Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Danish Golden Age
The Danish Golden Age covers a period of exceptional creative production in Denmark, especially during the first half of the 19th century. Although Copenhagen had suffered fires and national bankruptcy. It saw the development of Danish architecture in the Neoclassical style, Copenhagen, in particular, acquired a new look, with buildings designed by Christian Frederik Hansen and by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll. In relation to music, the Golden Age covers figures inspired by Danish romantic nationalism including J. P. E. Hartmann, Hans Christian Lumbye, Niels W. Gade, literature centred on Romantic thinking, introduced in 1802 by the Norwegian-German philosopher Henrik Steffens. Key contributors were Adam Oehlenschläger, Bernhard Severin Ingemann, N. F. S. Grundtvig and, last but not least, Hans Christian Andersen, Søren Kierkegaard furthered philosophy while Hans Christian Ørsted achieved fundamental progress in science. The Golden Age thus had an effect not only on life in Denmark but, with time.
The origins of the Golden Age can be traced back to around the beginning of the 19th century, this was a very rough period for Denmark. Copenhagen, the centre of the intellectual life, first experienced huge fires in 1794 and 1795 which destroyed both Christiansborg Palace and large areas of the inner city. In 1801, as a result of the involvement in the League of Armed Neutrality. Then in 1813, as a result of the inability to support the costs of war. To make matters worse, Norway ceased to be part of the Danish realm when it was ceded to Sweden the following year, Copenhagens devastation nevertheless provided new opportunities. Architects and planners widened the streets, constructing beautifully designed Neoclassical buildings offering a brighter yet intimate look, at the time, with a population of only 100,000, the city was still quite small, built within the confines of the old ramparts. As a result, the figures of the day met frequently, sharing their ideas, bringing the arts. Henrik Steffens was perhaps the most effective proponent of the Romantic idea, in a series of lectures in Copenhagen, he successfully conveyed the ideas behind German romanticism to the Danes.
Influential thinkers, such as Oehlenschläger and Grundtvig were quick to take up his views and it was not long before Danes from all branches of the arts and sciences were involved in a new era of Romantic nationalism, known as the Danish Golden Age. Especially in the field of painting, change became apparent, grand historical art gave way to more widely appealing but less pretentious genre paintings and landscapes. The Golden Age is generally believed to have lasted until about 1850, around that time, Danish culture suffered from the outbreak of the First Schleswig War. In addition, political reforms involving the end of the monarchy in 1848
Kronborg is a castle and stronghold in the town of Helsingør, Denmark. Immortalized as Elsinore in William Shakespeares play Hamlet, Kronborg is one of the most important Renaissance castles in Northern Europe and has added to UNESCOs World Heritage Sites list. The castle is situated on the northeastern tip of the island of Zealand at the narrowest point of the Øresund. In this part, the sound is only 4 kilometres wide, the castles story dates back to a stronghold, built by King Eric VII in the 1420s. Along with the fortress Kärnan, Helsingborg on the opposite coast of Øresund, from 1574 to 1585 King Frederick II had the medieval fortress radically transformed into a magnificent Renaissance castle. The main architects were the Flemings Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and Anthonis van Obbergen, in 1629 a fire destroyed much of the castle, but King Christian IV subsequently had it rebuilt. The castle has a church within its walls, in 1658 Kronborg was besieged and captured by the Swedes who took many of its valuable art treasures as war booty.
In 1785 the castle ceased to be a residence and was converted into barracks for the army. The army left the castle in 1923, and after a renovation it was opened to the public. The castles story dates back to a fortress, built in the 1420s by the Danish king, Eric of Pomerania. At the time, the Kingdom of Denmark extended across both sides of the Sound, and on the shore the Helsingborg Castle had been in existence since the Middle Ages. With the two castles and guard ships it was possible to all navigation through the Sound. The castle was built on Ørekrog, a tongue of land stretching into the sea from the coast of Zealand towards the coast of Scania. The castle consisted of a curtain wall with a number of stone buildings inside. The stone building in the northeastern corner contained the kings residence, the building in the southwestern corner contained a large arched banquet hall. The building in the southeastern corner possibly served as the chapel, large portions of the walls of Krogen are contained within the present-day Kronborg Castle.
