Cobb & Co
Cobb & Co was the name used by many successful sometimes quite independent Australian coaching businesses. The first was established in 1853 by his partners; the name Cobb & Co grew to great prominence in the late 19th century, when it was carried by many stagecoaches carrying passengers and mail to various Australian goldfields, to many regional and remote areas of the Australian outback. The same name was used in New Zealand and Freeman Cobb used it in South Africa. Although the Queensland branch of the company made an effort to transition to automobiles in the early twentieth century, high overhead costs and the growth of alternative transport options for mail, including rail and air, saw the final demise of Cobb & Co; the last Australian Cobb & Co stagecoach ran in Queensland in August 1924. Cobb & Co has become an established part of Australian folklore commemorated in art, literature and on screen. Today the name is used by a number of Australian bus operators; the original Cobb & Co was established in Melbourne in 1853 at the height of the excitement created by the Victorian goldrushes by four newly arrived North Americans - Freeman Cobb, John Murray Peck, James Swanton and John B.
Lamber. At first they traded as the "American Telegraph Line of Coaches," a name that emphasized speed and progressiveness. With financial support from another newly arrived US businessman George Train, they arranged the importation of several US-built wagons and Concord stagecoaches. By early 1854 Cobb & Co operated a daily service to Forest Creek and Bendigo and, soon afterwards, expanded the service to Geelong and Ballarat and other goldfields. Cobb & Co's horses were changed at stages every 10–15 miles along a stagecoach "line" at inns or hotels that could cater for the needs of drivers and passengers; as Historian Susan Priestley notes, "Coach lines did not attempt to compete with... railways. Instead, as rail lines extended, coaches were transferred to feeder routes and were timetabled to link in with trains."Within a few years, Cobb & Co had established a reputation for efficiency and reliability, although they had not won any of the lucrative mail contracts. Their imported stagecoaches used thorough-brace technology whereby thick straps of leather suspended the body of the vehicle providing the passenger with considerable comfort on the rough roads to the goldfields when compared to coaches with traditional steel-springs.
In May 1856, the four partners sold out. Cobb and Lamber returned to the US. John Peck stayed in Melbourne to establish a stock and station agency. Passing through the hands of a number of owners Cobb & Co rose to greater prominence after 1861 when it was bought by a consortium of partners led by another North American, James Rutherford, who like Cobb had arrived during the gold rush. Rutherford's partners included Alexander William Robertson, John Wagner, Walter Russell Hall, William Franklin Whitney and Walter Bradley. Rutherford re-organised and extended the Victorian services and won a monopoly on major mail contracts. By 1870 most of Victoria was serviced by a network of coach routes. In June 1862 Rutherford oversaw the extension of the business into New South Wales following news of the Lambing Flat gold rush. Rutherford moved ten coaches from Bendigo to Bathurst with great publicity to announce and establish Cobb & Co's presence. Bathurst became the headquarters of a new syndicate led by four others.
Rutherford had intended to spend 6 months in Bathurst, but stayed on to the end of his days, becoming one of the city's leading citizens. Rutherford established a Cobb & Co buggy and coachworks in Bathurst, the firm began to invest in properties - the first being "Buckiinguy" station near Nyngan, New South Wales. On the road, Cobb & Co began forcing out many New South Wales competitors. In 1865 Cobb & Co again this time into Queensland; the first Cobb & Co service in Queensland was between Brisbane. Services soon expanded into all parts of Queensland and otherwise isolated communities were able to maintain regular contact with the rest of the world. In 1881 the business was transferred to a limited liability company with a capital of £50,000; the largest transport enterprise in Queensland it ran some 3000 horses a total of around 10,000 miles a week. A large coachworks was established at Charleville in 1886, it turned out a variety of vehicles including over 120 coaches. In 1871 the formal links between the Victorian Cobb & Co and Rutherford's New South Wales and Queensland operation were dissolved but harmonious relations continued.
