Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal
The Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal is a contemporary art museum in Montreal, Canada. It is located on the Place des festivals in the Quartier des spectacles and is part of the Place des Arts complex. Founded in 1964, it is Canada's first museum devoted to contemporary art. Housed in the Place Ville-Marie, the museum moved into the premises of the Château Dufresne in 1965, followed by an exhibition gallery from Expo 67 in 1968. In 1992, the museum moved to its current premises at Place des Arts in Montreal; the Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal was founded in 1964 by the Quebec government. The MACM was the first institution in Canada devoted to contemporary art. Before moving to its current location, the Museum was housed in three different locations: at Place Ville-Marie from 1964 to 1965, the Château Dufresne from 1965 to 1968, at Expo 67's International Fine Arts Exhibition at the Cité du Havre Art Gallery, from 1968 to 1992. In 1983, the museum changed its status: it became an independent corporation managed by a board of directors.
In 1983, an international architectural competition was held to choose the design of the new building to house the Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal. Over one hundred firms entered the competition. Jodoin Lamarre Pratte & Associés was selected as the winning architectural firm in 1984. On May 28, 1992, the museum opened in its new 15,100 m2 location at Place des Arts in Downtown Montreal; the museum is now part of the largest cultural complex in Canada, which combines the performing arts and visual arts. At the inauguration of its new building, close to 20,000 people visited the museum on May 29 and 30, 1992. Following the move to downtown Montreal, Quebec artist Geneviève Cadieux designed a photographic work, "La Voie lactée"; the work is a closeup photograph of a pair of lips, installed on the roof of the building. In June 2017, in response to criticism that the museum was closed on itself and did not fit well in the newly established Quartier des spectacles the MACM announced a contest to redesign and extend the Place des Arts venue.
In April 2018, the Saucier+Perrotte Architectes / GLCRM & Associés Architectes proposal was selected Four rooms are reserved for exhibitions of the collection, featuring works reflecting the significant trends of contemporary art. It includes works by Quebec and international artists. Four other rooms are dedicated to temporary exhibitions; the collection includes over 7,000 works of art by more than 1,500 artists, focusing on contemporary art from Quebec in particular and Canada in general, as well as important international artists. Its collections include contemporary paintings, photographs, installation and works on paper; the museum is Canada's only cultural complex devoted to both contemporary performing and visual arts. The museum was a member of the AMICO consortium. Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal http://abstraction.macm.org/ On April 24, 2009, Les Printemps du MAC, a committee of young professionals, organized Abstraction.
Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1970s. Used to describe independent record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was used interchangeably with alternative rock; as grunge and punk revival bands in the US and Britpop bands in the UK broke into the mainstream in the 1990s, it came to be used to identify those acts that retained an outsider and underground perspective. In the 2000s, as a result of changes in the music industry and the growing importance of the Internet, some indie rock acts began to enjoy commercial success, leading to questions about its meaningfulness as a term. Sometimes used interchangeably with "guitar pop rock", in the mid-1980s, the term "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on punk and post-punk labels; some prominent indie rock record labels were founded during the 1980s. During the 1990s, grunge bands broke into the mainstream, the term "alternative" lost its original counter-cultural meaning.
The term "indie rock" became associated with the bands and genres that remained dedicated to their independent status. By the end of the 1990s, indie rock developed several subgenres and related styles, including lo-fi, noise pop, slowcore, post-rock, math rock. In the 2000s, changes in the music industry and in music technology enabled a new wave of indie rock bands to achieve mainstream success. In the early 2000s, a new group of bands that played a stripped-down, back-to-basics version of guitar rock emerged into the mainstream; the commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands: The Strokes, The White Stripes, The Hives and The Vines. Emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s. By the end of the decade, the proliferation of indie bands was being referred to as "indie landfill"; the term indie rock, which comes from "independent," describes the small and low-budget labels on which it is released and the do-it-yourself attitude of the bands and artists involved. Although distribution deals are struck with major corporate companies, these labels and the bands they host have attempted to retain their autonomy, leaving them free to explore sounds and subjects of limited appeal to large, mainstream audiences.
The influences and styles of the artists have been diverse, including punk, post-punk and country. The terms "alternative rock" and "indie rock" were used interchangeably in the 1980s, but after many alternative bands followed Nirvana into the mainstream in the early 1990s, "indie rock" began to be used to describe those bands, working in a variety of styles, that did not pursue or achieve commercial success. Aesthetically speaking, indie rock is characterized as having a careful balance of pop accessibility with noise, experimentation with pop music formulae, sensitive lyrics masked by ironic posturing, a concern with "authenticity," and the depiction of a simple guy or girl. Allmusic identifies indie rock as including a number of "varying musical approaches compatible with mainstream tastes". Linked by an ethos more than a musical approach, the indie rock movement encompassed a wide range of styles, from hard-edged, grunge-influenced bands, through do-it-yourself experimental bands like Pavement, to punk-folk singers such as Ani DiFranco.
