Shona music is the music of the Shona people of Zimbabwe. There are several different types of traditional Shona music including mbira, singing and drumming; this music will be accompanied by dancing, participation by the audience. In Shona music, there is little distinction between the performer and the audience, both are actively involved in the music-making, both are important in the religious ceremonies where Shona Music is heard; the mbira is a traditional instrument of the Shona People used in religious ceremonies. There are several different varieties of mbira including the Mbira Dzavadzimu and Mbira Nyunga Nyunga. Shona music is well known as representative of mbira music; the performer of the "kushaura" acts as the lead vocalist, selecting a known melody or mbira pattern to accompany selected lyrics a phrase or a few lines of text which are commented upon improvisationally. The performer of the "kutsinira" plays a pattern which interlocks with the "kushaura" in a way that creates the repeated notes which identify mbira music.
The "kutsinira" part is sometimes the same part as the "kushaura", but following the kushaura one pulse behind. The mbira players are accompanied by another less active singer who plays the hosho and responds to the improvised lyrics of the singer and, most embellishes and complements the lead vocal melody. Drums can be used for various dances. Shauro- used for the lead rhythm Tsinhiro- used for the response rhythm Mhito- used for the lead rhythm Mitumba miviri- used for the response rhythm Chimudumbana- small, for lead rhythm Chigubha- big, for response rhythm Shona music is accompanied by the hosho, a hollowed-out maranka gourd containing hota seeds or other objects, shaken to generate a sound. Traditional ancient Shona musics consist of Mbira dzavadzimu played by multiple players and Ngoma drums. Ancient shona music is played at spiritual ceremonies called Bira. Traditional Shona music has been adapted to modern instruments such as electric guitars and western drumsets, for example by musicians such as Thomas Mapfumo, Stella Chiweshe, Oliver Mtukudzi.
This music is associated with the Chimurenga movement. Shona music has become popular in the West and in the East such as Japan. Shona Mbira has been taught in American Universities in musicology classes. Transcriptions carried out as part of fieldwork. In the United States, Shona music has become popular in Colorado, the Pacific Northwest and in some places of Argentina due to the seeding influence of musicians such as Dumisani Maraire, Ephat Mujuru, Thomas Mapfumo and Erica Azim. Shona marimbas are made with F#'s and without, they resonators beneath the keys. Traditional mbira songs are translated to the marimba. Chartwell Dutiro Chiwoniso Maraire Chris Berry Cosmas Magaya Dumisani Maraire Ephat Mujuru Erica Azim Forward Kwenda Fabio Chivhanda Herbert Schwamborn James Chimombe Oliver Mtukudzi Stella Chiweshe Tendayi Gahamadze Thomas MapfumoJah Prayzah Chiwoniso Maraire Chimurenga Ngororombe Marimba Music of Africa Music of Zimbabwe Shona language Shona people Bantu language Zimbabwe List of Zimbabwean musicians Nonesuch Explorer Series 79703-2, Zimbabwe: The African Mbira: Music of the Shona People.
Liner notes by Robert Garfias. Nonesuch Explorer Series 79704 Zimbabwe: The Soul of Mbira: Traditions of the Shona People. Produced by Paul Berliner Musical instruments 2: Reeds; the Music of Africa series. 1 LP disc. 331⁄3 rpm. mono. 12 in. Recorded by Hugh Tracey. Kaleidophone, KMA 2. Mbira Music of Rhodesia, Performed by Abram Dumisani Maraire.. Seattle: University of Washington Press, Ethnic Music Series. Garfias, R.. 1 LP disc. 331⁄3 rpm. mono. 12 in. UWP-1001; this disc features Maraire on Nyunga Nyunga mbira. A 12-page booklet by Maraire is included, describing the background and performance of nyunga-nyunga mbira music. Berliner, Paul; the Soul of Mbira: Music and Traditions of the Shona People of Zimbabwe. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04268-9. Tracey, Andrew.. How to play the mbira. Roodepoort, South Africa: International Library of African Music. Tracey, Hugh.. The evolution of African music and its function in the present day. Johannesburg: Institute for the Study of Man in Africa. Tracey, Hugh..
