Reaction Time (book)
Reaction Time: Climate Change and the Nuclear Option is a book by Professor Ian Lowe, launched by science broadcaster Robyn Williams at the Writers' Festival in Brisbane in September 2007. The book is about energy policy, Lowe argues that nuclear power does not make sense on any level: economically, politically or socially. Ian Lowe, AO, explains that energy is essential for civilised living, says our energy-intensive lifestyle based on fossil fuels is unsustainable, that he believes fundamental improvements must be made. In his book he says: "the nuclear option does not make sense on any level: economically, politically or socially, it is too costly, too dangerous, too slow and has too small an impact on global warming." "Promoting nuclear power as the solution to climate change is like advocating smoking as a cure for obesity. That is, taking up the nuclear option will make it much more difficult to move to the sort of sustainable, ecologically healthy future that should be our goal." Professor Lowe is the Emeritus professor of Science and Society at Griffith University and the former President of the Australian Conservation Foundation.
A Big Fix Anti-nuclear movement in Australia Chernobyl disaster Contesting the Future of Nuclear Power Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy List of books about nuclear issues Living in the Hothouse Non-Nuclear Futures Nuclear or Not? Renewable energy commercialization The Clean Tech Revolution List of Australian environmental books Is nuclear the answer? Quarterly Essay Nuclear Power's Global Expansion: Weighing Its Costs and Risks
The Wilderness Society (Australia)
The Wilderness Society is an Australian, community-based, not-for-profit non-governmental environmental advocacy organisation. Its vision is to "transform Australia into a society that protects and connects with the natural world that sustains us."It is a community-based organisation with a philosophy of non-violence and consensus decision-making. While the Wilderness Society is a politically unaligned group, it engages the community to lobby politicians and parties; the Wilderness Society comprises a number of separately incorporated organisations and has Campaign Centres located in all Australian capital cities and a number of regional centres. The Wilderness Society was formed as the Tasmanian Wilderness Society and was transition from the South West Tasmania Action Committee; the group was established in 1976 from the members of the Lake Pedder Action Committee and the Southwest Tasmania Action Committee Along with the United Tasmania Group, they had protested against the earlier flooding of Lake Pedder.
The group had established interstate branches as the South West Tasmania Action Committee, so it was a nationwide organisation. All but four of the twenty-three people attending the inaugural meeting of the Tasmanian Wilderness Society in 1976 were members of the United Tasmania Group. Following the success of the campaign against the Franklin Dam, the national approach being more important due to other issues interstate, it became known as The Wilderness Society. In the year 2005, Tasmanian forestry business Gunns brought a litigation case against the group in the Melbourne Supreme Court, in a case dubbed the "Gunns 20", claiming that the activities of environmental activists had damaged Gunns' profits. Gunns claimed $3.5 million from the Wilderness Society, but in March 2009, Gunns was ordered to pay the Wilderness Society $350,000 in damages and to cease the action. The Wilderness Society spent considerable energy in its first decades of existence arguing that wilderness was a specific quality in parts of Australia's environment, vital to preserve for future generations.
The political response in most states of Australia is that there are now wilderness inventories and acknowledgement of areas of wilderness. The Wilderness Society's campaigns include: stopping logging in old growth forests preventing destruction of endangered species habitats; the concert featured performances from The John Butler Trio, Clare Bowditch and Missy Higgins, a speech by former leader of the Australian Greens and former TWS director, Dr Bob Brown. In November 2013 the Wilderness Society unveiled their Game Changer proposal. Game Changer acknowledged the changed role of the Wilderness Society's to protect nature across the country; the organisation highlighted protecting nature against the current threats of climate change, fossil fuel extraction and the winding back of environmental laws as key challenges Australia faced in the 21st century. Traditionally fundraising was performed through The Wilderness Society Shops; the shops were popular for their calendars and posters by photographers such as Peter Dombrovskis and Olegas Truchanas, were central locations for the public to make donations and for members to meet.
