Bungaree, or Boongaree, was an Aboriginal Australian from the Broken Bay area, who was known as an explorer and Aboriginal community leader. He became a sight in colonial Sydney, dressed in a succession of military. Bungaree first came to prominence in 1798, when he accompanied Matthew Flinders on a survey as an interpreter, guide. He accompanied Flinders on his circumnavigation of Australia between 1801 and 1803 in the Investigator, Flinders noted that Bungaree was a worthy and brave fellow who, on more than one occasion, saved the expedition. Bungaree continued his association with exploratory voyages when he accompanied Phillip Parker King to north-western Australia in 1817 in the Mermaid, in 1815, Governor Lachlan Macquarie dubbed Bungaree Chief of the Broken Bay Tribe and presented him with 15 acres of land on George’s Head. He received a breastplate inscribed BOONGAREE - Chief of the Broken Bay Tribe -1815, Bungaree was known by the titles King of Port Jackson and King of the Blacks. Bungaree spent the rest of his life ceremonially welcoming visitors to Australia, educating people about Aboriginal culture, in 1828, he and his clan moved to the Governors Domain, and were given rations, with Bungaree described as in the last stages of human infirmity.
He died at Garden Island on 24 November 1830 and was buried in Rose Bay, obituaries of him were carried in the Sydney Gazette and The Australian. Boongaree Island, located off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, was named after him by King in 1820, the suburb of Bongaree in Queensland is named after him. The Book of Sydney Suburbs, Angus & Robertson Publishers, clarke, Philip A. Aboriginal Plant Collectors and Australian Aboriginal People in the Nineteenth Century
Central Coast (New South Wales)
The Central Coast is a peri-urban region in the Australian state of New South Wales, located on the Tasman Sea coast north of Sydney and south of Lake Macquarie. The Central Coast has an population of 325,082 as of June 2015, growing at 1% pa. making it the third largest urban area in New South Wales. Politically, it is administered by the Central Coast Council as of 12 May 2016, subsequently, a new junior ministerial post was created in State Parliament, this was downgraded to a joint parliamentary secretary position in March 2015. As of April 2015, the secretary for the Hunter. In November 2015 both Gosford and Wyong councils controversially voted to merge under allegations of bullying as part of the state governments Fit for the Future plans, amalgamation into a single Central Coast local government area has now passed all administrative and legislative requirements. The region has been inhabited for thousands of years by Aboriginal people, the local Guringai and Darkinjung people were some of the first Aboriginal people to come in contact with British settlers.
An Aboriginal man from the region named Bungaree became one of the most prominent people of the settlement of New South Wales. He was one of the first Aboriginal people to learn English and befriended the early governors Phillip, Macquarie declared Bungaree The King of the Broken Bay Tribes. Post settlement disease and disruption greatly reduced the numbers of Aboriginal people, in 1811, the Governor of New South Wales, Lachlan Macquarie, gave the first land grant in the region to William Nash, a former marine of the First Fleet. No further grants were made in the area until 1821, the region is a network of towns that have been linked in recent years by expanding suburban development. The main urban cluster of the region surrounds the northern shore of Brisbane Water and includes the Coasts largest population centre, other major commercial centres on the Coast are Wyong, Lakehaven, The Entrance and Woy Woy. Large numbers of people who live in the part of the region commute daily to work in Sydney.
The Central Coast is a popular tourist destination and an area for retirement. The Central Coast has significant employment including services, manufacturing, building and industrial. As a result, the identity of the region is distinct from that of the large and diverse metropolis of Sydney as well as from the Hunter region with its mining, heavy industry. On 2 December 2005, the Central Coast was officially recognised as a stand-alone region rather than an extension of Sydney or the Hunter Valley, the Central Coast has a humid subtropical climate, with warm humid summers and mild winters. Rainfall is spread evenly throughout the year, but is slightly more frequent during autumn. The Australian Bureau of Statistics publishes population census data and regular population estimates on the Central Coast under a Significant Urban Area, as at June 2015 the estimated population of this region was 325,082
Newcastle, New South Wales
Located 162 kilometres north-northeast of Sydney, at the mouth of the Hunter River, it is the predominant city within the Hunter Region. Famous for its coal, Newcastle is the largest coal exporting harbour in the world, beyond the city, the Hunter Region possesses large coal deposits. Geologically, the area is located in the part of the Sydney basin. Newcastle and the lower Hunter Region were traditionally occupied by the Awabakal and Worimi Aboriginal People, in September 1797 Lieutenant John Shortland became the first European settler to explore the area. His discovery of the area was largely accidental, as he had sent in search of a number of convicts who had seized HMS Cumberland as she was sailing from Sydney Cove. While returning, Lt. Shortland entered what he described as a very fine river. He returned with reports of the port and the areas abundant coal. Over the next two years, coal mined from the area was the New South Wales colonys first export, Newcastle gained a reputation as a hellhole as it was a place where the most dangerous convicts were sent to dig in the coal mines as harsh punishment for their crimes.
By the start of the 19th century the mouth of the Hunter River was being visited by groups of men, including coal diggers, timber-cutters. Philip Gidley King, the Governor of New South Wales from 1800, in 1801, a convict camp called Kings Town was established to mine coal and cut timber. In the same year, the first shipment of coal was dispatched to Sydney and this settlement closed less than a year later. A settlement was attempted in 1804, as a place of secondary punishment for unruly convicts. The settlement was named Coal River and renamed Newcastle, the new settlement, comprising convicts and a military guard, arrived at the Hunter River on 27 March 1804 in three ships, HMS Lady Nelson, the Resource and the James. The convicts were rebels from the 1804 Castle Hill convict rebellion, New South Wales is a similar distance north of Newcastle as Morpeth, Northumberland is north of Newcastle upon Tyne. Under Captain James Wallis, commandant from 1815 to 1818, the conditions improved. The quality of these first buildings was poor, and only breakwater survives, during this period, in 1816, the oldest public school in Australia was built in East Newcastle.
Newcastle remained a settlement until 1822, when the settlement was opened up to farming. As a penal colony, the rule was harsh, especially at Limeburners Bay
Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park
The Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park is a protected national park that is located in New South Wales, Australia. The 14, 977-hectare national park is situated 25 kilometres north of Sydney located largely within the Ku-ring-gai, Warringah, the villages of Cottage Point, Appletree Bay, and Bobbin Head are located within park boundaries. An isolated portion of the park, Barrenjoey Headland, is located to the north of Palm Beach east of the primary park body and is home to Barrenjoey Lighthouse, Ku-ring-gai Chase is officially classed as a suburb by the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Picnic and fishing facilities can be throughout the park. There are many walking tracks in Ku-ring-gai, especially through the Duffys Forest. Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park was added to the Australian National Heritage List in December 2006, the first inhabitants of the area were the indigenous Garigal people. The rugged landscape provided abundant food and adequate shelter for the aboriginals, more than 800 Aboriginal sites have been found in the park.
These include rock engravings, cave drawings and stencils, axe grinding grooves, the park was first declared in 1894. The television series, Skippy the Bush Kangaroo was shot in northern Sydney at Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, bushfires ravaged the park in January 1994. Many of the attractions are accessible only by walking track. Many kilometres of park front the southern shoreline of Broken Bay making it a place to explore by boat. Rail access is provided at Mount Colah, Mount Kuring-gai, all roads in the area are sealed and all have collection gates where a daily fee is payable. The area contains many trails and a walk through mangroves. Aboriginal engravings can be seen in the area and this is the only place in the entire national park where camping is allowed. Access is either by West Head Road via The Basin Track or on a ferry from Palm Beach Wharf, West Head is a headland at the north eastern tip of the National Park. A lookout, with views of Barrenjoey, Palm Beach and Broken Bay, has built on West Head.
The Flint & Steel Guesthouse was one of the first buildings on West Head, Barrenjoey is a locality of Palm Beach. It is a headland and unusual amongst the National Parks features as it is not joined to the rest of the Park by land but separated by 1 kilometer of water, the Pittwater
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
University of New South Wales
The University of New South Wales is an Australian public research university located in the suburb of Kensington in Sydney. Established in 1949, it is regarded as one of the leading universities. In 2016, it was the one university preference for high school students in the State of New South Wales. In the 2016 QS World University Rankings UNSW was ranked globally as 49th overall, 11th in the world for Accounting and Finance, 14th for law, UNSW has produced more millionaires than any other university in Australia. The university comprises eight faculties, through which it offers bachelor, the main campus is located on a 38-hectare site in the Sydney suburb of Kensington, seven kilometres from the centre of Sydney. Research stations are located throughout the state of New South Wales, UNSW is a founding member of the Group of Eight, a coalition of Australian research-intensive universities, and of Universitas 21, a global network of research universities. It has international exchange and research partnerships with over 200 universities around the world, the origins of the university can be traced to the Sydney Mechanics School of Arts established in 1833 and the Sydney Technical College established in 1878.
