The Airco DH.4 was a British two-seat biplane day bomber of World War I. It was designed by Geoffrey de Havilland for Airco, and was the first British two-seat light day-bomber to have a defensive armament. It first flew in August 1916 and entered service with the Royal Flying Corps in March 1917, the majority of DH. 4s were actually built as general purpose two-seaters in the United States, for service with the American forces in France. The DH.4 was tried with several engines, of which the best was the 375 hp Rolls-Royce Eagle engine. Armament and ordnance for the aircraft consisted of one 0.303 in Vickers machine gun for the pilot, two 230 lb bombs or four 112 lb bombs could be carried. The DH.4 entered service on 6 March 1917 with No.55 Squadron in France, the DH.4 was designed by Geoffrey de Havilland as a light two-seat day bomber powered by the new Beardmore Halford Pullinger engine. The prototype first flew in August 1916, powered by a prototype BHP engine rated at 230 hp, while the DH.4 trials were promising, the BHP engine required major redesign before entering production, and the Rolls-Royce Eagle engine was selected as the DH. 4s powerplant.
The first order for 50 DH. 4s, powered by 250 hp Eagle III engines was placed at the end of 1916, the aircraft was a conventional tractor two bay biplane of all-wooden construction. The crew of two were accommodated in widely spaced cockpits, separated by the fuel tank and it was armed with a single forward-firing synchronised Vickers machine gun and one or two.303 in Lewis guns fitted on a Scarff ring fired by the observer. A bomb load of 460 lb could be fitted to external racks, as production continued, DH. 4s were fitted with Eagle engines of increasing power, settling on the 375 hp Eagle VIII, which powered the majority of frontline DH. 4s by the end of 1917. None of these engines could match the Rolls-Royce Eagle, however, in American production, the new Liberty engine proved suitable as a DH.4 powerplant. The Liberty was to power the British DH. 9A. Production was by Airco, F. W. Berwick and Co, Glendower Aircraft Company, Palladium Autocars, Vulcan Motor and Engineering, a total of 1,449 aircraft were made in the UK for the RFC and RNAS.
SABCA of Belgium made a further 15 in 1926, a total of 9,500 DH-4s were ordered from American manufacturers, of which 1,885 actually reached France during the war. After the war, a number of firms, most significantly Boeing, were contracted by the U. S. Army to remanufacture surplus DH-4s to DH-4B standard. Known by Boeing as the Model 16, deliveries of 111 aircraft from this manufacturer took place between March and July 1920, with 50 of them returned for further three years later. In 1923, the Army ordered a new DH-4 variant from Boeing and these three prototypes were designated DH-4M-1 and were ordered into production alongside the generally similar DH-4M-2 developed by Atlantic Aircraft. A total of 22 of the 163 DH-4M-1s were converted by the Army into dual-control trainers, the DH.4 entered service with the RFC in January 1917, first being used by No.55 Squadron
Royal Prussian Jagdstaffel 29, commonly abbreviated to Jasta 29, was a hunting group of the Luftstreitkräfte, the air arm of the Imperial German Army during World War I. Royal Prussian Jagdstaffel 29 was formed on 28 December 1916 at the Fliegerersatz-Abteilung 5 training facility at Hannover in Germany and it scored its first victory on 16 March 1917, when Wilhelm Allmenröder incinerated an enemy observation balloon. The fledgling squadron would be blooded just under a month later, on 22 June 1917, Jasta 29 moved to the 6th Armee front. On 28 November, it was reposted to operate with the 2nd Armee, on 14 December, the squadron moved again, to support the 6th Armee once more. On 8 August 1918, Jasta 29 once again supported the 2nd Armee at Peronne, the air unit moved to support 4th Armee on 30 September for its final operational tasking. Bibliography Franks, Bailey, Frank W. & Guest, above The Lines, The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service, and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918
Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2
The Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.2 was a British single-engine tractor two-seat biplane in service with the Royal Flying Corps from 1912 until the end of World War I. Initially used as reconnaissance aircraft and light bombers, variants of the type were used as night fighters. Like many warplanes since, the B. E.2 was retained in service long after it had become obsolete. After its belated withdrawal it finally served as a trainer, communications aircraft, the B. E.2 has always been the subject of a good deal of controversy. The B. E.2 was one of the first aircraft designed at what was called the Royal Balloon Factory under the direction of Mervyn OGorman. Its designation followed the system devised by OGorman which classified aircraft by their layout, B. E. stood for Blériot Experimental, the official agenda of the Balloon Factory was research into aircraft design, but the construction of actual aircraft was not officially sanctioned. The layout of these aircraft has come to be seen as a conventional design, with the contemporary Avro 500, it was one of the designs which established the tractor biplane as the dominant aircraft layout for a considerable time.
