University of Tokyo
The University of Tokyo, abbreviated as Todai or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Japan. Established in 1877 as the first imperial university, it is one of Japan's most prestigious universities; the university has 10 faculties and enrolls about 30,000 students, 2,100 of whom are international students. Its five campuses are in Hongō, Kashiwa and Nakano, it is among the top type of the select Japanese universities assigned additional funding under the MEXT's Top Global University Project to enhance Japan's global educational competitiveness. The university has graduated many notable alumni, including 17 Prime Ministers, 9 Nobel Prize laureates, 3 Pritzker Prize laureates, 3 astronauts, 1 Fields Medalist; the university was chartered by the Meiji government in 1877 under its current name by amalgamating older government schools for medicine, various traditional scholars and modern learning. It was renamed "the Imperial University" in 1886, Tokyo Imperial University in 1897 when the Imperial University system was created.
In September 1923, an earthquake and the following fires destroyed about 700,000 volumes of the Imperial University Library. The books lost included the Hoshino Library, a collection of about 10,000 books; the books were the former possessions of Hoshino Hisashi before becoming part of the library of the university and were about Chinese philosophy and history. In 1947, after Japan's defeat in World War II, it re-assumed its original name. With the start of the new university system in 1949, Todai swallowed up the former First Higher School and the former Tokyo Higher School, which thenceforth assumed the duty of teaching first- and second-year undergraduates, while the faculties on Hongo main campus took care of third- and fourth-year students. Although the university was founded during the Meiji period, it has earlier roots in the Astronomy Agency, Shoheizaka Study Office, the Western Books Translation Agency; these institutions were government offices established by the 徳川幕府 Tokugawa shogunate, played an important role in the importation and translation of books from Europe.
Kikuchi Dairoku, an important figure in Japanese education, served as president of Tokyo Imperial University. For the 1964 Summer Olympics, the university hosted the running portion of the modern pentathlon event. On 20 January 2012, Todai announced that it would shift the beginning of its academic year from April to September to align its calendar with the international standard; the shift would be phased in over five years. But this unilateral announcement by the president was received badly and the university abandoned the plans. According to the Japan Times, the university had 1,282 professors in February 2012. Of those, 58 were women. In the fall of 2012 and for the first time, the University of Tokyo started two undergraduate programs taught in English and geared toward international students — Programs in English at Komaba — the International Program on Japan in East Asia and the International Program on Environmental Sciences. In 2014, the School of Science at the University of Tokyo introduced an all-English undergraduate transfer program called Global Science Course.
The University of Tokyo is organized into 15 graduate schools. Todai Law School is considered as one of the top Law schools in Japan, ranking top in the number of successful candidates of Japanese Bar Examination in 2009 and 2010. Eduniversal ranked Japanese business schools, the Faculty of Economics in Todai is placed 4th in Japan; the University of Tokyo is considered a top research institution of Japan. It receives the largest amount of national grants for research institutions, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, receiving 40% more than the University with 2nd largest grants and 90% more than the University with 3rd largest grants; this massive financial investment from the Japanese government directly affects Todai's research outcomes. According to Thomson Reuters, Todai is the best research university in Japan, its research excellence is distinctive in Physics, Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Materials Science and Immunology. In another ranking, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers, Todai was placed 4th in this ranking.
Weekly Diamond reported that Todai has the 3rd highest research standard in Japan in terms of research fundings per researchers in COE Program. In the same article, it's ranked 21st in terms of the quality of education by GP funds per student. Todai has been recognized for its research in the social sciences and humanities. In January 2011, Repec ranked Todai's Economics department as Japan's best economics research university, and it is the only Japanese university within world top 100. Todai has produced 9 presidents of the Japanese Economic Association, the largest number in the association. Asahi Shimbun summarized the amount of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, Todai was ranked top during 2005-2009; the University's School of Science and the Earthquake Research Institute are both r
Aspero is a well-studied Late Preceramic site of the ancient Norte Chico civilization, located at the mouth of the Supe river on the north-central Peruvian coast. The site covers an area of 35 acres and is made up of two large platform mounds, Huaca de los Sacrificios and Huaca de los Idolos, along with 15 other smaller mounds. After excavations archaeologists have found that each mound was built in stages, having two or three tiers rising about 10m about the surface, they have found ceremonial buildings, plazas and large middens. Caches were found in these structures including clay figurines, wooden bowls, feathers and string and cane objects; the diet of Aspero is believed to have been maritime because of its proximity to the Pacific Ocean. Fish hooks and nets have been found in trash middens and domestic contexts to support this idea. Research at the site led to the controversial "Maritime Foundations of Andean culture" theory, which suggests that the initial development of ancient Peruvian culture was based on fishing, shellfish collecting, hunting sea mammals, rather than agriculture.