In Victoria coaches carrying the name "Cobb & Co" were operated by four local coaching firms running particular routes by mutual agreement and cooperation. In time successive operators of the various Victorian stagecoach lines would continue to use the trading name Cobb & Co. In the separate colony of South Australia an independent Cobb & Co Limited took over the South Australian mail and coach business of William Rounsevell in 1866 after several years of ruinous competition, its ownership was held by four interests of a quarter each. One quarter by Canadians, Peleg Whitford Jackson & Jasper Bingham Meggs; this business was taken over by John Hill & Co and years was merged into Graves, Hill & Co. Such was the renown of Cobb & Co that the name was used on coaches operating beyond Australia. Charles Cole, Henry and Charles Hoyt, who had operated coaches in Victoria, started businesses using the same name in New Zealand in 1863 and briefly, in Japan in 1868. Although he never returned to Austra
Aspley is a suburb of the City of Brisbane, Australia. It is located about 13 kilometres north and about a half-hour drive north of the Brisbane central business district, it is positioned on flat ground south of Cabbage Tree Creek, centred on Little Cabbage Tree Creek and on the surrounding hills to the east and south. Prior to European settlement, Australian aborigines of the Duke of York clan lived in the local area, though their main camping ground was further south in the suburb now known as Herston; the Duke of York clan was part of the Turrbal tribe who occupied the area north from Logan River, south of the North Pine River, east of Moggill Creek to Moreton Bay. Soon after Brisbane was declared a free settlement in 1842, Europeans began exploring the lands north of Brisbane City. A northern route followed aboriginal tracks through what is now Kelvin Grove, Everton Hills, Albany Creek onto North Pine; this route is still known as" ` Old Northern Road"' in places. Another aboriginal track branching eastward from the Old Northern Road at the South Pine River crossed towards Little Cabbage Tree Creek and continued towards Downfall Creek.
This track is now known as "Albany Creek Road" and "Gympie Road". Albany Creek Road was known as "Chinaman Creek Road" before 1888. In 1857 the first land sales in the area east of the Old Northern Road and South Pine River begin under the control of New South Wales; the land was sold for farming and comprised the land around Cabbage Tree Creek, bordered by what is now Zillmere Road, Roghan Road, Bridgeman Road and the northerly continuation of Kirby Road, covering what is now Aspley and Fitzgibbon. The land parcels east of what is now Hawbridge Street and Lacey Road were purchased by William John Ward; the western land parcels were not sold. These land parcels were bordered by what is now Graham Road, Roghan Road, Hawbridge Street/Lacey Road and Bridgeman Road, were subsequently subdivided into smaller land parcels and sold; this area is now known as Carseldine. After the separation of Queensland from New South Wales in 1859, subsequent subdivisions were much smaller. In the following 5 years, land parcels south of Zillmere Road/Graham Road in what is now recognised as Aspley began.
In 1865, subdivisions west of what is now Maundrell Terrace were sold at the Brisbane Land Sales. In 1866, subdivisions between what is now Gympie Road, Maundrell Terrace and Webster Road were auctioned; the subdivisions were named "Soldier's Flat". The area was known as "Little Cabbage Tree Creek District"; the immigrants were of English and German ancestry. During the 1860s James and John Castledean, who owned land and a general store in the Bald Hills District, pushed a direct track from Bald Hills through to what is now the intersection of Gympie Road and Albany Creek Road. In late October 1867 gold was discovered in Queensland. By this time, a road from Brisbane City to Kedron Brook had been completed with the Bowen Bridge opened in 1860, permitting the northern track along Gympie Road and Albany Creek Road to be used as an alternate route to the Old Northern Road. However, neither road was of good quality. On 8 May 1868 the Government announced that it had allocated 2700 pounds to construct a trafficable, more direct, road to the Gympie goldfields.
The new road came through Kedron Brook, Downfall Creek, Little Cabbage Tree Creek before heading to Bald Hills and North Pine. This road is now known as Gympie Road and travels a route different from the original aboriginal track. With increased traffic on Gympie Road, the Royal Exchange Hotel was established in 1875 opposite the intersection of Gympie Road and Albany Creek Road, it operated as a general store for a while with Cobb and Co coaches passing on their way to the Gympie goldfields. In 1934, a second building was built south of the original hotel; the new building was called the "Aspley Hotel". In the early 1870s, a vineyard was established by the Morris family on their property bounded by Maundrell Terrace, Gympie Road and Terrence Street, it was named the "Aspley Vineyard", after "Aspley Hall" in England. The vineyard operated for over twenty years. In 1897, Little Cabbage Tree Creek District was renamed Aspley. In the latter part of the 19th century, Aspley was a farming district. Additional industries were established to support the farming industry.