King Christian III had the corners of the curtain wall supplemented with bastions in 1558-59, from 1574 to 1585 Frederick II had the medieval fortress rebuilt into a magnificent Renaissance castle, unique in its appearance and size throughout Europe. After the conclusion of the Northern Seven Years War in 1570, the main architect was the Flemish architect Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and the fortification works were completed in 1577
Medical Museion (Copenhagen)
Medical Museion is a museum and research unit in Copenhagen, dedicated to the history of health and disease in a cultural perspective. Part of the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at University of Copenhagen, its area of interest is the recent history of the material. It is based in a building from 1787 on Bredgade in Frederiksstaden. The collections were founded by a circle of medical doctors in Copenhagen in 1906, the first exhibition of medical history opened on 22 August 1907 as part of the celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the Danish Medical Association. The museum was located in the Rigsdag building in Fredericiagade, which now houses the High Court of Eastern Denmark. The museum has part of University of Copenhagen since 1918 and was called the Museum of Medical History until 2004 when it received its current name. The central exhibition space is the auditorium where dissections were carried out as part of the training. List of museums in and around Copenhagen Official website
She was born on the estate in 1885, and returned there after her years in Kenya, chronicled in her book Out of Africa, to do most of her writings. The property is managed by the Rungstedlund Foundation as a writers house museum. The property traces its history back to 1520 when it was owned by the Crown, the oldest part of the current house dates from about 1680 when it was a combined inn and agricultural estate. Notable guests who stayed at the inn include Ludvig Holberg and Johannes Ewald, Ewald lived there from 1773 to 1775 and wrote many of his poems, including The Delights Of Rungsted. The locale inspired him for The ´Fishermen, a singspiele remembered for Kong Christian stod ved højen mast, aron David, who owned it from 1821 to 1868, merged it with the adjoining properties Rungstedgaard, Sømandshvile og Folehavegaard. In 1879 the estate was purchased by Wilhelm Dinesen, father of Karen Blixen, at that time the estate consisted of four wings but two burned in 1898 and were never rebuilt.
Karen Blixen spend her childhood at Rungstedlund and took up residency there again after she returned from Africa in 1931 and she lived there until her death in 1962 and did most of her writings in the Ewald Room. She is interred in the park, in 1958 Karen Blixen and her siblings founded the Rungstedlund Foundation which was to own and manage the estate after her death. The Karen Blixen Museum was founded in 1991, Karen Blixens home has been preserved largely unchanged with its original furniture and book. The museum features a collection of her oil paintings. The museum hosts exhibitions about the authors life and writings. In 2013 The Karen Blixen Museum joined the Nordic museum portal CultureNordic. com, Rungstedlund is the home of Danish Academy, which Karen Blixen co-founded in 1960 together with other Danish intellectuals. The house hosts the ceremony of the annual Rungstedlund Award on Karen Blixens birthday. The grounds are used for a traditional Danish Saint Johns Eve event with a bonfire, the park covers an area of 16.6 hectares.
Most of the grounds have been out as a bird sancturary. There are flower gardens where every day during the season fresh flowers are cut for decorating the house. Karen Blixens grave is located at the foot of Ewalds Mound, Karen Blixen Museum Dinesen-Motzfeldt-Hettinger Log House Official website
Jens Juel (painter)
Jens Juel was a Danish painter, primarily known for his many portraits, of which the largest collection is on display at Frederiksborg Castle. He is regarded as the leading Danish portrait painting of the 18th century and he was born in the house of his mothers brother Johan Jørgensen, who was a school teacher in Balslev on the island of Funen. Jens Juel was the son of Vilhelmine Elisabeth Juel, who served at Wedellsborg. When Juel was one old, his mother married Jørgen Jørgensen, who was a schoolmaster in Gamborg, not far from Balslev. During the time of his studies, he could live off painting landscapes, portraits, at just over twenty years old, he moved to Copenhagen to attend the Royal Danish Academy of Art. In 1767 he was awarded its gold medal and in 1771 the great gold medal. In 1772 Juel left Copenhagen, moving to Rome where he stayed for four years together with other Danish artists, from Rome, he moved to Paris, at the time a center of portrait painting. In 1777 he moved on to Geneva, where he stayed for two years at the home of his friend Charles Bonnet in the company of other Danish artists, in Geneva, Juel soon earned a reputation as an excellent artist, and he painted many portraits.
Through Bonnet, who had become a member of the Danish Academy. After a brief stay in Hamburg, where he met and painted a portrait of the poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, author of The Messiah, he returned to Copenhagen in 1780. Here he painted portraits for the house, nobility. On 4 April 1782, he was elected to be a member of the Danish Academy by Mandelberg, Weidenhaupt. He became the director of the Academy in 1795 and continued in the position until his death, Juel is buried at Assistens Cemetery in Copenhagen. Art of Denmark KID Kunst Index Danmark Danish Biographical Encyclopedia
Lightvessel Gedser Rev
XVII Gedser Rev is a decommissioned lightvessel built in 1895, now serving as a museum ship in the Nyhavn Canal in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is owned by the National Museum and takes its name after Gedser Rev south of Falster where it was stationed most of its working life, denmarks first lightvessel was built at Jacob Holms shipyard at Christianshavn in 1829. Hansens shipyard in Odense in 1895, the ship now moored at Nyhavn was number seventeen in the line of Danish lightvessels and it was first stationed at Lappegrund in shallow waters at the entrance to the Øresund. It was powered by two engines which were replaced by a 16-hp kerosene engine in 1918. In 1921, a new three-cylinder Voelund 135-hp propulsion engine was installed, the ship was involved in a number of collisions during her years in operation. The most serious of these occurred in 1954 when she sank within a few minutes, the seaman on duty was thrown overboard and drowned while the rest of the crew were saved. During the Cold War and after the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961, many East Germans chose to escape by water, although most failed and many died in the attempt, at least 50 were rescued by the Gedser Rev.