The idea is disputed by other scholars who claim there is evidence of earlier, inland sites where irrigation agriculture was widespread. New technology has led to the discoveries that changed our views of Aspero. Carbon dating has given a more exact date, while connecting Aspero to other more agriculturally based inland sites. Carbon dating of the communal structures of the local sites surrounding the Supe Valley places Aspero within 3700~2500 cal. B. C. or the middle to late Archaic Period. These connections have led archaeologists to believe that Aspero wasn't a maritime culture, but an agriculture based community with more local maritime traits. Meaning Aspero exploited the knowledge of agriculture from the inland sites; this does not disprove the maritime theory because Aspero was taking advantage of its proximity to the Pacific Ocean for maritime resources. These new dates not only provide an insight in how Aspero developed, in addition is shows the cultural connection that Aspero had with its neighboring sites.
Although it's been tough for researchers because of the modern use of the site as a landfill. They have established a general timeline in which links Aspero and its adjacent sites to a much larger cultural system that spread across several valleys. Andean preceramic Huaricanga Giesso, Martin, 2008, Historical Dictionary of Ancient South America, The Scarecrow Press Inc. Lanham, Maryland and Plymouth, UK. Isbell William, H. and Helaine Silverman, 2006, Andean Archaeology III: North and South, Springer. Moseley, Michael E. 2001, The Incas and their Ancestors. The Archaeology of Peru. Revised Edition. Thames & Hudson Pozoroski Shelia and Thomas Pozoroski, 2008, Early Cultural Complexity on the Coast of Peru, in The Handbook of American Archaeology, edited by Helaine Silverman and William H. Isbell, Springer, pp: 603-631. Sandweiss, D. H.. "Environmental change and economic development in coastal Peru between 5,800 and 3,600 years ago". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106: 1359. Doi:10.1073/pnas.0812645106.
PMC 2635784. PMID 19164564. Stanish, Charles, 2001, The Origin of State Societies in South America. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 30, pp. 41–64. Aspero archaeology.about.com
Suriname known as the Republic of Suriname, is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers, it is the smallest sovereign state in South America. Suriname has a population of 558,368, most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo. Suriname was long inhabited by various indigenous people before being invaded and contested by European powers from the 16th century coming under Dutch rule in the late 17th century; as the chief sugar colony during the Dutch colonial period, it was a plantation economy dependent on African slaves and, following the abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia. Suriname was ruled by the Dutch-chartered company Sociëteit van Suriname between 1683 and 1795. In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
On 25 November 1975, the country of Suriname left the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining close economic and cultural ties to its former colonizer. Suriname is considered to be a culturally Caribbean country, is a member of the Caribbean Community. While Dutch is the official language of government, business and education, Sranan Tongo, an English-based creole language, is a used lingua franca. Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside Europe where Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population; as a legacy of colonization, the people of Suriname are among the most diverse in the world, spanning a multitude of ethnic and linguistic groups. The name Suriname may derive from an indigenous people called Surinen, who inhabited the area at the time of European contact. British settlers, who founded the first European colony at Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River, spelled the name as "Surinam"; when the territory was taken over by the Dutch, it became part of a group of colonies known as Dutch Guiana.
The official spelling of the country's English name was changed from "Surinam" to "Suriname" in January 1978, but "Surinam" can still be found in English. A notable example is Surinam Airways; the older English name is reflected in the English pronunciation. In Dutch, the official language of Suriname, the pronunciation is, with the main stress on the third syllable and a schwa terminal vowel. Indigenous settlement of Suriname dates back to 3,000 BC; the largest tribes were a nomadic coastal tribe that lived from hunting and fishing. They were the first inhabitants in the area; the Carib settled in the area and conquered the Arawak by using their superior sailing ships. They settled in Galibi at the mouth of the Marowijne River. While the larger Arawak and Carib tribes lived along the coast and savanna, smaller groups of indigenous people lived in the inland rainforest, such as the Akurio, Trió, Wayana. Beginning in the 16th century, French and English explorers visited the area. A century Dutch and English settlers established plantation colonies along the many rivers in the fertile Guiana plains.