The Mbira class of African Instruments in Rhodesia. African Music Society Journal, 4:3, 78-95. Zimbabwe Music Vibes Promoting Urban Culture ZimFest Annual Zimbabwean Music Festival in North America Zambuko Solomon Murungu's Shona Music Site Mbira.org Erica Azim's site, based in Berkeley, CA Dandemutande Shona Music site and mailing list
The mbira is an African musical instrument consisting of a wooden board with attached staggered metal tines, played by holding the instrument in the hands and plucking the tines with the thumbs. The mbira is classified as part of the lamellaphone family and part of the idiophone family of musical instruments. Members of this broad family of instruments are known by a wide variety of names. In the Caribbean Islands the mbira is known as the kalimba, a bass version the marímbula. Both Joseph H. Howard, owner of the largest collection of drums and ancillary folk instruments in the Americas, Nigerian drummer Babatunde Olatunji argue that the mbira is African, being found only in areas populated by Africans or their descendants. In Eastern and Southern Africa, there are many kinds of mbira accompanied by the hosho, a percussion instrument; the mbira was reported to be used in Okpuje, Nsukka area of the south eastern part of Nigeria in the early 1900s. It is a common musical instrument of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
It is often an important instrument to be played at religious ceremonies and other social gatherings. Mbira came to prominence after the worldwide stage performance and recordings of Thomas Mapfumo on the 1980s, whose music is based on and includes the mbira. Commercially produced mbiras were exported from South Africa by ethnomusicologist Hugh Tracey from the 1950s onward, popularizing the instrument outside Africa. Various kinds of plucked idiophones and lamellaphones have existed in Africa for thousands of years; the tines were made of bamboo but over the years metal keys have been developed. The mbira appears to have been invented twice in Africa: a wood or bamboo-tined instrument appeared on the west coast of Africa about 3,000 years ago, metal-tined lamellophones appeared in the Zambezi River valley around 1,300 years ago; these metal-tined instruments traveled all across the continent, becoming popular among the Shona of Zimbabwe and other indigenous groups in Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
The mbira differentiated in social uses as it spread. Kalimba-like instruments came to exist from the northern reaches of North Africa to the southern extent of the Kalahari Desert, from the east coast to the west coast, though many or most groups of people in Africa did not possess mbiras. There were thousands of different tunings, different note layouts, different instrument designs, but there is a hypothetical tuning and note layout of the original metal-tined instrument from 1,300 years ago. In the mid 1950s the mbira was the basis for the development of the kalimba, a westernized version designed and marketed by the ethnomusicologist Hugh Tracey, leading to a great expansion of its distribution outside Africa. Lamellophones are "lamellae", which are played by plucking. Unlike stringed instruments or air-column instruments like flutes, the overtones of a plucked lamella are inharmonic, giving the mbira a characteristic sound; the inharmonic overtones are strongest in the attack and die out rather leaving an pure tone.
The note arrangement of some mbira possesses the notes in the scale ascending on the tines from the center outward in an alternating right-left fashion, results in chords being made by adjacent tines. When any tine is plucked, the adjacent tines vibrate, these harmonizing secondary vibrations serve a similar role to the harmonic overtones of a string instrument—they increase the harmonic complexity of an individual note; this left-right alternating arrangement is not true for the mbira dzavadzimu, where the notes are arranged with the lowest notes on each register located toward the center of the mbira and ascend as you move outwards. There are notable breaks in this linear progression however that are consistent across all mbira dzavadzimu. Mbira music, like much of the sub-Saharan African music traditions is based on cross-rhythm. An example from the kushaura part of the traditional mbira piece "Nhema Musasa" is given by David Peñalosa, who observes that the left hand plays the ostinato "bass line," while the right hand plays the upper melody.