As the Southernmost limit of Danish territory and as an obviously recognisable target, one notable escapee was Manfred Burmeister in 1969, who escaped by aid of a petrol-driven submersible scooter. XVII was decommissioned in 1972 and put up for sale at the warehouse at Holmen in Copenhagen. A donation from the A. P. Møller Foundation enabled the National Museum to purchase it, the A. P. Møller Foundation sponsored the ships restoration which was carried out at Hvide Sande Shipyard from January 2001 until November 2003. The lightvessel is open to the public every Saturday from 11 am to 3 pm from June through August and it is maintained by a group of volunteers. On 27 May 2009 Bank of Denmark issued a new 20 krone coin with lightvessel XVII, as depicted by the artist Karin Lorentzen, list of lighthouses and lightvessels in Denmark
Nivaagaard is a historic property in Nivå in the northern outskirts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is now home to an art gallery and the park is open to the public, the estate was founded in 1767 by Adam von Lüttichau when he purchased Nivaa Havnegård from the Crown. The property was from the associated with the Galley Harbour at Nivaa which was planned in 1753. The name Nivaagaard was introduced in 1793, the estate was acquired by Alfred Hage in 1862. The main building was damaged in a fire in 1873. The architect Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen designed a new house which was completed in 1881, Nivaagaard was a dominating factor in Nivaas development over the next decades. The first brickyard on the estate was established by Queen Louise in 1701, by 1720 it produced brick for the royal buildings in Copenhagen and the northern part of Zealand. These activities increased and were modernized in the 1840s, in 1857 the brickyard was one of the first in Denmark to introduce a steam engine in the production chain.
In 1870, eight years after Alfred Hage had acquired the estate, the oven remained in use for 97 years up until 1967. The brickyard closed in 1980 and re-opened as a museum, the ring oven, which is now listed, is the earliest of Hoffmanns designs which still exist today. The art collection was founded by Johannes Hage between 1895 and 1905 and it covered European Renaissance and Baroque painting and Danish Golden Age art. A small museum building in temple style designed by Johan Schrøder was built near the house in 1903. On 30 September 1908 Hage turned his collection into an institution which made it available to the public. He chaired the board until his death in 1923, the management of the museum was professionalized in 1981 and it arranged its first special exhibition in 1983. In 1988 the museum building was expanded with support from the Velux Foundation, the new wing was designed by royal building inspector David Bretton-Meyer. The European collection contains works by Giovanni Bellini, Claude Lorrain, the Danish collection contains works by some of the leading artists of the Danish Golden Age, including C. W.
Eckersberg, Christen Købke, Johan Lundbye, Wilhelm Marstrand, Martinus Rørbye and P. C. The original park was designed by Edvard Glæsel and laid out in 1901–02, a large rhododendron garden was established in 2007. Official website Calendar and exhibitions at Nivaagaard
National Gallery of Denmark
National Gallery of Denmark is the Danish national gallery located in the centre of Copenhagen. The museum collects, maintains and handles Danish, the major part of the museums older collections comes from the art chambers of Danish kings. The display of European Art 1300–1800 is a collection of art over the 500-year period, featuring works by Mantegna, Titian, Rubens. The art is spread over thirteen rooms, and is the oldest art collection in Denmark, with a emphasis on Danish, Flemish, French, Spanish. Danish and Nordic Art 1750-1900 charts Scandinavian art from the beginnings of Danish painting through the ‘Golden Age’ to the birth of Modernism and it displays over 400 works through 24 galleries. It features work by Abildgaard, Eckersberg, Købke, Ring, SMK gained its modern French art collection in 1928 when it was donated by the late collector Johannes Rump. This collection features some of the museum’s most famous pieces from artists such as Matisse, Picasso and Braque. The collection was first offered to the SMK by Rump in 1923, housed in the museum’s 1993 extension, this 20th and 21st century collection is predominantly focused on the most important examples of modern Danish art.