Since the rise of the internet, fundraising has become centralised around internet based activities, such as the TWS website, online store and extensive email lists, although it still contacts supporters through regular postal communications as well. As of 2013, TWS maintained physical shops in Hobart and Launceston in Tasmania, Newcastle, New South Wales, however limited merchandise could be purchased at the campaign centres located in each state capital; the Wilderness Society now raises funds through a number of sources donations, including advocacy gifts and gifts in wills, subscriptions from members, sales of merchandise, interest and other investment income. For the 2012 financial year the Society had a total income of $13,780,530, with 86% of this raised through donations, 6% through investments, 5% from members subscriptions, 2% from grants, 1% from sales. For the same year total expenses were $13,705,494, distributed as 52% on campaigning, 19% on investment in new members and supporters, 13% on organisational support and governance, 16% on income generation.
The inaugural director of The Wilderness Society was Kevin Kiernan, followed by Norm Sanders, elected to the seat of Denison in the Tasmanian Parliament in 1980 for the Australian Democrats. He was Australia's first parliamentarian to be elected on an environmental platform. Dr. Bob Brown, became the director of The Wilderness Society in 1978, with him the group increased their influence on Tasmanian politics. Brown was elected to the Tasmanian parliament in 1983 to fill the vacancy left when Norm Sanders resigned his seat, with the group of fellow conservationists elected subsequently, he went on to become part of the political party known as the Tasmanian Greens. Bob Brown was elected to represent Tasmania and the Greens in the Senate in the Federal parliament. While The Wilderness Society has worked with the Australian Greens on certain campaigns, it is not affiliated with them or any other poli
Ian Cohen is a former Australian politician and member of the Greens New South Wales. Cohen was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Council in 1995 as its first Green member, he retired from parliament in 2011. After attending Fort Street High School, Cohen attended and graduated from the University of New South Wales with the degree of Bachelor of Arts and earned a Graduate Diploma in Education. Cohen has organised and participated in many major environmental campaigns in Australia during the 1980s: Nightcap rainforests in Northern NSW, Franklin River, South East forests NSW, North Washpool and Chaelundi, he has participated in anti-nuclear campaigns including those at the Honeymoon and Roxby Downs uranium mines. Cohen's involvement in such campaigns was characterised by front-line protest action. Cohen was a founder of the Sydney Peace Squadron and the Brisbane Peace and Environment fleet and came to international attention in 1986 when photographed on a surfboard, while clinging to the bow of the destroyer USS Oldendorf, as she pulled into Sydney Harbour to participate in the 75th Anniversary of the Royal Australian Navy.
He was reported on ABC news as stating of the incident: "I think we sent a strong message to the powers that be at that stage of the Cold War that there were Australians who objected in a non-violent manner to the entry of nuclear warships into Sydney Harbour." Cohen joined the Greens in 1984. He contested the Senate in 1984 and 1993. After contesting a seat in the state upper house in 1991, in March 1995 he was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Council as its first Green member. In September 1995, he was involved in organising a parliamentary delegation to protest against French nuclear testing in the Pacific. In March 2003, he was re-elected to the NSW Legislative Council for a second 8-year term, he was involved, as a Member of the State Development Committee in Parliament, in enquiries into the Viability of Rural Towns, Sustainable Agriculture, Fisheries, as well as looking into issues such as salinity. He established the Genetic Engineering Committee to investigate Genetic Engineering in Agriculture.
