Amenonuhoko is the name given to the spear in Shintoism used to raise the primordial land-mass, Onogoro-shima, from the sea. It is represented as a naginata. According to the Kojiki, Shinto's genesis gods Izanagi and Izanami were responsible for creating the first land. To help them do this, they were given a spear decorated with jewels, named Ame-no nu-hoko, by older heavenly gods; the two deities went to the bridge between heaven and earth, Ame-no-ukihashi, churned the sea below with the naginata. When drops of salty water fell from the tip, they formed into the first island, Onogoro-shima. Izanagi and Izanami descended from the bridge of heaven and made their home on the island
Nagoya is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is the third-most-populous urban area, it is located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu. It is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama and Kitakyushu, it is the center of Japan's third-largest metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō metropolitan area. As of 2015, 2.28 million people lived in the city, part of Chūkyō Metropolitan Area's 10.11 million people. It is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world; the city's name was written as 那古野 or 名護屋. One possible origin is the adjective nagoyaka, meaning'peaceful'; the name Chūkyō, consisting of chū + kyō is used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the name Chūkyō include the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse. Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who succeeded in unifying Japan.
In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya. During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya, on the important Tōkaidō road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo. A town developed around the temple to support travelers; the castle and shrine towns formed the city. During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, designated a city on September 1, 1956, by government ordinance. Nagoya became an industrial hub for the region, its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns of Tokoname and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate.
Other industries included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningyō. Mitsubishi Aircraft Company was established in 1920 in Nagoya and became one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in Japan; the availability of space and the central location of the region and the well-established connectivity were some of the major factors that lead to the establishment of the aviation industry there. Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II; the population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, fourth among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated. Important Japanese aircraft targets were within the city itself, while others were to the north of Kagamigahara, it was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines, such as the vital Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. The Nagoya area produced machine tools, railway equipment, metal alloys, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.
Air raids began on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant. The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command’s attacks; these incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres. The XXI Bomber Command established a new U. S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries, it destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to one-fourth of the entire city. Nagoya Castle, being used as a military command post, was hit and destroyed on May 14, 1945. Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959. In 1959, the city was flooded and damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon. Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain; the city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters.
The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, the Shōnai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward; the man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows as part of the Shōnai River system; the rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows south at Nonami and west at Ōdaka into the bay; the city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically. Nagoya has 16 wards: Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters; the summer is noticeably wetter than the winter. One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents; the population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 persons per km2. As of December 2010 an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945.
The area i
Acorus calamus is a species of flowering plant, a tall wetland monocot of the family Acoraceae, in the genus Acorus. Although used in traditional medicine over centuries to treat digestive disorders and pain, there is no clinical evidence for its safety or efficacy – and ingested calamus may be toxic – leading to its commercial ban in the United States. Sweet flag is a herbaceous perennial, 2 m tall, it resembles the iris, giving the name flag iris, I. pseudacorus. It consists of tufts of basal leaves; the leaves are erect yellowish-brown, with pink sheathing at their bases, sword-shaped and narrow, tapering into a long, acute point, have parallel veins. The leaves have smooth edges, which can crimped; the sweet flag can be distinguished from iris and other similar plants by the crimped edges of the leaves, the fragrant odor it emits when crushed, the presence of a spadix. Only plants that grow in water bear flowers; the solid, triangular flower-stems rise from the axils of the outer leaves. A semi-erect spadix emerges from one side of the flower stem.
The spadix is solid, tapers at each end, is 5 to 10 cm in length. A covering spathe, as is usual with Acoraceae, is absent; the spadix is densely crowded with tiny greenish-yellow flowers. Each flower contains six petals and stamens enclosed in a perianth with six divisions, surrounding a three-celled, oblong ovary with a sessile stigma; the flowers are sweetly fragrant. In Europe, it flowers for about a month in late spring or early summer, but does not bear fruit; the fruit is a berry filled with mucus. In Asia, it fruits sparingly, propagates itself by growth of its rhizome, forming colonies; the branched, knobby rhizome is the thickness of a human finger and has numerous coarse fibrous roots below it. The exterior is the interior white. Sweet flag is native to India, central Asia, southern Russia and Siberia, Eastern Europe, it grows in China and Japan. It was introduced into North America for medicinal purposes. Habitats include edges of small lakes and rivers, marshes and wetlands. In addition to "sweet flag" and "calamus" other common names include beewort, bitter pepper root, calamus root, flag root, myrtle flag, myrtle grass, myrtle root, myrtle sedge, pine root, rat root, sea sedge, sweet cane, sweet cinnamon, sweet grass, sweet myrtle, sweet root, sweet rush, sweet sedge.
The generic name is the Latin word acorus, derived from the Greek άχόρου of Dioscorides. The word άχόρου itself is thought to have been derived from the word κόρη, which means pupil, because of the juice from the root of the plant being used as a remedy in diseases of the eye; the specific name calamus is derived from Greek κάλαμος, cognate to Latin culmus and Old English healm, derived from Proto-Indo European *kole-mo-. The name "sweet flag" refers to its sweet scent and its similarity to Iris species, which are known as flags in English since the late fourteenth century; the plant was mentioned in the Chester Beatty papyrus VI dating to 1300 BC. The ancient Egyptians mentioned the plant in medicinal contexts, but it was used to make perfumes. Europeans confused the identity and medicinal uses of the Acorus calamus of the Romans and Greeks with their native Iris pseudacorus, thus the Herbarius zu Teutsch, published at Mainz in 1485, describes and includes a woodcut of this iris under the name Acorus.
This German book is one of three possible sources for the French Le Grant Herbier, written in 1486, 1488, 1498 or 1508, of which an English translation was published as the Grete Herball by Peter Treveris in 1526, all containing the false identification of the Herbarius zu Teutsch. William Turner, writing in 1538, describes'acorum' as "gladon or a flag, a yelowe floure delyce"; the plant was introduced to Britain in the late 16th century. By at least 1596, true Acorus calamus was grown in Britain, as it is listed in The Catalogue, a list of plants John Gerard grew in his garden at Holborn. Gerard notes "It prospereth exceeding well in my garden, but as yet beareth neither flowers nor stalke". Gerard lists the Latin name as Acorus verus, but it is evident there was still doubt about its veracity: in his 1597 herbal he lists the English common name as'bastard calamus'; the taxonomic position of these forms is contested. The comprehensive taxonomic analysis in the Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families from 2002 considers all three forms to be distinct varieties of a single species.
The Flora of North America publication considers the diploid form to be a distinct species, analyzing North American forms of the diploid variety, does not analyse the morphology of Asian forms of the diploid variety. In older literature, the name Acorus americanus may be used indiscriminately for all forms of Acorus calamus occurring in North America, irrespective of cytological diversity; the treatment in the Flora of China from 2010, followed in the Tropicos database system, considers all varieties to be synonyms of a single taxonomically undifferentiated species, pointing to morphological overlap in the characteristics singled out by Thompson. The primary morphological distinction between the triploid and the North American forms of the diploid is made by the number of pro
The Nihon Shoki, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is called the Nihongi, it is more elaborate and detailed than the Kojiki, the oldest, has proven to be an important tool for historians and archaeologists as it includes the most complete extant historical record of ancient Japan. The Nihon Shoki was finished in 720 under the editorial supervision of Prince Toneri and with the assistance of Ō no Yasumaro dedicated to Empress Genshō; the Nihon Shoki begins with the Japanese creation myth, explaining the origin of the world and the first seven generations of divine beings, goes on with a number of myths as does the Kojiki, but continues its account through to events of the 8th century. It is believed to record the latter reigns of Emperor Tenji, Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō; the Nihon Shoki focuses on the merits of the virtuous rulers as well as the errors of the bad rulers. It describes diplomatic contacts with other countries.
The Nihon Shoki was written in classical Chinese. The Kojiki, on the other hand, is written in a combination of Chinese and phonetic transcription of Japanese; the Nihon Shoki contains numerous transliteration notes telling the reader how words were pronounced in Japanese. Collectively, the stories in this book and the Kojiki are referred to as the Kiki stories; the tale of Urashima Tarō is developed from the brief mention in Nihon Shoki that a certain child of Urashima visited Horaisan and saw wonders. The tale has plainly incorporated elements from the famous anecdote of "Luck of the Sea and Luck of the Mountains" found in Nihon Shoki; the developed Urashima tale contains the Rip Van Winkle motif, so some may consider it an early example of fictional time travel. Chapter 01: Kami no Yo no Kami no maki. Chapter 02: Kami no Yo no Shimo no maki. Chapter 03: Kan'yamato Iwarebiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 04: Kamu Nunakawamimi no Sumeramikoto. Shikitsuhiko Tamatemi no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Hikosukitomo no Sumeramikoto.
Mimatsuhiko Sukitomo no Sumeramikoto. Yamato Tarashihiko Kuni Oshihito no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Futoni no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Kunikuru no Sumeramikoto. Wakayamato Nekohiko Ōbibi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 05: Mimaki Iribiko Iniye no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 06: Ikume Iribiko Isachi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 07: Ōtarashihiko Oshirowake no Sumeramikoto. Waka Tarashihiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 08: Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 09: Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto. Chapter 10: Homuda no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 11: Ōsasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 12: Izahowake no Sumeramikoto. Mitsuhawake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 13: Oasazuma Wakugo no Sukune no Sumeramikoto. Anaho no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 14: Ōhatsuse no Waka Takeru no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 15: Shiraka no Take Hirokuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Sumeramikoto. Woke no Sumeramikoto. Oke no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 16: Ohatsuse no Waka Sasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 17: Ōdo no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 18: Hirokuni Oshi Take Kanahi no Sumeramikoto.
Take Ohirokuni Oshi Tate no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 19: Amekuni Oshiharaki Hironiwa no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 20: Nunakakura no Futo Tamashiki no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 21: Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Hatsusebe no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 22: Toyomike Kashikiya Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 23: Okinaga Tarashi Hihironuka no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 24: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 25: Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 26: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 27: Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 28: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Kami no maki. Chapter 29: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Shimo no maki. Chapter 30: Takamanohara Hirono Hime no Sumeramikoto; the background of the compilation of the Nihon Shoki is that Emperor Tenmu ordered 12 people, including Prince Kawashima, to edit the old history of the empire. Shoku Nihongi notes that "先是一品舍人親王奉勅修日本紀。至是功成奏上。紀卅卷系圖一卷" in the part of May, 720.
It means "Up to that time, Prince Toneri had been compiling Nihongi on the orders of the emperor. The process of compilation is studied by stylistic analysis of each chapter. Although written in classical Chinese character, some sections use styles characteristic of Japanese editors; the Nihon Shoki is a synthesis of older documents on the records, continuously kept in the Yamato court since the sixth century. It includes documents and folklore submitted by clans serving the court. Prior to Nihon Shoki, there were Tennōki and Kokki compiled by Prince Shōtoku and Soga no Umako, but as they were stored in Soga's residence, they were burned at the time of the Isshi Incident; the work's contributors refer to various sources
Susanoo known as Takehaya Susanoo no Mikoto and Kumano Ketsumiko no Kami at Kumano shrine, is the Shinto god of the sea and storms. He is considered to be ruler of Neno-Katasu-Kuni, he is married to Kushinadahime. In Japanese mythology, the powerful storm god, is the brother of Amaterasu, the goddess of the Sun, of Tsukuyomi, the god of the Moon. All three were born from Izanagi, when he washed his face clean of the pollutants of Yomi, the underworld. Amaterasu was born when Izanagi washed out his left eye, Tsukuyomi was born from the washing of the right eye, Susanoo from the washing of the nose. Susanoo used Totsuka-no-Tsurugi as his weapon; the oldest sources for Susanoo myths are ca. 720 CE Nihon Shoki. They tell of a long-standing rivalry between his sister; when he was to leave Heaven by orders of Izanagi, he went to bid his sister goodbye. Amaterasu was suspicious, but when Susanoo proposed a challenge to prove his sincerity, she accepted; each of them took an object of the other from it birthed gods and goddesses.