This led to the proposal to establish the Institute of Technology, submitted by the New South Wales Minister for Education Bob Heffron, accepted on 9 July 1946. In March 1948, classes commenced with a first intake of 46 students pursuing programs including engineering, mechanical engineering, mining engineering. At that time the programs were innovative. Each course embodied a specified and substantial period of training in the relevant industry. It was unprecedented for tertiary institutions at that time to include instruction in humanities. Initially, the university operated from the inner Sydney Technical College city campus in Ultimo, in 1958, the universitys name was changed to the University of New South Wales to reflect its transformation from a technology-based institution to a generalist university. In 1960, it established faculties of arts and medicine and shortly after decided to add the Faculty of Law, the universitys first director was Arthur Denning, who made important contributions to founding the university.
In 1953, he was replaced by Philip Baxter, who continued as vice-chancellor when this title was changed in 1955. Baxters dynamic, if authoritarian, management was central to the universitys first 20 years and his visionary, but at times controversial, energies saw the university grow from a handful to 15,000 students by 1968. The 1990s saw the addition of fine arts to the university, the university established colleges in Newcastle and Wollongong, which eventually became the University of Newcastle and the University of Wollongong in 1965 and 1975 respectively. At present, private sources contribute 45% of its annual funding, the university is home to the Lowy Cancer Research Centre, one of Australias largest cancer research facilities
Sydney /ˈsɪdni/ is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australias east coast, the metropolis surrounds the worlds largest natural harbour, residents of Sydney are known as Sydneysiders. The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years, the first British settlers, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural. As at June 2016 Sydneys estimated population was 5,005,358, in the 2011 census,34 percent of the population reported having been born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world. There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home and it is classified as an Alpha+ World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.
Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has a market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing. Its gross regional product was $337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia, there is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as one of Asia Pacifics leading financial hubs. Its natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, man-made attractions such as the Sydney Opera House, Sydney Tower and the Sydney Harbour Bridge are well known to international visitors. The first people to inhabit the now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago, the earliest British settlers called them Eora people. Eora is the term the indigenous used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is from this place, prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.
Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan, the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells. Development has destroyed much of the citys history including that of the first inhabitants, there continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. The first meeting between the people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula. He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors, Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement
Macleay River, an open and trained mature wave dominated, barrier estuary, is located in the Northern Tablelands and Mid North Coast districts of New South Wales, Australia. Formed by the confluence of the Gara River, Salisbury Waters and Bakers Creek, the river descends 460 metres over its 298 kilometres course. The river flows adjacent to the city of Kempsey, at Frederickton the river is traversed by the Pacific Highway via the Macleay River Bridge, the longest road bridge in Australia. The river is traversed by the North Coast railway line. The Macleay River is liable to flooding in the Kempsey area, during times of peak flooding, the Macleay River can hold over 200,000 gigalitres of water. Archaeological evidence of Aboriginal camp sites have found on the upper terraces of the Macleay. John Oxley, failed to realize the potential of this river in 1820 when he did not navigate far enough up the river to see the magnificent stands of timber, the river was vaguely referred to as the New River from descriptions given by Aborigines.
In 1826 Captain Wright travelled overland from Port Macquarie and explored to the head of navigation at Belgrave Falls, a series of rapids to the west of the present town of Kempsey. Then called Wrights River, Major Archibald Clunes Innes, Commandant of Port Macquarie Penal Settlement, sent the first government gang of Australian red cedar cutters to work here in 1827. More cedar camps were established on the Macleay during the 1830s, by 1841, about 200 cutters were working on the river area, where violence and theft of logs was not uncommon. Demand and prices dropped in 1842 and cutting along the Macleay diminished although it continued in the upper tributaries, when Europeans arrived in the area around the 1820s the river mouth was just south of Grassy Head, and almost a mile wide with a sand spit in the middle. The small town of Stuarts Point was established on the river just inside to serve arriving ships, the coastal strip extending from South West Rocks to Grassy Head is a wide delta with various channels connected to the river.