He has worked on a number of Joint Select Committees, undertaking a pioneering investigation into Medically Supervised Injecting Rooms, investigating the Northside Sewerage Tunnel. Cohen retired from parliament in 2011 and has since spoken out against the Boycott and Sanctions campaign supported by some sections of the party and the party's decision not to preference the Labor Party. Ian Cohen MLC Anti-nuclear activists in sea protest
Margaret Joan Holmes was an Australian peace activist during the Vietnam War and as part of the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship. She founded the NSW branch of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in 1960, in 2001 was made a Member of the Order of Australia for her services to the community. Margaret was born into a wealthy Sydney family, the eldest of five children, grew up in Wahroonga, she attended The Women's College, University of Sydney, where she was the first female student to have a car, studied medicine. While at university, Margaret became involved with the Christian Student Movement and identified with Christian pacifism, she graduated with a Bachelor of Science and in 1933 married a doctor, Dr. T. A. G. Holmes, instead of becoming one. Margaret and Tag Holmes built a large family home in Military Road, Mosman, a suburb on Sydney's Lower North Shore. Here Dr Holmes had his medical practice and they raised six children. At the beginning of World War II, as many Europeans escaped to Australia, the Holmeses established the "50-50 Club", a weekly social evening where "new Australians" could get to know the locals and better integrate into their new society.
These cultural events were attended by many European artists and intellectuals with musical performances and national dishes from afar. However, as the threat of war entered the Pacific and blackouts and curfews were imposed in Sydney, the Holmeses were informed by the police that these gatherings should end. In 1959, Margaret made a world trip to attend the congress of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in Stockholm; as there was no Sydney branch of WILPF at that time, she joined as an international member. This was to be the beginning of a long and active involvement with WILPF, including founding the NSW Branch when she returned from the congress, her trip included travelling to Russia and to India. It was in the 1960s during the Vietnam War, she led demonstrations including the walk-out and was a regular campaigner in downtown Sydney, participating in prayer vigils, candlelight vigils, public meetings and leaflet distribution. During this time she became active in campaigning for Aboriginal rights and nuclear disarmament.
Her biography, Margaret Holmes – The life and times of an Australian peace campaigner, written by Michelle Cavanagh, was published in 2006. Her life has been documented in various oral histories and other material, some of, held by the Australian War Memorial. In 2001, Margaret was made a Member of the Order of Australia at the Queen's Birthday Honours, "for service to the community through organisations promoting peace, human rights and conflict resolution as a member of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom", she had been a reluctant nominee for the award, only accepting it in the hope that it might help to promote WILPF. Margaret celebrated her 100th birthday on 24 January 2009 at her home in Sydney, in the company of her six children and nearly all of her nine grandchildren and ten great-grandchildren, she died peacefully on 10 September 2009 in Coffs Harbour, Australia at the home of her eldest son Bill. Powerful voice for peace and freedom - Margaret Holmes' obituary in the Sydney Morning Herald, published October 3, 2009 Tribute to Mrs Margaret Holmes by Ms Lee Rhiannon, NSW Parliament, 20 September 2006 "Cobbittee capers", memoir contributed by Margaret Holmes to Mosman Memories, 23 October 2006 Article by Keith Suter: Greenleft article: Margaret Holmes: living the fight against war Oral history interview with Margaret Holgate, Mosman Voices, 17 November 2000 Interview in The Australians at War
Britain, Australia and the Bomb
Britain and the Bomb: the Nuclear Tests and Their Aftermath is a 2006 book by Lorna Arnold and Mark Smith. It is the second edition of an official history first published in 1987 by HMSO under another title: A Very Special Relationship: British Atomic Weapons Trials in Australia; the book uses declassified material that has become available in the two decades prior to the book's publication. It covers the clean-up operations in the Maralinga Range and epidemiological studies on the health of the atomic test participants. Lorna Arnold was a Fellow of both the Institute of Physics and Institute of Contemporary British History. Mark Smith is a Research Fellow at the Mountbatten Centre for International Studies, University of Southampton. Nuclear tests in Australia Maralinga: Australia's Nuclear Waste Cover-up McClelland Royal Commission
Kevin Buzzacott referred to as Uncle Kev as an Aboriginal elder, is an Indigenous Australian from the Arabunna nation in northern South Australia. He has campaigned for cultural recognition and land rights for Aboriginal people, has initiated and led numerous campaigns including against uranium mining at Olympic Dam, South Australia on Kokatha land and the exploitation of the water from the Great Artesian Basin, he is affectionately known as'Uncle Kev' and is respected by both Indigenous and Non-indigenous Australians for his ongoing efforts for protection of country and spirit. In 2001 Kevin Buzzacott was awarded the prestigious Nuclear-Free Future Award, in Ireland, which provided him with an opportunity to travel to Europe and speak to supporters of Indigenous land rights; the Australian Conservation Foundation awarded Buzzacott the 2007 Peter Rawlinson Award for two decades of work highlighting the impacts of uranium mining and promoting a nuclear free Australia. ACF Executive Director Don Henry describing him in the award citation as A passionate and effective advocate for sustainable water management and for responsibility and recognition of the rights and traditional knowledge of Australia’s Indigenous peoples.
