UE. The university has several campuses spread over five continents, its headquarters are located at the UNU Centre in Japan. The role of the UN University is to generate new knowledge, enhance individual and institutional capacities, disseminate its useful information to relevant audiences. Within the scope of these five thematic clusters, the UN University undertakes: Cross-cultural, interdisciplinary research and targeted foresight and policy studies; as prescribed in the United Nations University Strategic Plan 2011–2014, the 26 major topics of focus of the UN University's academic work fall within five interdependent thematic clusters: Peace and Human Rights. Global Health and Sustainable Livelihoods. Global Change and Sustainable Development. Science, Technology and Society. Collectively, these thematic clusters define the programme space within which the UN University undertakes its academic activities.
Some key perspectives pervade all aspects of the UN University's work. The academic work of the United Nations University is carried out by a global system of Institutes, Operating Units, Programmes located in more than 12 countries around the world. Institute on Comparative Regional Integration Studies in Bruges, Belgium Institute for Environment and Human Security in Bonn, Germany Institute for Integrated Management of Material Fluxes and of Resources in Dresden, Germany Institute of Advanced Studies in Yokohama, Japan International Institute for Global Health in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Institute on Computing and Society in Macau, China Institute for Natural Resources in Africa in Accra, Ghana Institute for Sustainability and Peace in Tokyo, Japan Maastricht Economic