Amaterasu birthed three women from Susanoo's Totsuka-no-Tsurugi while he birthed five men from her necklace. Claiming the gods were hers because they were born of her necklace, the goddesses were his, she decided that she had won the challenge, as his item produced women; the two were content for a time. In a fit of rage, he destroyed his sister's rice fields, hurled a flayed pony at her loom, killed one of her attendants. Amaterasu, in fury and grief, hid inside the Ama-no-Iwato, thus hiding the sun for a long period of time. Though she was persuaded to leave the cave, Susano-o was punished by being banished from Heaven, he descended to the province of Izumo, where he met an elderly couple who told him that seven of their eight daughters had been devoured by the eight-headed dragon Yamata no Orochi and it was nearing time for their eighth, Kushinada-hime. The Nihon Shoki, here translated by William George Aston in Nihongi, gives the most detailed account of Susanoo and Amaterasu slaying Yamata no Orochi.
Compare to that found in the Kojiki, translated by Basil Hall Chamberlain in The Kojiki, where Susanoo is translated as "His-Swift-Impetuous-Male-Augustness": Then Susanoo no Mikoto descended from Heaven and proceeded to the head-waters of the River Hi, in the province of Idzumo. At this time he heard a sound of weeping at the head-waters of the river, he went in search of the sound, he found there an old woman. Between them was set a young girl, whom they were caressing and lamenting over. Susanoo no Mikoto asked them, saying:-"Who are ye, why do ye lament thus?" The answer was:-"I am an Earthly Deity, my name is Ashi-nadzuchi. My wife's name is Te-nadzuchi; this girl is our daughter, her name is Kushi-nada-hime. The reason of our weeping is that we had eight children, daughters, but they have been devoured year after year by an eight-forked serpent and now the time approaches for this girl to be devoured. There is no means of escape for her, therefore do we grieve.” Sosa no wo no Mikoto said: "If, so, wilt thou give me thy daughter?"
He replied, said: "I will comply with thy behest and give her to thee." Therefore Sosa no wo no Mikoto on the spot changed Kushi-nada-hime into a many-toothed close-comb which he stuck in the august knot of his hair. He made Ashi-nadzuchi and Te-nadzuchi to brew eight-fold sake, to make eight cupboards, in each of them to set a tub filled with sake, so to await its coming; when the time came, the serpent appeared. It had an eight-forked tail; as it crawled it extended over a space of eight valleys. Now when it came and found the sake, each head drank up one tub, it became drunken and fell asleep. Susanoo no Mikoto drew the ten-span sword which he wore, chopped the serpent into small pieces; when he came to the tail, the edge of his sword was notched, he therefore split open the tail and examined it. In the inside there was a sword; this is the sword, called Kusa-nagi no tsurugi. This sword from the dragon's tail, the Ama-no-Murakumo-no-Tsurugi or the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi, was presented by Susanoo to Amaterasu as a reconciliation gift.
According to legends, she bequeathed it to her descendant Ninigi along with the Yata no Kagami mirror and Yasakani no Magatama jewel or orb. This sacred sword and jewel collectively became the three Imperial Regalia of Japan. While Amaterasu is enshrined at the Honden of the Ise Grand Shrine, Susanoo is enshrined at Kumano Taisha located in Shimane, where he descended when banished from heaven; the iwami kagura - Orochi The jōruri - Nihon Furisode Hajime by Chikamatsu Monzaemon Aston, William George, tr. 1896. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. 2 vols. Kegan Paul. 1972 Tuttle reprint. Chamberlain, Basil H. tr. 1919. The Kojiki, Records of Ancient Matters. 1981 Tuttle reprint. Susanoo, Encyclopedia of Shinto Susano-O no Mikoto, Kimberley Winkelmann, in the Internet Archive as of 5 December 2008 Shinto Creation Stories: Sosa no wo in Izumo, Richard Hooker, in the Internet Archive as of 28 August 2006 Susanoo vs Yamata no Orochi animated depiction
In Japanese folklore, Ryūgū-jō is the undersea palace of Ryūjin, the dragon kami of the sea. Depending on the version of the legend, it is built from solid crystal; the inhabitants of the palace were Ryūjin's servants, who were denizens of the sea. In some legends, on each of the four sides of the palace it is a different season, one day in the palace is equal to a century outside its boundaries; the most famous legend about the palace concerns Urashima Tarō's visit to Ryūgū-jō for three days. Katase-Enoshima Station in Fujisawa, Kanagawa Prefecture, is designed to evoke the feeling of Ryūgū-jō. In the Ryukyuan religion, Ryūgū-jō is the source of fire for all village hearths; the Sea King and Vasilisa the Wise Eglė the Queen of Serpents
Emperor Keikō known as Ootarashihikooshirowake no Sumeramikoto was the 12th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign is conventionally dated as 71–130 AD. Keikō is regarded by historians as a legendary Emperor with little information about him. There is insufficient material available for further study; the reign of Emperor Kinmei, the 29th Emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates. The name Keikō-tennō was assigned to him posthumously by generations, his legend was recorded in Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, but the accounts of him are different in these two sources. In the Kojiki, he sent his son Prince Ōsu to Kyūshū to conquer local tribes. In the Nihon Shoki, Keikō himself won battles against local tribes. According to both sources, he sent Yamato Takeru to Izumo Province and eastern provinces to conquer the area and spread his territory. According to traditional sources, Yamato Takeru died in the 43rd year of Emperor Keiko's reign.