Kevin is an activist, an advocate and an educator. He has travelled tirelessly, talking to groups large and small about the impacts of uranium mining and the threats posed by the nuclear industry. Kevin has had a profound impact on the lives of many people – young people – with his many tours and ‘on-country’ events. For many young activists ‘Uncle Kev’ is an unsung hero and, against the current pro-nuclear tide, his is a important struggle and story. In April 1999, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Alexander Downer, the Minister for the Environment, Robert Hill, formally refused to pursue the World Heritage listing of Lake Eyre, instead allowing a mining company, BHP Billiton to commence mining operations; the appellant, Kevin Buzzacott, claimed that Downer's failure to pursue World Heritage listing amounted to genocide against his people. Buzzacott v Minister for the Environment was heard in the Federal Court of Australia and was decided in favour of the Government. Buzzacott initiated a Peace Walk from Lake Eyre to the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney and another from the Olympic Dam Uranium Mine to Hiroshima, Japan.
In 2002 Buzzacott reclaimed his tribes' Emu and Kangaroo totems used in the Australian Coat of Arms from outside Parliament House, Canberra. He was forcibly arrested 3 years at the Aboriginal Tent Embassy for theft of the Coat of Arms; this resulted in a lengthy court battle where he served the government with a counter writ on charges of genocide. In 2003 the Special Broadcasting Service and the Australian Film Commission Indigenous Unit produced a documentary called We of Little Voice in the Australia By Numbers series, which featured Kevin Buzzacott on a journey through northern South Australia to hear the stories of Aboriginal elders who have experienced the effects of the nuclear industry from uranium mining to nuclear testing, he has given support to the Aboriginal Tent Embassy in Canberra where he lit the Fire for Justice in 1998. He was involved in the 2006 Camp Sovereignty at the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, referred to by many indigenous people as the Stolen-wealth Games.
In Melbourne on 21 April 2007 a group of non-indigenous and indigenous supporters raised money in support of his efforts to raise awareness about uranium mining issues. In February 2012, Kevin Buzzacott challenged the Commonwealth Environment Minister Tony Burke's environmental approval of the Olympic Dam mine expansion. Environmental approval had been granted by state and federal governments in October 2011.'Uncle Kev' was represented by the Environmental Defenders' Office and appeared in the Federal Court in Adelaide on 3 and 4 April 2012. His challenge was unsuccessful and was dismissed on April 20, 2012. An appeal of the judge's decision in 2013 was unsuccessful. Uncle Kevin Buzzacott has featured in several documentary films, including First Fleet Back and Far and shorts by filmmakers including Jessi Boylan and Pip Starr. Keepers of Lake Eyre website Short video of Uncle Kev in action by Pip Starr First Fleet Back made by Tall Storeez Cuttlefish Country documentary film by Danimations
Helen Mary Caldicott is an Australian physician and anti-nuclear advocate who has founded several associations dedicated to opposing the use of nuclear power, depleted uranium munitions, nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons proliferation, military action in general. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Caldicott became a leader in the antinuclear movement in the United States through her role in reviving the organization Physicians for Social Responsibility, she helped to found several other organizations which worked to abolish controlled nuclear fission. In the 1980s, she was effective in bringing nuclear issues to the forefront. Caldicott splits her time between the United States and Australia and continues to lecture to promote her views on nuclear energy use, including weapons and power. Helen Caldicott was born on 7 August 1938, in Melbourne, the daughter of a factory manager, Philip Broinowski, Mary Mona Enyd Broinowski, an interior designer, she attended public-school except for four years at Fintona Girls School in Adelaide, a private secondary school.