In the 1880s, John Smith Booth established a bone mill and sawmill on Little Cabbage Tree Creek and Albany Creek Road. It relocated to the current location of the former Aspley Acres Caravan Park and closed in 1932. In 1888, Huttons Pty Ltd established a meat processing plant in nearby suburb Zillmere, it contributed to the local economy of Aspley, providing an alternative employment for farmers during poor seasons. A blacksmith operated on the northern corner of Albany Creek Road until the 1920s. Several slaughter houses operated along Little Cabbage Tree Creek. After World War I and into the 1920s, Aspley experienced some growth in the number of businesses present in the district. Griffiths Sweet Factory operated on Gympie Road between 1950 after shifting from Windsor. Hedges Dripping Factory operated near the reservoir on Lawrence Road. A brickworks was established by the Granville family on Brickfield Road during the 1930s. In 1912 the Kedron Omnibus company was formed by locals and ran local services to Wooloowin Station after previous services were cancelled as an aftermath of the 1912 transport strike.
In 1918 the local community hall was built on Gympie Road. A year movies were presented inside the hall. In 1950 the hall was sold to become St Pauls Church. Aspley East State School was opened on 29 January 1963. In
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Government of Queensland
The Government of Queensland referred to as the Queensland Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Queensland. The Government of Queensland, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1859 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Queensland has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, Queensland ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Key state government offices are located at 1 William Street in the Brisbane central business district; the Government of Queensland operates under the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. The Governor of Queensland, as the representative of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, holds nominal power, although in practice only performs ceremonial duties.
The Parliament of Queensland holds legislative power, while executive power lies with the Premier and Cabinet, judicial power is exercised by a system of courts and tribunals. The Parliament of Queensland is the state's legislature, it consists of Her Majesty The Queen, a single chamber. Queensland is the only Australian state with a unicameral parliament after a second chamber, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1922; the Legislative Assembly has 93 members. Elections for the Legislative Assembly are held every four years; the Cabinet of Queensland is the government's chief policy-making organ, consists of the Premier and all ministers. The Queensland Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility; each portfolio is led by a government minister, a member of the Parliament. As of April 2016 there were nineteen lead agencies, called government departments, that consist of: Department of the Premier and Cabinet Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services Department of Education and Training Department of Energy and Water Supply Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland Health Department of Housing and Public Works Department of Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning Department of Justice and Attorney-General Department of National Parks and Racing Department of Natural Resources and Mines Queensland Police Service and Queensland Fire and Emergency Services Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation Department of State Development Department of Transport and Main Roads Queensland Treasury Department of Tourism, Major Events, Small Business and the Commonwealth GamesA range of other agencies support the functions of these departments.
The judiciary of Queensland consists of the Magistrates Court, the District Court, the Supreme Court, as well as a number of smaller courts and tribunals. The Chief Justice of Queensland is the state's most senior judicial officer; the Magistrates Court is the lowest tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland. The court's criminal jurisdiction covers summary offences, indictable offences which may be heard summarily, but all criminal proceedings in Queensland begin in the Magistrates Court if they are not within this jurisdiction. For charges beyond its jurisdiction, the court conducts committal hearings in which the presiding magistrate decides, based on the strength of the evidence, whether to refer the matter to a higher court or dismiss it; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is less than or equal to $150,000. Appeals against decisions by the Magistrates Court are heard by the District Court; the District Court is the middle tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland.
The court has jurisdiction to hear all appeals from decisions made in the Magistrates Court. Its criminal jurisdiction covers serious indictable offences; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is more than $150,000 but less than or equal to $750,000. Appeals against decisions by the District Court are heard by the Court of Appeal, a division of the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court is the highest tier of the judicial hierarchy Queensland. The court has two divisions; the Trial Division's jurisdiction covers serious criminal offences, civil matters involving claims of more than $750,000. The Court of Appeal's jurisdiction allows it to hear cases on appeal from the Trial Division, the District Court, a number of other judicial tribunals in Queensland. Appeals against decisions by the Court of Appeal are heard by the High Court of Australia. There are several factors; the legislature has no upper house. For a large portion of its history, the state was under a gerrymander that favoured rural electorates.