The possessions of the dead prince were gathered together along with the sword Kusanagi. Sometime these relics and the sacred sword were moved to the current location of the Atsuta Shrine; the Nihon Shoki explains that this move occurred in the 51st year of Keiko's reign, but the shrine tradition dates this event in the 1st year of Emperor Chūai's reign. The actual site of Keikō's grave is not known; the Emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Nara. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Keikō's mausoleum, it is formally named Yamanobe no michi no e no misasagi. Empress: Princess Harima no Inabi no Ōiratsume, Prince Wakatakehiko's daughter Prince Kushitsunowake Prince Ōsu, ancestor of Mugetsu no kimi Prince Ōsu, father of Emperor ChūaiEmpress: Yasakairi-hime, Prince Yasakairihiko's daughter Fourth Son: Prince Wakatarashihiko Emperor Seimu Prince Iokiirihiko Prince Oshinowake Prince Wakayamatoneko Prince Ōsuwake Princess Nunoshino-hime-miko Princess Iokiirihime-miko Princess Kagoyori-hime-miko Prince Isakiirihiko, ancestor of Mitsukai no Muraji Prince Kibinoehiko Princess Takagiiri-hime-miko Princess Oto-hime-miko Consort: Mizuhanoiratsume, Prince Iwatsukuwake's daughter Princess Ionono-hime-miko, SaiōConsort: Ikawa-hime Prince Kamukushi, ancestor of Sanuki no Kimi, Sakabe no Kimi Prince Inaseirihiko, ancestor of Saeki no Atai, Harima no Atai Consort: Abenotakada-hime, Abe no Kogoto's daughter Prince Takekunikoriwake Consort: Himuka no Kaminagaootane Prince Himuka no Sotsuhiko Consort: Sonotake-hime Prince Kunichiwake Prince Kunisewake Prince Toyotowake Consort: Himukanomihakashi-hime Prince Toyokuniwake, ancestor of Himuka no Kuni no miyatsuko Consort: Inabinowakairatsume, Prince Wakatakehiko's daughter Prince Mawaka Prince Hikohitoōe Consort: Igoto-hime, Mononobe no Igui's daughter Prince Igotohiko Mother unknown: Prince Wakaki-no-Irihiko, speculated as the same person with Prince Iokiirihiko Princess Shirogane, married Prince Hikohitoōe Prince Wakayahiko (稚屋彦命 Prince Amatarashine Prince Takekunikowake, speculated as the same person with Prince Takekunikoriwake Prince Ososhikowake Prince Iwakosowake Prince Takeoshiwake, speculated as the same person with Prince Oshinowake Prince Sonomewake Prince Tochiribiko Prince Sonowashiwake Prince Shirokoriwake Prince Okinaga-no-hikohitoōe-Mizuki, speculated as the same person with Prince Hikohitoōe Prince Kuma-no-Oshitsuhiko Prince Takeotowake Prince Kusaki Prince Tagotowake Prince Oaretowake Prince Toyohiwake Prince Mikawa-no-Sukune Prince Toyotewaka Prince Yamato-no-Sukune Prince Toyotsuhiko Prince Okoriwake List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Takahashi Ujibumi Aston, William George..
Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Kojiki. Read before the Asiatic Society of Japan on April 12, May 10, June 21, 1882. OCLC 1882339 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 __________.. Studies in Shinto and Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 470294859 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.