On its first public appearance Flight wrote that one could see of the machine was of singular interest. Both aircraft were two-bay tractor biplanes with low-dihedral parallel-chord unstaggered wings with rounded ends, behind the pilot a curved top decking extended aft to the tail. The tail surfaces consisted of a horizontal stabiliser with a split elevator mounted above the upper longerons. There was no fixed vertical fin, a sprung tailskid was fitted and the wings were protected by semicircular skids beneath the lower wings. The wings were of unequal span, upper wingspan was 36 ft 7½in, the aircraft was not flown again until 27 December, modified by the substitution of a Claudel carburettor in place of the original Wolseley, which allowed no throttle control. Later, the Wolseley was replaced by a 60 hp air-cooled Renault, the B. E.2 was not so called because it was considered a separate type. At that time the numbers allocated are more properly regarded as constructors numbers rather than type designations. B. E.2 was almost identical to the B.
E.1, differing principally in being powered by a 60 hp air-cooled Renault V-8 engine and in having equal-span wings. Like B. E.1 it was nominally a rebuild of an existing aircraft and it first flew on 1 February 1912, again with de Havilland as the test pilot. The Renault proved a more satisfactory powerplant than the Wolseley fitted to B. E.1. B. E.2 was flown extensively at the Military Aeroplane Competition held on Salisbury Plain in August 1912, flown by de Havilland with Major F. H. Sykes as passenger
The Sopwith Triplane was a British single seat fighter aircraft designed and manufactured by the Sopwith Aviation Company during the First World War. It was the first military triplane to see operational service, the Triplane joined Royal Naval Air Service squadrons in early 1917 and was immediately successful. It was nevertheless built in small numbers and was withdrawn from active service as Sopwith Camels arrived in the latter half of 1917. Surviving Triplanes continued to serve as trainers until the end of the war. The Triplane began as a venture by the Sopwith Aviation Company. Ailerons were fitted to all three wings, by using the variable incidence tailplane, the aircraft could be trimmed to fly hands-off. The introduction of a smaller 8 ft span tailplane in February 1917 improved elevator response, the Triplane was initially powered by the 110 hp Clerget 9Z nine-cylinder rotary engine, but most production examples were fitted with the 130 hp Clerget 9B rotary. At least one Triplane was tested with a 110 hp Le Rhône rotary engine, the initial prototype of what was to be referred to simply as the Triplane first flew on 28 May 1916, with Sopwith test pilot Harry Hawker at the controls.
Within three minutes of takeoff, Hawker startled onlookers by looping the aircraft, serial N500, three times in succession, the Triplane was very agile, with effective, well-harmonised controls. When maneuvering, the Triplane presented an unusual appearance, one observer noted that the aircraft looked like a drunken flight of steps when rolling. In July 1916, N500 was sent to Dunkirk for evaluation with A Naval Squadron,1 Naval Wing, the second prototype, serial N504, was fitted with a 130 hp Clerget 9B. N504 first flew in August 1916 and was sent to France in December. This aircraft served as a trainer for several squadrons. Seeking modern aircraft for the Royal Flying Corps, the War Office issued a contract to Clayton & Shuttleworth for 106 Triplanes, in February 1917, the War Office agreed to exchange its Triplane orders for the Admiraltys SPAD S. VII contracts. For unknown reasons, the RFC Triplane contract issued to Clayton & Shuttleworth was simply cancelled rather than being transferred to the RNAS, total production amounted to 147 aircraft.
No.1 Naval Squadron became fully operational with the Triplane by December 1916, but the squadron did not see any significant action until February 1917, No.8 Naval Squadron received its Triplanes in February 1917. Nos.9 and 10 Naval Squadrons equipped with the type between April and May 1917, the only other major operator of the Triplane was a French naval squadron based at Dunkirk, which received 17 aircraft. The Triplanes combat debut was highly successful, the new fighters exceptional rate of climb and high service ceiling gave it a marked advantage over the Albatros D. III, though the Triplane was slower in a dive
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
The Albatros D. V was a fighter aircraft used by the Luftstreitkräfte during World War I. The D. V was the development of the Albatros D. I family. Despite its well-known shortcomings and general obsolescence, approximately 900 D. V and 1,612 D. Va aircraft were built before production halted in early 1918, the D. Va continued in operational service until the end of the war. In April 1917, Albatros received an order from the Idflieg for a version of the D. III. The resulting D. V prototype flew that month, the D. V closely resembled the D. III and used the same 127 kW Mercedes D. IIIa engine. The most notable difference was a new, fully elliptical cross-section fuselage which was 32 kg lighter than the partially flat-sided fuselage of the earlier D. I through D. III designs, the new elliptical cross-section required an additional longeron on each side of the fuselage. The vertical fin and tailplane initially remained unchanged from the D. III, the prototype D. V retained the standard rudder of the Johannisthal-built D. III, but production examples used the enlarged rudder featured on D.