In fact, there is an everlasting list of subgenres of indie rock. Many countries have developed an extensive local indie scene, flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country, but unknown elsewhere. However, there are still indie bands that start off locally, but attract an international audience. Indie rock is noted for having a high proportion of female artists compared with preceding rock genres, a tendency exemplified by the development of the feminist-informed Riot Grrrl music of acts like Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, 7 Year Bitch, Team Dresch and Huggy Bear. However, Cortney Harding pointed out that this sense of equality is not reflected in the number of women running indie labels; the BBC documentary Music for Misfits: The Story of Indie pinpoints the birth of indie as the 1977 self-publication of the Spiral Scratch EP by Manchester band Buzzcocks. Although Buzzcocks are classified as a punk band, it has been argued by the BBC and others that the publication of Spiral Scratch independently of a major label led to the coining of the name "indie".
"Indie pop" and "indie" were synonymous. In the mid-1980s, "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on post-punk labels rather than the labels themselves; the indie rock scene in the US was prefigured by the college rock that dominated college radio playlists, which included key bands like R. E. M. from the US and The Smiths from the UK. These two bands rejected the dominant synthpop of the early 1980s, helped inspire guitar-based jangle pop. In the United States, the term was associated with the abrasive, distortion-heavy sounds of the Pixies, Hüsker Dü, Meat Puppets, Dinosaur Jr. and The Replacements. In the United Kingdom the C86 cassette, a 1986 NME compilation featuring Primal Scream, The Pastels, The Wedding Present and other bands, was a document of the UK indie scene at the start of 1986, it gave its name to the indie pop scene that followed, a major influence on the development of the British indie scene as a whole. Major precursors of indie pop included Postcard bands Josef K and Orange Juice, significant labels included Creation and Glass.
The Jesus and Mary Chain's sound combined the Velvet
Los Planetas is a Spanish indie rock group from the city of Granada which started out in the second half of the 1990s and continue now through the 2000s. The group's first hit was "Qué puedo hacer" from their album "Super 8", although they had had some success with various demos on a contest run by Spanish national public radio station Radio 3. After "Super 8" the group produced albums which caught on in the Spanish indie scene, including "Pop", "Una semana en el motor de un autobús", "Unidad de Desplazamiento", "Encuentro con entidades" and "Los Planetas contra la ley la gravedad", they have released two compilation albums: one including all of their singles and EPs in 1999, "Canciones para una orquesta química", a greatest hits album in 2009, "Principios básicos de astronomía". Los Planetas are influenced by English-language rock bands such as Joy Division and early-period Mercury Rev and are considered to be a key reference point in the world of Spanish indie. A notable influence from flamenco music is being shown in their 2007 work ("La leyenda del espacio", influence still shown in their latest albums "Una ópera egipcia" and ""Zona temporalmente autónoma".
Juan Ramón Rodríguez Cervilla / J Rodríguez / J / Jota: vocals and guitar Florentino Muñoz Lozano / Florent Muñoz / Florent: guitar Ernesto Jiménez Linares / Eric Jiménez / Erik / Eric: drums Esteban Fraile Maldonado / Banin Fraile / Banin: keyboards, guitars Julián Méndez Podadera / Julián Méndez / Julián: bass Super 8 Pop Una Semana en el Motor de un Autobús Canciones para una orquesta química Unidad de desplazamiento Encuentros con entidades Los Planetas contra la la ley de la gravedad La leyenda del espacio Principios básicos de astronomía Una ópera egipcia Zona temporalmente autónoma Medusa EP Qué puedo hacer Brigitte Nuevas sensaciones EP Himno Generacional No. 83 David y Claudia Punk Segundo premio Cumpleaños total La playa ¡Dios existe! El rollo mesiánico de Los Planetas EP Vas a verme por la tele Un buen día Santos que yo te pinte Maniobra de evasión Corrientes circulares en el tiempo Pesadilla en el parque de atracciones El espíritu de la Navidad El artista madridista Los Planetas se disuelven EP Y además es imposible No ardieras Alegrías del incendio Soy un pobre granaíno Cuatro palos EP No sé cómo te atreves Dobles fatigas Espíritu olímpico Screamin' & Shoutin' 2.