The earliest documented colony in Guiana was an English settlement named Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River. After that there was another short-lived English colony called Willoughbyland that lasted from 1650 to 1674. Disputes arose between the English for control of this territory. In 1667, during negotiations leading to the Treaty of Breda, the Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of Suriname they had gained from the English; the English were able to keep New Amsterdam, the main city of the former colony of New Netherland in North America on the mid-Atlantic coast. A cultural and economic hub in those days, they renamed it after the Duke of York: New York City. In 1683, the Society of Suriname was founded by the city of Amsterdam, the Van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck family, the Dutch West India Company; the society was chartered to defend the colony. The planters of the colony relied on African slaves to cultivate and process the commodity crops of coffee, sugar cane and cotton plantations along the rivers.
Planters' treatment of the slaves was notoriously bad—historian C. R. Boxer wrote that "man's inhumanity to man just about reached its limits in Surinam"—and many slaves escaped the plantations. With the help of the native South Americans living in the adjoining rain forests, these runaway slaves established a new and unique culture in the interior, successful in its own right, they were known collectively in English as Maroons, in French as Nèg'Marrons, in Dutch as Marrons. The Maroons developed several independent tribes through a process of ethnogenesis, as they were made up of slaves from different African ethnicities; these tribes include the Saramaka, Ndyuka or Aukan, Aluku or Boni, Matawai. The Maroons raided plantations to recruit new members from the slaves and capture women, as well as to acquire weapons and supplies, they sometimes killed their families in the raids. The colonists mounted armed campaigns against the Maroons, who escaped through the rain forest, which they knew much better than did the colonis
Ahuila Gencha Machay
Ahuila Gencha Machay is an archaeological site with cave paintings in Peru. It lies in Huamalíes Province, Singa District, it is situated at a height of about 3,853 metres. Quillcay Machay Huata
Cumbemayo or Cumbe Mayo is an archaeological site located 20 kilometers southwest of the city of Cajamarca in Peru at 3,500 meters of elevation. Built around 1500 B. C. E, it comprises a grotto and petroglyphs; the aqueduct and the petroglyphs at Cumbemayo are thought to be built circa 1500 - 1000 BC, the petroglpyhs being similar to those of Chavín culture. One of the main attractions of Cumbemayo, or "Narrow River" in Cajamarca Quechua, is the aqueduct; this is a canal of 9 km in length carved in volcanic rock to divert the water from the hills to cultivation fields and a large reservoir. Heading towards the aqueduct one can observe some stairways sculpted in stone, a carved stone, used as a ceremonial altar. Prominent is the Sanctuary a huge cliff resembling a man's head, whose mouth would be a grotto, where interesting but undecipherable petroglyphs have been found; the caves and shelters of the area evidence other stone engravings, where visitors claim to see anthropomorphic images. The aqueduct winds down the hills toward the city of Cajamarca, stretching out over about five miles in length.
The canals brought water from the high grounds to the valleys below, valuable during times of water scarcity. A number of petroglyphs are scattered around the aqueduct and in surrounding caves; these symbols provide additional insight into the people. Los Frailones are some stretching as high as 60 feet; the stone forests appear from the landscape, starkly contrasting the flat, grass-covered plains around Cajamarca. The erosive forces of wind and rain carved out the pillars. Many of the pillars, carved by wind and rain have taken on new shapes, resembling hands and animals, allowing the mind to wander in the pristine Peruvian setting, their impressive and rare geological formations, where some will identify the shapes of monks forming part of procession. Agricultural history of Peru
Chauchilla Cemetery is a cemetery that contains prehispanic mummified human remains and archeological artifacts, located 30 kilometres south of the city of Nazca in Peru. The cemetery was discovered in the 1920s, but had not been used since the 9th century AD; the cemetery includes many important burials over a period of 600 to 700 years. The start of the interments was in about 200 AD, it is important as a source of archaeology to Nazca culture. The cemetery has been extensively plundered by huaqueros who have left human bones and pottery scattered around the area. Similar local cemeteries have been damaged to a greater extent; the site has been protected by Peruvian law since 1997 and tourists pay around seven U. S. dollars to take the two-hour tour of this ancient necropolis. The site can be accessed via a dirt road from the Panamerican Highway. In 1997, the majority of the scattered bones and plundered pottery were restored to the tombs; the bodies are so remarkably preserved due to the dry climate in the Peruvian Desert but the funeral rites were a contributing factor.
