Kuressaare Castle

Kuressaare Castle Kuressaare Episcopal Castle, is a castle in Kuressaare on Saaremaa island, in western Estonia. The earliest written record mentioning Kuressaare castle is from the 1380s, when the Teutonic Order began its construction for the bishops of Ösel-Wieck; some sources claim. As the inhabitants of Saaremaa put up stiff resistance to foreign efforts to Christianise them, the castle was undoubtedly built as part of a wider effort by the crusaders to gain control over the island. From the outset, it was a stronghold belonging to the bishop of Saare-Lääne and remained one of the most important castles of the Bishopric until its dissolution during the Livonian War. In 1559, Denmark seized control over Kuressaare castle. During this time, the fortifications were modernised. Following the Peace of Brömsebro, which ended the 1643-1645 war between Sweden and Denmark, Saaremaa passed into Swedish hands; the Swedes continued the modernisation of the fortress until 1706. Following the Great Northern War and Kuressaare castle became a part of the Russian Empire.

As the frontiers of the Russian Empire pushed further west, Kuressaare lost its strategic value. After the Finnish War and the Third Partition of Poland, military focus shifted away from Estonia. In 1836, following the construction of the fortress of Bomarsund on Åland, the Russian garrison at Kuressaare withdrew; the fact that Kuressaare castle was not employed by the armies who fought in the Crimean War is indicative of its lost strategic importance. In the 19th century, the castle was used as a poorhouse. In 1904 -- 12 the castle was restored by architects Hermann Wilhelm Neumann, it underwent a second restoration in 1968, this time led by architect Kalvi Aluve. Today the castle houses the Saaremaa Museum. Kuressaare castle is considered one of the best preserved medieval fortifications in Estonia; the castle is late characterised by a simplicity of form. The central, so-called convent building, is a square building around a central courtyard; the so-called defence tower, in the northern corner, reaches 37 metres.

A defence gallery with battlements running along the top of the building was restored in the 1980s. The portcullis and gate defences are reconstructions. Inside, the castle is divided into a cellar, used for storage and equipped with a sophisticated hypocaust heating system, the main floor, which housed the most important rooms of the castle. Here, a cloister connects all the main rooms. Notable among these are the dormitory, the chapel and the bishop's living quarters. In the latter, eleven baroque carved epitaphs of noblemen from Saaremaa are displayed. At the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th century, a wall, 625 metres long, was built around the castle. Due to improvements made in firearms, additional defensive elements were added between the 16th and 17th centuries. Erik Dahlbergh designed the Vauban-type fortress with bastions and ravelins that are still intact; when the Russian garrison left the fortress in 1711 following the Great Northern War, they deliberately blew up much of the fortifications and the castle, but restored some of it.

In 1861, conversion of the bastions into a park began under the supervision of Riga architect H. Göggingen. Kuressaare Saaremaa History of Estonia Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek List of castles in Estonia Saaremaa Museum The Association of Castles and Museums around the Baltic Sea

Prix Jean-Luc Lagardère

The Prix Jean-Luc Lagardère the Grand Critérium, is a Group 1 flat horse race in France open to two-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies. It is run at Longchamp over a distance of 1,600 metres, it is scheduled to take place each year in early October, it is France's most prestigious event for juvenile horses. It is the country's equal richest race for this age group, along with the Prix Morny; each has a current purse of €400,000. The event was established in 1853, it was called the Grand Critérium, it was contested over 1,500 metres at Chantilly. It was transferred to Longchamp in 1857, extended to 1,600 metres in 1864, it was not run in 1870, because of the Franco-Prussian War. The race was abandoned throughout World War I, with no running from 1914 to 1918. A substitute event called the Critérium des Deux Ans was staged at Maisons-Laffitte in 1918; the Grand Critérium was cancelled in 1939 and 1940, due to World War II. On the second occasion it was substituted by a race at Auteuil, again titled the Critérium des Deux Ans.

It was held at Le Tremblay in 1943 and 1944. The present system of race grading was introduced in 1971, the Grand Critérium was classed at the highest level, Group 1. For a period it took place in mid-October, it was brought forward to the Saturday of Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe weekend in 1989, returned to its previous schedule in 1995. France Galop, the governing body of French horse racing, restructured its program of Group 1 juvenile races in 2001; the Grand Critérium was cut to 1,400 metres and moved to the same day as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe. The latter event is traditionally held on the first Sunday in October. In 2015 the distance was increased to 1,600 metres again; the race was given its present title in memory of Jean-Luc Lagardère. Lagardère was a former president of France Galop; the Prix Jean-Luc Lagardère was added to the Breeders' Cup Challenge series in 2011. The winner now earns an automatic invitation to compete in the Breeders' Cup Juvenile Turf. List of French flat horse races Recurring sporting events established in 1853 – this race is included under its original title, Grand Critérium.

France Galop / Racing Post: 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 1853–1859, 1860–1889, 1890–1919, 1920–1949, 1950–1979, 1980–present – A Brief History: Prix Jean-Luc Lagardère. – Prix Jean-Luc Lagardère. – International Federation of Horseracing Authorities – Prix Jean-Luc Lagardère. – Prix Jean-Luc Lagardère – Longchamp. – Prix Jean-Luc Lagardère

Red-necked woodpecker

The red-necked woodpecker is a species of bird in the family Picidae. It is found in Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru and Venezuela, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. The red-necked woodpecker was described by the French polymath Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon in 1780 in his Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux from a specimen collected in Cayenne, French Guiana; the bird was illustrated in a hand-coloured plate engraved by François-Nicolas Martinet in the Planches Enluminées D'Histoire Naturelle, produced under the supervision of Edme-Louis Daubenton to accompany Buffon's text. Neither the plate caption nor Buffon's description included a scientific name but in 1783 the Dutch naturalist Pieter Boddaert coined the binomial name Picus rubricollis in his catalogue of the Planches Enluminées; the red-necked woodpecker is now placed in the genus Campephilus, introduced by the English zoologist George Robert Gray in 1840.

The genus name combines the Ancient Greek kampē meaning "caterpillar" and philos meaning "loving". The specific epithet rubricollis combines the Latin ruber meaning "red" with -collis meaning "-necked". Three subspecies are recognised: C. r. rubricollis – east Colombia and east Ecuador through south Venezuela, the Guianas and north Brazil C. r. trachelopyrus – east Peru, north Bolivia and west Brazil C. r. olallae – central and southwest Brazil to central Bolivia