A long corridor of paintings looking onto Østre Anlæg park works as an overview of the work from this period. The beginnings of this collection were made around the time of Christian II, in his diary from 1521 the German painter Albrecht Dürer says he has given the King the best pieces of all my prints. In 1843 the various works, which had so far been the private collection, were displayed to the public. It was moved into the Statens Museum for Kunst when the first building was completed in 1896, along with The Royal Collection of Paintings, although the papers contain a great number of foreign works, Danish art constitutes the main part of the collection. This collection is open to the public through the Print Room, the Royal Cast Collection is held at the West India Warehouse, Toldbodgade 40, between The Little Mermaid and Nyhavn in Copenhagen. It consists of over 2,000 naked plaster casts of statues and reliefs from collections, temples, the Royal Cast Collection is only open for special events.
At the start of the Second World War the art of antiquity became increasingly unfashionable, associated with an archaic artistic tradition. In 1966, as abstract art became popular, the Royal Cast Collection was removed to a barn outside Copenhagen for storage. The collections of the Danish National Gallery originate in the Art Chamber of the Danish monarchs, when the German Gerhard Morell became Keeper of Frederick Vs Art Chamber about 1750, he suggested that the king create a separate collection of paintings. To ensure that the collection was not inferior to those of other European royal houses and local counts, the collection became particularly well provided with Flemish and Dutch art
Gammel Strand is a street and public square in central Copenhagen, Denmark. On the south side it borders on the Slotsholmens Canal while the side is lined by a row of brightly coloured houses from the 18th and 19th century. Across the canal, Thorvaldsens Museum and Christiansborg Palace are seen on the island Slotsholmen, the art gallery Kunstforeningen and the Ministry of Culture are the most notable institutions facing the street. Gammel Strand used to be the site of a natural harbour and it was around this harbour that Copenhagen was founded as a small fishing and trading settlement in the 11th century. However, archeological finds show that the beach at that time was located further inland. The area was marshy and boats were pulled up on the beach. Later land reclamations moved the coastline and a proper harbour developed, Gammel Strand became the site of a fish market, known for the women who would sit in the square at all seasons to sell their fish. Also known as Skovserkoner because they would buy their fish in the fishing village Skovshoved north of Copenhagen.
They were recognized by their characteristic white scarves, in the end space became too scarce and in 1958 a new fish market opened in South Harbour. Most of the buildings along Gammel Strand was completedly destroyed in the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 and it began in a coal and timber storage at Gammelholm, and spread to the area around St. Nicolas Church before moving along Gammel Strand to the area around Gammeltorv and Nytorv. In the following years the houses were rebuilt, most of the houses have been rebuilt and extended with an extra story over the years and exhibit a multitude of different styles. In spite of this the overall impression is very harmonic and Gammel Strand is today considered one of the pret delightful urban spaces in Copenhagen, the oldest house in the street is No.48. Built in 1750 to the design of Philip de Lange, it survived the fire of 1795 without severe damage, in 1796 it was extended with an extra story. Today it houses the Kunstforeningen art gallery, ved Stranden Gammel Strand on indenforvoldene. dk
Copenhagen Court House
The Copenhagen Court House is a historic building located on Nytorv in Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally built as a city hall and courthouse, it now serves as the seat of the District Court of Copenhagen. Inaugurated in 1815, it was built to the design of Christian Frederik Hansen in Neoclassical style, a modern style court of justice, Hof- og Stadsretten, was introduced in Denmark, specifically for Copenhagen, by Johann Friedrich Struensee in 1771. Located in Viborg and Copenhagen, two High Courts were introduced as courts of appeal in 1805 and it was for this emerging legal system that a new courthouse was needed. In the Great Fire of 1795, Copenhagens city hall, located between Nytorv and Gammeltorv, was among the buildings lost to the flames. It was the second city hall at that spot to meet this fate. After the fire, it was decided to build a city hall and courthouse at Nytorv. The project included a jailhouse, Christian Frederik Hansen, the leading Danish architect of the time, was charged with the commission.
Construction started in 1803 and was completed in 1816, the project was delayed by scarcity of building materials as well as the British bombardment of the city in 1807 in the Battle of Copenhagen. Materials from the demolition of Hirschholm Palace were used for the building, the building served its dual purpose for almost 100 years, until the current Copenhagen City Hall was inaugurated in 1905. After that it has exclusively used for the District Court of Copenhagen. The facade is dominated by six large Ionic Columns, flanked by masonry with a number of windows. Behind the columns a staircase leads up to the vestibule with four more Ionic columns, from here a complex network of corridors and stairs connects to the rest of the building. Although the courthouse has been renovated several times, the layout of rooms with columns, reliefs. On each side of the building, it is flanked by a large arch, on the left the arch provides a walkway above the street, connecting the courthouse to the jail on the other side.
The jail building has an expression with small windows. Both the facades of the courthouse and the jail features inscriptions