This, combined with the decentralised nature of Queensland, meant that politics has been dominated by regional interests. Queensland, along with New South Wales operated a balloting system known as Optional Preferential Voting for state elections; this is different from the predominant Australian electoral system, the instant-runoff voting system, in practice is closer to a first past the post ballot, which some say is to the
Eight Mile Plains, Queensland
Eight Mile Plains is a suburb of Brisbane, Australia. It is 14.38 kilometres south-southeast of the Brisbane central business district. The name Eight Mile Plains was given early in its settlement, refers to the area's flat topography and the distance to One Mile Swamp. Eight Mile Plains was one of Brisbane's suburbs first to be settled; the Eight Mile Plains State School opened on 7 June 1869. The suburb extended beyond the Brisbane City boundary along the Pacific Highway into the northern part of Albert Shire. In the 1970s, this southern part of Eight Mile Plains, along with the southern part of Rochedale and Springwood became the new suburb of Underwood. Part of Eight Mile Plains within the Brisbane boundary was renamed Rochedale. In October 2014 a petition was made by 380 residents to excise the north-eastern part of Eight Miles Plains bounded by the Pacific Motorway and Bulimba Creek to create a new suburb to be called Wishart Outlook, the name given to the area by its developers in the 1990s.
However, other residents are opposed to the change. Eight Mile Plains has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 2497 Logan Road: Hughesville Eight Mile Plains is accessible by the Pacific and Gateway Motorways and the Eight Mile Plains busway station on the South-East Busway; the Brisbane Technology Park is found in Eight Mile Plains and is the home to the Queensland Clunies Ross Centre for Science and Industry. The suburb has no high schools. In the 2011 census, Eight Mile Plains recorded a population of 13,379 people, 50.3% female and 49.7% male. The median age of the Eight Mile Plains population was 32 years of age, 5 years below the Australian median. 48% of people living in Eight Mile Plains were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%. 52% of people spoke only English at home. According to the 2016 census, Eight Mile Plains includes the largest Korean Australian community of any suburb in Queensland, numbering 1,150 individuals and making up 6.1% of the suburb's population.
The name of the Aboriginal clan occupying this area is uncertain. According to one source they are to have been the Chepara clan of Eight Mile Plains who spoke Turrbal; the Yerongpan of Oxley Creek who are said to have claimed the area from Brisbane to Ipswich. Another source claims they were the Yagarabal, who ranged from Brisbane to the Logan River and west to Moggill Creek; the Aborigines used a trail which became Logan Road. This trail bisected many creeks including the Mimosa Bulimba Creek watercourse. Eight Mile Plains has two primary schools: Eight Mile Plains State School and Warrigal Road State School, which sits off Warrigal Road, one of Eight Mile Plains's and Runcorn's main road; the term "Warrigal" means "Dingo" in the local Aboriginal language. The name of Eight Mile Plains is linked to the early days of settlement, it refers to the area's topography as well as the distance by bush track to One Mile Swamp. In 1861, over 7,800 acres in the nearby Coopers Plains area had been proclaimed the Brisbane Agricultural Reserve.
In 1864 this was extended by a further 5,500 acres and the Eight Mile Plains Agricultural Reserve was formed. It comprised the current suburbs of Sunnybank, Sunnybank Hills, Kuraby, Eight Mile Plains and parts of Coopers Plains and Stretton. Electricity was extended to the district in 1936 and in 1958 a new school was constructed to service the area. Charles Baker. In 1857 Charles Baker bought land from a sheep herder named Wilson. Fox hunting developed on the Baker property and he turned his hand to construction, building a hotel. In 1868 he became the postmaster at Eight Mile Plains, his services were called upon when the Cobb and Co. services started a regular run through Eight Mile Plains to the Logan and Nerang River settlements. Sam Langford. Brigadier Sam Langford owned a large parcel of land, known as the'wire paddock'. In 1932 it was the first farm to be fenced in this way, he divided his property into 60 and 80-acre lots and sold them. The sites became housing estates. Estelle Thomson and botanical illustrator.
Hughesville is the heritage-listed residence located on the corner of Padstow Road. The timber single-storied home was erected in 1892–93 by Alfred Hughes on land owned by Richard Hughes and reputedly given to this son, Richard, as a wedding gift when he married Elizabeth Magee in 1891. Hughesville survives as illustration of a past way of life, of a particular residential type - the quintessential Queensland house of the late colonial period, it is significant for cohesive character, aesthetic appeal and landmark position. The house has a strong community association, being for many years a principal landmark along the old Pacific Highway to the Gold Coast, demarcating the outskirts of Brisbane. In the late 1990s, it was used in one of the beer advertisements in QLD; the land has now been subdivided and a few townhouses have been built behind the house. The house itself has been converted into a business establishment. In 2007 the renovated Hughesville was bought and became the southside home of Bennett Carroll solicitors.
The firm, in the area for over 35 years, has long sought to have the landmark as its headquarters. It is up for sale again. Hughesville was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register in 1992. The
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he