IIIs built by Ostdeutsche Albatros Werke. The D. V featured a larger spinner and ventral fin, compared to the D. III, the upper wing of the D. V was repositioned 4.75 inches closer to the fuselage, while the lower wings attached to the fuselage without a fairing. The D. Vs wings themselves were almost identical to those of the standard D. III, which had adopted a sesquiplane wing arrangement broadly similar to the French Nieuport 11. The only significant difference between wings of the D. III and D. V was a linkage of the aileron cables. Idflieg therefore conducted structural tests on the fuselage, but not the wings, early examples of the D. V featured a large headrest, which was usually removed in service because it interfered with the pilots field of view. The headrest was eventually deleted from production, aircraft deployed in Palestine used two wing radiators, to cope with the warmer climate. Idflieg issued production contracts for 200 D. V aircraft in April 1917, initial production of the D.
V was exclusively undertaken by the Johannisthal factory, while the Schneidemühl factory produced the D. III through the remainder of 1917. The D. V entered service in May 1917 and, like the D. III before it, anecdotal evidence suggests that the D. V was even more prone to wing failures than the D. III. The outboard sections of the wing suffered failures, requiring additional wire bracing. Furthermore, the D. V offered very little improvement in performance and this caused considerable dismay among frontline pilots, many of whom preferred the older D. III. Manfred von Richthofen was particularly critical of the new aircraft, in a July 1917 letter, he described the D. V as so obsolete and so ridiculously inferior to the English that one cant do anything with this aircraft. British tests of a captured D. V revealed that the aircraft was slow to maneuver, heavy on the controls, Albatros responded with the D. Va, which featured stronger wing spars, heavier wing ribs, and a reinforced fuselage
Pomerania is a region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland. The name derives from the Slavic po more, meaning by the sea, Pomerania stretches roughly from the Recknitz river in the west to the Vistula river in the east. The largest Pomeranian islands are Rügen, Usedom/Uznam and Wolin, the largest Pomeranian city is Gdańsk, or, when using a narrower definition of the region, Szczecin. Outside its urban areas, Pomerania is characterized by farmland, dotted with lakes, forests. The region was affected by post–World War I and II border and population shifts. Pomerania is the area along the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea between the rivers Recknitz in the west and Vistula in the east and it formerly reached perhaps as far south as the Noteć river, but since the 13th century its southern boundary has been placed further north. Most of the region is coastal lowland, being part of the North European Plain, but its southern, hilly parts belong to the Baltic Ridge, within this ridge, a chain of moraine-dammed lakes constitutes the Pomeranian Lake District.
The soil is rather poor, sometimes sandy or marshy. The western coastline is jagged, with many peninsulas and islands enclosing numerous bays, Łebsko and several other lakes were formerly bays, but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the Gdańsk Bay and Vistula Lagoon, has the Hel peninsula, the Pomeranian region has the following administrative divisions, Hither Pomerania in northeastern Germany, stretching from the Recknitz river to the Oder–Neisse line. This region is part of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The southernmost part of historical Vorpommern is now in Brandenburg, while its eastern parts are now in Poland. Vorpommern comprises the regions inhabited by Slavic tribes Rugians and Volinians, otherwise the Principality of Rügen. The West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland, stretching from the Oder–Neisse line to the Wieprza river, the Pomeranian Voivodeship, with similar borders to Pomerelia, stretching from the Wieprza river to the Vistula delta in the vicinity of Gdańsk.