The bodies were clothed in embroidered cotton and painted with a resin and kept in purpose-built tombs made from mud bricks. The resin is thought to have slowed bacteria trying to feed on the bodies; the nearby site of Estaquería may provide clues to the remarkable preservation of the numerous bodies in these cemeteries. At that site, archeologists found wooden pillars thought to have been used for astronomical sightings. However, it is now believed; this may account for the high degree of preservation seen in thousand-year-old bodies which still have hair and the remains of soft tissue, such as skin. Chauchilla Cemetery is the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Though not called by name in the film, the cemetery is explicitly identified in the screenplay, promotional materials, merchandise; this fictionalized version of the cemetery features a number of embellishments, including mask-wearing Nazcan guards and a hidden, underground burial chamber accessible through the barrows. The cemetery is depicted as being built on a promontory overlooking the Nazca Valley, offering the characters a view of the famous Nazca Lines.
Cupisnique was a pre-Columbian culture which flourished from ca. 1500 to 500 BC along what is now Peru's northern Pacific Coast. The culture had a distinctive style of adobe clay architecture but shared artistic styles and religious symbols with the Chavin culture which arose in the same area at a date; the relationship between Chavin and Cupisnique is not well understood, the names are sometimes used interchangeably. For instance, the scholar Alana Cordy-Collins treats as Cupisnique a culture lasting from 1000 – 200 BC, which are the dates some associate with the Chavin culture. Izumi Shimada calls Cupisnique a possible ancestor of Mochica culture with no mention of Chavin. Anna C. Roosevelt refers to "the coastal manifestation of the Chavin Horizon...dominated by the Cupisnique style". A Cupisnique adobe temple was discovered in 2008 in the Lambayeque valley in the area of the archaeological site of Ventarron; the newly discovered temple is close to the Ventarron temple. This temple sheds some light on the connection between the Cupisnique and the Chavin because of shared iconography.
In fact, some other related temples have been discovered in the area recently. The Chavin people who came after the Cupisnique built a temple adjacent to Collud about three hundred years later. All three temples are close together, form a single archaeological site. There are many shared elements between all three locations. For example, one common element is that of the Spider Creator god with his net; this motif appears to persevere from the 4,000-year-old temple of Ventarrón all the way to the Moche culture. The temple found in 2008 includes imagery of the "spider god", thought to be associated with rainfall and warfare; the spider god image combines a spider's neck and head, with the mouth of a large cat and the beak of a bird. The only decapitator creature that by nature decapitates its victims heads is the spider. According to the team leader Walter Alva, "Cupisnique and Chavin shared the same gods and the same architectural and artistic forms, showing intense religious interaction among the cultures of the Early Formative Period from the north coast to the Andes and down to the central Andes."
The reason the Moche and the Cupisnique are sometimes referred to interchangeably is due to their similarities in ceramic designs. The Moche were the most “vibrant” in incorporating the cupisnique society of the emerging cultures that had a base population of farming and fishing along with a middle and elite class; the main connection between the Cupisnique and the Moche is the incorporation of the decapitation theme where there exists a decapitator and a decapitated character. In the Cupisnique society, “the decapitators appear in five supernatural guises: human, bird and spider…” Moche decapitators are the same five plus two additional characters: the crab and the scorpion. Below are images of the main five decpitators from the Moche culture. Scholars believe that the parallelism between Moche and Cupisnique iconography is not just coincidental; the Cupisnique people are sometimes spoken of as a cult due to two main reasons. The first reason being that there had been “little direct evidence of their patterns of social organization, demography, or subsistence strategies”.
The second reason being the buildings embellished with painted, incised stucco relief work depicting surreal creatures”. The Cupisnique seem to be rooted by religion, which seemed to have influenced into emerging character cultures such as the Salinar, Gallinazo, as mentioned the Moche culture. One of the most important Cupisnique sites was Caballo Muerto in the Moche Valley. Archaeologists excavated the Cupisnique site of Limoncarro in the Guadalupe District, Pacasmayo, La Libertad Region of northern Peru coast. Two phases of construction were identified. Kuntur Wasi is another site, influenced by the Cupisnique culture. Archaeological mirrors from Cupisnique sites have been identified, dating to 900-200 BC, they provide high quality images. Cultural periods of Peru Pre-Columbian population Columbian Exchange Ancient Peruvian ceramics: the Nathan Cummings collection by Alan R. Sawyer, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Cupisnique