A Live Compilation: "Where's Bill Grundy Now?" Navidades Furiosas: "Canción de Navidad" Gimme More of That Sound: "Where's Bill Grundy Now?" A Tribute To Felt: "Apple Boutique" Warsaw: Un Homenaje a Joy Division: "Disorder" Maraworld 1.0: "Doctor Osmond" 21 Inéditos y Exclusivos: "Todos los Periódicos Mienten" Un Soplo En El Corazón. Homenaje A Family: "El Mapa" Bambino, Por Ti y Por Nosotros: "Podría Volver" Medusa Nuevas sensaciones Himno generacional No. 83 David y Claudia Punk Su mapamundi, gracias Cuatro palos EP Dobles fatigas Espíritu olímpico Islamabad Hierro y níquel 18 Ijtihad
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Rhode Island School of Design
Rhode Island School of Design is a fine arts and design college located in Providence, in the U. S. state of Rhode Island. It has been ranked among the best educational institutions in the world for art and design. Founded in 1877, it is located at the base of College Hill; the two institutions share social and community resources and offer joint courses. Applicants to RISD are required to complete RISD's two-drawing "hometest", it includes, on the Fall 2015 term, about 470 faculty and curators, 400 staff members. About 2,014 undergraduates and 467 graduate students enroll from all over the United States and 57 other countries, it offers 17 graduate majors. RISD is a member of the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design, a consortium of thirty-six leading art schools in the United States, it maintains over 80,000 works of art in the RISD Museum. The Centennial Women were a group formed to raise funds for a separate Women's Pavilion showcasing women's work at the 1876 Centennial Exposition.
In a little over a year the RI women raised over $10,000 with spectacles such as: a recreation of the burning of the Gaspee that drew a crowd of 9000, the writing and publication of a monthly newspaper, Herald of the Century, an art exhibition. The Women's Pavilion at the 1876 Centennial highlighted women's "economic right to self-sufficiency" and included exhibits from founded design schools, displays of new patents by women entrepreneurs, a library containing only books written by women; the Rhode Island Centennial Women submitted their newspaper, Herald of the Century, to this Women's Pavilion's library. At the end of the World's Fair, the RI Centennial Women had $1,675 left over and spent some time negotiating how best to memorialize their achievements. Helen Adelia Rowe Metcalf proposed that the group donate the money to found what would become the Rhode Island School of Design, this option was chosen by a majority of the women on January 11, 1877; the school was incorporated in March 1877 and opened its doors the following fall at the Hoppin Homestead in downtown Providence, RI.
Metcalf directed the school until her death in 1895. Her daughter, Eliza Greene Metcalf Radeke took over until her death in 1931; the Rhode Island General Assembly ratified "An Act to Incorporate the Rhode Island School of Design" on March 22, 1877, "or the purpose of aiding in the cultivation of the arts of design". Over the next 129 years, the following original by-laws set forth these following primary objectives: The instruction of artisans in drawing, painting and designing, that they may apply the principles of Art to the requirements of trade and manufacture; the systematic training of students in the practice of Art, in order that they may understand its principles, give instruction to others, or become artists. The general advancement of public Art Education, by the exhibition of works of Art and of Art school studies, by lectures on Art. RISD is annually ranked as a top design school in the United States. U. S. News & World Report ranked RISD first amongst Fine Arts programs, above Yale University and the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.
In 2015 and 2016 RISD was ranked 3rd by the QS World University Rankings amongst Art & Design programs. Within subdivisions of Fine Arts, the school was ranked 1st in graphic design and industrial design; the RISD film program was ranked 5th in USA Today's 10 Best Schools for Pursuing a Film Degree. Its undergraduate architecture program ranked 7 in DesignIntelligence's ranking of the Top Architecture Schools in the US for 2017. Concentrations at RISD do not confer a degree. History, Philosophy + the Social Sciences Theory and History of Art and Design Literary Arts + Studies Nature–Culture–Sustainability Studies Computation and Culture Drawing The RISD Museum houses a collection of fine and decorative art objects; the first public galleries opened in 1893. RISD has teams in two sports and basketball; as might be considered fitting for an arts school, the symbolism used. The hockey team is called the "Nads", their cheer is "Go Nads!" The logo for the Nads features a horizontal hockey stick with two non-descript circles at the end of the stick's handle.
The basketball team is known as the "Balls", their slogan is, "When the heat is on, the Balls stick together." The Balls' logo consists of two balls next to one another in an irregularly shaped net. Lest the sexual message of these teams and logos be lost, the 2001 creation of the school mascot, ended any ambiguity. Despite the name, Scrotie is not a representation of a scrotum, but is a 7-foot tall penis, with scrotum and testes at the bottom. RISD has stated that Scrotie is only an "unofficial" mascot, yet Scrotie is featured prominently on the school's official website. In 2016, the school reported that the 2009 incarnation of the mascot had been deemed not appropriate for younger fans, so the mascot would return to its earlier, "more cartoonish" appearance. Founded in 1878, the RISD Library is one of the oldest independent art college libraries in the country, its more than 145,000 volumes and 380 periodical subscriptions offer unusual depth and richness in the areas of architecture, art and photography.
The collection provides strong historical and contemporary perspectives, materials in landscape architecture, ceramics and jewelry support upper-level research. The library is noted for it
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt