The Motion Picture Association of America film rating system is used in the United States and its territories to rate a film's suitability for certain audiences based on its content. The MPAA rating system is a voluntary scheme, not enforced by law. Non-members of MPAA may submit films for rating. Other media, such as television programs and video games, are rated by other entities such as the TV Parental Guidelines, the RIAA and the ESRB, respectively. Introduced in 1968, the MPAA rating system is one of various motion picture rating systems that are used to help parents decide what films are appropriate for their children, it is administered by the Classification & Ratings Administration, an independent division of the MPAA. The MPAA film ratings are as follows: In 2013, the MPAA ratings were visually redesigned, with the rating displayed on a left panel and the name of the rating shown above it. A larger panel on the right provides a more detailed description of the film's content and an explanation of the rating level is placed on a horizontal bar at the bottom of the rating.
If a film has not been submitted for a rating or is an uncut version of a film, submitted, the labels Not Rated or Unrated are used. Uncut/extended versions of films that are labeled "Unrated" contain warnings saying that the uncut version of the film contains content that differs from the theatrical release and might not be suitable for minors. If a film has not yet been assigned a final rating, the label This Film Is Not Yet Rated is used in trailers and television commercials; the MPAA rates film trailers, print advertising and other media used to promote a film. The MPAA mandates that theatrical trailers be no longer than thirty seconds; each major studio is given one exception to this rule per year. Internet or home-video trailers have no time restrictions. Rating cards appear at the head of trailers in the United States which indicate how the trailer adheres to the MPAA's standards. Green band: When the trailer accompanies another rated feature, the wording on the green title card states, as of May 2013, "The following preview has been approved to accompany this feature."
For trailers hosted on the Internet, the wording is tweaked to "The following preview has been approved for appropriate audiences." Until April 2009, these cards indicated that they had been approved for "all audiences" and included the film's MPAA rating. This signified that the trailer adheres to the standards for motion picture advertising outlined by the MPAA, which include limitations on foul language and violent, sexual, or otherwise objectionable imagery. In April 2009, the MPAA began to permit the green band language to say that a trailer had been approved for "appropriate" audiences, meaning that the material would be appropriate for audiences in theaters, based on the content of the film they had come to see. In May 2013, the MPAA changed the trailer approval band from "for appropriate audiences" to "to accompany this feature", but only when accompanying a feature film; the font and style of the text on the graphic bands was changed at the time the green band was revised in 2013. Yellow band: A yellow title card, introduced around 2007, exists to indicate trailers with restricted content that are hosted on the Internet, with the wording stipulating "The following preview has been approved only for age-appropriate Internet users."
The MPAA defines "age-appropriate Internet users" as visitors to sites either frequented by adults or accessible only between 9:00 p.m. and 4:00 a.m.. The yellow card is reserved for trailers previewing films rated stronger. Although official, this practice appears to have never been widespread. However, yellow band trailers are created, a notable example being the trailer for Rob Zombie's Halloween. Red band: A red title card is issued to trailers which do not adhere to the MPAA's guidelines, it indicates that the trailer is approved for only "restricted" or "mature" audiences, when it accompanies another feature, the wording states "The following restricted preview has been approved to accompany this feature only." For trailers hosted on the Internet, the wording is tweaked to "The following restricted preview has been approved for appropriate audiences." The red title card is reserved for trailers previewing R and NC-17 rated films: these trailers may include nudity, profanity, or other material deemed inappropriate for children.
These trailers may only be shown theatrically before R-rated, unrated movies. Trailers hosted on the Internet carrying a red title card require viewers to pass an age verification test which entails users aged 17 and older to match their names, ZIP Codes to public records on file. However, many YouTube channels which exist to syndicate film and television trailers do not have this check, release these trailers without any type of restriction, to some criticism from groups such as Common Sense Media. Jack Valenti, who had become president of the Motion Picture Association of America in May 1966, deemed the Motion Picture Production Code – in place since 1930 and rigorously enforced since 1934 – as out of date and bearing "the odious smell of censorship". Filmmakers were pushing at the boundaries of the Code with some going as far as filing lawsuits against the Hays Code by invoking the First Amendment, Valenti cited examples such as Who's
Dos is the title of the second album by Colombian Pop and Vallenato singer Fanny Lu. The album was released in Colombia on December 8, 2008, in the United States and Puerto Rico the following week. In Colombia, Dos went straight to number one in the album charts in its debut week; the album features the lead single and the official song of the year in Colombia, "Tú No Eres Para Mi". The album was greeted with huge anticipation following the success of the lead single "Tú No Eres Para Mi"; the hit was number one on Colombian radio for eleven weeks. As well as this, there were high expectations considering the success of Fanny's first album, Lágrimas Cálidas, which spent nine weeks at number one in Colombia. Fanny Lu produced the album and co-wrote many of the tracks, most notably "Un Minuto Más", a duet with Noel Schajris; the song is a tribute to her late father, murdered. Weeks before the release of the album, Fanny stated. I didn't limit myself. I gave myself the luxury of exploring. For example, many times, instead of accordions, we experimented with winds.
This album is like a walk along all those genres I love, all the songs have their own palate and color." Credits adapted from Dos liner notes