The northern half of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, comprising most of Chełmno Land, the bulk of Farther Pomerania is included within the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship, but its easternmost parts now constitute the northwest of Pomeranian Voivodeship. Parts of Pomerania and surrounding regions have constituted a euroregion since 1995, the Pomerania euroregion comprises Hither Pomerania and Uckermark in Germany, West Pomerania in Poland, and Scania in Sweden. Pomerania was first mentioned in a document of 1046, referring to a Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum. Pomerania is mentioned repeatedly in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen, the term West Pomerania is ambiguous, since it may refer to either Hither Pomerania or to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship
The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic. The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families and this included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia became one of kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory. Its influence helped define modern German culture, after 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, a heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the worlds strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base.
In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britains Royal Navy, after the removal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II, the Empire embarked on a bellicose new course that ultimately led to World War I. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had two allies and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, however, left the once the First World War started in August 1914. In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front, it occupied large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British, it failed, but the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution and this failed, and by October the armies were in retreat, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered and the German people had lost faith in their political system.
The Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution as the Emperor and all the ruling monarchs abdicated, and a republic took over. The German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarcks pragmatic Realpolitik. He envisioned a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany, the war resulted in the Confederation being partially replaced by a North German Confederation in 1867, comprising the 22 states north of the Main. The new constitution and the title Emperor came into effect on 1 January 1871, during the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, William accepted to be proclaimed Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. The second German Constitution was adopted by the Reichstag on 14 April 1871 and proclaimed by the Emperor on 16 April, the political system remained the same.
The empire had a parliament called the Reichstag, which was elected by universal male suffrage, the original constituencies drawn in 1871 were never redrawn to reflect the growth of urban areas
No. 19 Squadron RAF
No.19 Squadron RAF was a flying squadron of the Royal Air Force. In 1918, the squadron was re-equipped with Sopwith Dolphins, flying escort duties, Commanding officers during this time included H. D. Harvey-Kelly who was the first RFC pilot to land in France in the First World War. At least one of 19 Sqn. fliers, a Canadian, George Robert Long, was captured on 6 October 1917 in the Lille area and spent the rest of the war in a number of POW camps, including Holzminden POW camp. It was his very first flight, in a Spad VII and he was shot down by Gefr. He had first been a member of the C. E. F. in the infantry and was wounded a number of times and he wasnt repatriated until 14 December 1918, to return home to Ottawa, Canada. The Squadron was disbanded after the First World War on 31 December 1919 and they flew a number of different fighters, and were the first squadron to be equipped with the Gloster Gauntlet in May 1935, and with the Supermarine Spitfire on 4 August 1938. The Squadron was stationed in the UK after the outbreak of the Second World War,19 Squadron formed part of the Duxford Wing,12 Groups Big Wing formation.
Later versions of Spitfires were flown until the arrival of Mustangs for close-support duties in early 1944, after D-Day, No.19 briefly went across the English Channel before starting long-range escort duties from RAF Peterhead for Coastal Command off the coast of Norway. The Squadron and the sister Squadron 92 were called upon as fast response interceptors during the cold war and their final location before being disbanded was RAF Wildenrath in Germany near Geilenkirchen. The numberplate was assigned to the former No.63 Squadron, one of the Hawk squadrons at RAF Chivenor. The squadron was a Shadow identity of No.2 Tactical Weapons Unit, following the closure of Chivenor to jet flying the squadron was moved to RAF Valley in September 1994 to provide advanced fast jet training on the BAE Hawk. In May 2008, a Hawk T.1, XX184, was re-painted in a special Spitfire camouflage livery at RAF Valley and this was done to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the squadron as the first operational fighter squadron to fly the Supermarine Spitfire from Duxford in 1938.
19 Squadron, one of the last surviving Battle of Britain Squadrons, the disbandment event, held at RAF Valley, was led by the Wg Cdr Kevin Marsh, the last Commanding Officer of 19 Squadron. List of Royal Air Force aircraft squadrons Notes Bibliography Royal Air Force,19 Squadron 19 Squadron All Ranks Association
Wervik is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Wervik and the town of Geluwe, on January 1,2014, Wervik had a total population of 18,435. The total area is 43.61 km² which gives a density of 423 inhabitants per km². The area is famous for its excellent tobacco and has a tobacco museum, the town is separated from its French counterpart Wervicq-Sud by the river Leie. Wervik is one of the oldest towns in Belgium, stone Age artefacts, flint axes and spearheads, were found in the district of Bas-Flanders and the site Oosthove. The archeological excavations at de Pioneer in 2009 yielded traces of inhabitation from the Iron Age to the Roman Period, Wervik was probably a settlement of the Menapians led by the chief Virovos, at a small height along the banks of the Lys. At the time of the conquest of Gaul by Caesar, a Roman stopping place was next to the Celtic village. The Roman settlement was registered on Roman road maps from the 3rd to 4th century under the name Viroviacum or Virovino, vioviacum was located on the Roman road between Cassel and Bavay.