Around 1885 English marine engineer John Coode advised on improvements to various rivers and ports in Australia, the Department of Public Works prepared four plans for improvements to the mouth, Coode favoured improving the existing entrance. Work on the new entrance commenced in April 1896, improving the channel, a new pilot station was built in 1902, establishing the town of South West Rocks. Today the old mouth has silted up, leaving Stuarts Point on a dead-end reach, Rivers of New South Wales List of rivers of Australia Macleay River Bridge - the longest road bridge in Australia. Northern Rivers Geology Blog - Macleay River
The area around the Tuggerah Lakes was inhabited by the local Aborigines known as the Darkinjung people prior to European discovery in 1796. The lake system was discovered by the first Governor of Tasmania, Colonel David Collins and they were found during the search for an escaped convict, Molly Morgan, who was thought to be living with the Aborigines to the north of the Hawkesbury River. The wetland system consists of three interconnected coastal lagoons, Lake Munmorah, Budgewoi Lake and Tuggerah Lake, the three lakes cover 77 square kilometres and have a perimeter of 105 kilometres. The largest of the lakes is Tuggerah Lake at 54 square kilometres, all three lakes are shallow, with average depths of less than two metres. There is only limited movement of water between the lakes and sea through a channel at The Entrance, and hence tides in the main body of the lakes are negligible. On occasions, this channel has silted up with sand. It is the basin into which all the rivers and streams drain and it receives nutrients, chemicals.
Sediments and nutrients have been discharging into the system for thousands of years although the process has greatly accelerated with urban development. The adjacent forests and woodlands provide habitat for endangered swift parrots and black bitterns are sometimes recorded in the IBA. Little egrets nest on Curly Island, other birds using the site in relatively large numbers include black swans, curlew sandpipers and red-necked stints
Contact with the first white settlements bridgehead into Australia quickly devastated much of the population through epidemics of smallpox and other diseases. Their descendants live on, though the language, social system, way of life and traditions are mostly lost. The language spoken by the Eora has, since the time of R. H. Mathews, been called Dharuk, the Australian bush term bogey comes from a Port Jackson Dharuk root buugi-. In terms of boundaries, the Kuringgai lay to the north, on the Western edges were the Darug, and to the south, around Kundul were the Gwiyagal. Eora is used specifically of the people around the first area of settlement in Sydney. The generic term Eora generally is used with a wider denotation to embrace some 29 bands, which in turn constituted clans that spoke several distinct languages. Thus, Eora is used collectively to refer to all tribes in the area of the settlement area, the Guringai to the north, the Tharawal people to the south. These have been classified into the language groups.
The sizes of bands, as opposed to clans, averaged around 50 members, -gal denominates the clan affixed to the place name. Muringong Camden Cattai Windsor Kurrajong Kurrajong Boo-bain-ora Wentworthville Mulgoa Penrith 4, dharawal South Gweagal Norongerragal Illawarra Threawal Tagary Wandeandegal The Cadigal people are the traditional owners of the inner Sydney city region. Their traditional land and waters are south of Port Jackson, stretching from South Head to Petersham, the people described by British settlers as the Eora people were probably Cadigal people, the Aboriginal tribe of the inner Sydney region in 1788 at the time of first European settlement. The Cadigal clan western boundary is approximately the Balmain peninsula, the traditional territory of the Wanegal people begins around Goat Island and runs west past Concord to what is now called Parramatta, and includes parts of Lane Cove River. The Cammeraygal peoples traditional territory is on the present-day lower North Shore of Port Jackson, the traditional Eora people were largely coastal dwellers and lived mainly from the produce of the sea.
They were expert in navigation, fishing and eating in the bays. The Eora people did not grow or plant crops, although the women picked herbs which were used in herbal remedies, the Eora placed a time limit on formal battles engaged in order to settle inter-tribal grievances. Such fights were regulated to begin late in the afternoon, the first contact occurred when James Cooks Endeavour anchored in Botany Bay. A drawing, thought recently to be the handiwork of the Polynesian navigator Turpaia who was on board Cooks ship, survives depicting Aboriginals in Botany Bay, around Kurnel. When the First Fleet of 1300 convicts and administrators arrived in January 1788, by early 1789 frequent remarks were made of great numbers of decomposed bodies of Eora natives which settlers and sailors came across on beaches, in coves and in the bays