When she was 17, she enrolled at the medical school of University of Adelaide. In 1962, she married William Caldicott, a pediatric radiologist, who has worked with her in her campaigns, they have three children, Philip and William Jr. Caldicott and her husband moved to Boston in 1966 where she entered a three-year fellowship in nutrition at Harvard Medical School. Returning to Adelaide in 1969, she accepted a position in the renal unit of Queen Elizabeth Hospital. In the early 1970s, she completed a two-year internship in pediatrics, she set up a clinic for cystic fibrosis. In 1977, she joined the staff of the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston and taught pediatrics at the Harvard Medical School from 1977 to 1978. Caldicott's interest in the dangers of nuclear energy was sparked when she read the 1957 Nevil Shute novel On the Beach, about a nuclear holocaust set in Australia. In the 1970s, she rose to prominence as a public figure in Australia and subsequently New Zealand and North America, speaking on the health hazards of radiation from her professional perspective as a pediatrician.
Her early achievements included convincing Australia to sue France over its atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the Pacific in 1971 and 1972, which brought the practice to an end. She informed Australian labor unions about the medical and military dangers of uranium mining. Following the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, Caldicott left her medical career to concentrate on calling the world's attention to what she refers to as the "insanity" of the nuclear arms race and the growing reliance on nuclear power. In 1980, she founded the Women's Action for Nuclear Disarmament in the United States, renamed Women's Action for New Directions, it is a group dedicated to reducing or redirecting government spending away from nuclear energy use towards what the group perceives as unmet social issues. During her time in the United States from 1977 to 1986, Caldicott was the founding president from 1978 to 1983 of Physicians for Social Responsibility, she helped to recruit 23,000 doctors committed to educating the public and their colleagues on the dangers of nuclear energy.
She worked abroad to establish similar national groups that focused on education about the medical dangers of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons and nuclear war. The umbrella organisation International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985. In 1995 Caldicott returned to the US where she lectured for the New School of Social Research on the Media, Global Politics, the Environment, she hosted a weekly radio show on WBAI and became the Founding President of the STAR Foundation. Her sixth book, The New Nuclear Danger: George W. Bush’s Military Industrial Complex, was published in 2001. While touring with that book, she founded the Nuclear Policy Research Institute, headquartered in Washington, D. C. NPRI facilitated an ongoing public education campaign in the mainstream media about the dangers of nuclear energy, including weapons and power programs and policies, it was led by Executive Director Julie R. Enszer. NPRI attempted to create a consensus to end all uses of nuclear energy by means of public education campaigns, establishing a presence in the mainstream media, sponsoring high-profile symposia.
NPRI has now morphed into Beyond Nuclear. In 2008 Caldicottelen Caldicott Foundation for a Nuclear Free Future; the foundation hosted a weekly radio show called "If You Love This Planet". The foundation operates a website called NuclearFreePlanet.org with information and data on nuclear power and weapons and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. In April 2011, Caldicott was involved in a public argument in UK newspaper The Guardian with British journalist George Monbiot. Monbiot expressed great concern at what he saw as a failure by Caldicott to provide adequate justification for many of her arguments. Regarding Caldicott's book Nuclear Power is Not The Answer he wrote, "The scarcity of references to scientific papers and the abundance of unsourced claims it contains amaze me." Caldicott wrote, "As we have seen, he and other nuclear industry apologists sow confusion about radiation risks, and, in my view, in much the same way that the tobacco industry did in previous decades about the risks of smoking.".
In 2014, Physicians for Social Responsibility hosted a lecture on "Fukushima's Ongoing Impact" by Caldicott in Seattle, Washingto