Remains from that period are still being found regularly in Wervik, excavations at Saint Martins Square in the centre exposed the foundations of the old Saint Martins church, which was partly built with Roman waste materials. According to some historians this was formerly a temple dedicated to Mars or Priapus, in the 13th century the population of Belgium rose sharply, thanks to the great heyday of the textile trade which penetrated international markets up to the Far East. In 1327 the city was taken by Philip of Valois and partially destroyed, during the Ghent uprising of 1382, Wervik was an outpost of the army of Philip van Artevelde during the Battle of Westrozebeke. The rebellion failed, and the city was plundered by the Bretons, the Saint Medardus church had to be rebuilt completely. Wervik had not yet fully recovered when a fire in 1400 destroyed the whole town again. Of the 820 dwellings there only 20 remained, jan Zonder Vrees gave Wervik a market hall in 1401, as an incentive for recovery and revival.
In 1436 part of the garrison of Calais invaded Wervik and again burnt the town to ashes, the many successive fires were mainly because most houses were built of wood and straw, and that the town had no protection against attacks as it was never walled. After the succession of fires the town was attacked by the plague, in the years 1436 and 1468 the population was decimated by the epidemic. In the middle of the 16th century finally a quieter period began for Wervik, prosperity had vanished and the population had dropped to about 3000 inhabitants. During the religious quarrels, the Saint Medardus church was badly damaged, the Geuzen burnt the church in 1579
Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War I)
Jagdgeschwader 1 of World War I, was a fighter unit of the German Luftstreitkräfte, comprising four Jastas. It was formed on 24 June 1917, with Manfred von Richthofen as commanding officer, during early 1917, it became apparent to the German High Command that they would always be outnumbered in air operations over the Western Front. The average Jasta could only muster some six or eight aircraft in total for a patrol, in order to maintain some impact and local command of the air the Jastas began to fly in larger, composite groups. By mid 1917 the first official grouping of Jastas saw JG1 formed and its role was simple, to achieve localized air superiority wherever it was sent and to deny Allied air operations over a specific location. The unit was highly mobile, and JG1 and its supporting logistical infrastructure traveled to wherever local air superiority was needed. Thus 9-victory ace Leutnant Eduard Ritter von Dostler and the rising Leutnant Hans von Adam were soon posted to Jasta 6, and Lieutenant Werner Voss into Jasta 10.
This policy had the effect of making the Jagdgeschwader an elite unit, JG1 itself suffered a dilution of talent when competent members were posted away to command their own Jastas in late 1917, when the number of Jastas were doubled from 40 to 80. JG1 was soon flying intensively over the Flanders battlefield above the Allied offensive started in June 1917. Richthofen was severely wounded in the head on 6 July, leading elements of JG1 in combat with F. E. 2ds of the Royal Flying Corpss No.20 Squadron. Oberleutnant Kurt von Doering, Commanding Officer of Jasta 4, took temporary command. Richthofen reassumed command on 25 July, but left on a period of leave on 6 September. JG1 was the first unit to operationally trial the new Fokker Dr. I triplane, Jasta 10s Werner Voss would be the triplanes greatest exponent, scoring 10 victories with it in just 21 days before his death in combat. The unit meantime soldiered on with the Albatros D. V, JG1 was rushed from Ypres to Cambrai by 23 November 1917, following the launch of the British offensive, and did much to stabilise the air war over the battlefield when the bad weather permitted.
At this time Richthofen recruited Hans Kirchstein and Fritz Friedrichs from two-seater units, by April 1918 the formation was flying from Harbonnieres, the most south westerly airfield they were to ultimately occupy. Most of JG 1s victims at this time were the low flying fighter bombers, after von Richthofens death in April 1918, Hauptmann Wilhelm Reinhard became JG1 Commanding Officer. On 10 May JG1 claimed its 300th victory while on 20 May the unit received the title of JG1 Richthofen. Soon after JG1 moved to the 7th Army front to support the forthcoming Aisne offensive, JG1 moved to Guise, and Puiseux Ferme, operating primarily against the French and the newly arrived American Air Forces. Between 31 May and 8 June JG1 claimed some 43 French aircraft and balloons, Jasta 6s Lt. Hans Kirschstein was the star performer of JG1 at this time, claiming 27 victories between 18 March and 14 June