The composite melody is an embellishment of the 3:2 cross-rhythm. Tunings vary from family to family referring to relative interval relationships and not to absolute pitches; the most common tuning is Nyamaropa, similar to the western Mixolydian mode. Names may vary between different families; the seven tunings that Garikayi uses are: Bangidza, Nhemamusasa, Taireva and Mavembe. The closest to what is named "Nyamaropa" is his "Nhemamusasa" tuning. Many players, including griot clans — West African storytellers and musicians — have their own idiosyncratic tunings. Most of the time the instrument is played solo and tuning is not as critical as when playing with other musicians, but the tuning can be changed by adjusting the length of the metal tines outward. Mbira tunings have not mapped onto Western scales.
Eugene is a city in the U. S. state of Oregon. It is at the southern end of the verdant Willamette Valley, near the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette Rivers, about 50 miles east of the Oregon Coast; as of the 2010 census, Eugene had a population of 156,185. The Eugene-Springfield, Oregon metropolitan statistical area is the 146th largest metropolitan statistical area in the US and the third-largest in the state, behind the Portland Metropolitan Area and the Salem Metropolitan Area; the city's population for 2014 was estimated to be 160,561 by the US Census. Eugene is home to the University of Oregon, Northwest Christian University, Lane Community College; the city is noted for its natural environment, recreational opportunities, focus on the arts. Eugene's official slogan is "A Great City for the Arts and Outdoors", it is referred to as the "Emerald City" and as "Track Town, USA". The Nike corporation had its beginnings in Eugene. In 2021, the city will host the 18th Field World Championships.
The first people to settle in the Eugene area were known as the Kalapuyans written Calapooia or Calapooya. They made "seasonal rounds," moving around the countryside to collect and preserve local foods, including acorns, the bulbs of the wapato and camas plants, berries, they stored these foods in their permanent winter village. When crop activities waned, they returned to their winter villages and took up hunting and trading, they were known as the Chifin Kalapuyans and called the Eugene area where they lived "Chifin", sometimes recorded as "Chafin" or "Chiffin". Other Kalapuyan tribes occupied villages that are now within Eugene city limits. Pee-you or Mohawk Calapooians, Winefelly or Pleasant Hill Calapooians, the Lungtum or Long Tom, they were close-neighbors to the Chifin and were political allies. Some authorities suggest, it is that since the Santiam had an alliance with the Brownsville Kalapuyans that the Santiam influence went as far at Eugene. According to archeological evidence, the ancestors of the Kalapuyans may have been in Eugene for as long as 10,000 years.
In the 1800s their traditional way of life faced significant changes due to devastating epidemics and settlement, first by French fur traders and by an overwhelming number of United States colonists. French fur traders had settled seasonally in the Willamette Valley by the beginning of the 19th century, their settlements were concentrated in the "French Prairie" community in Northern Marion County but may have extended south to the Eugene area. Having developed relationships with Native communities through intermarriage and trade, they negotiated for land from the Kalapuyans. By 1828 to 1830 they and their Native wives began year-round occupation of the land, raising crops and tending animals. In this process, the mixed race families began to impact Native access to land, food supply, traditional materials for trade and religious practices. In July 1830, "intermittent fever" struck the lower Columbia region and a year the Willamette Valley. Natives traced the arrival of the disease new to the Northwest, to the U.
S. ship, captained by John Dominis. "Intermittent fever" is thought by researchers now to be malaria. According to Robert T. Boyd, an anthropologist at Portland State University, the first three years of the epidemic, "probably constitute the single most important epidemiological event in the recorded history of what would become the state of Oregon". In his book The Coming of the Spirit Pestilence Boyd reports there was a 92% population loss for the Kalapuyans between 1830 and 1841; this catastrophic event shattered the social fabric of Kalapuyan society and altered the demographic balance in the Valley. This balance was further altered over the next few years by the arrival of Anglo-American settlers, beginning in 1840 with 13 people and growing each year until within 20 years more than 11,000 US colonists, including Eugene Skinner, had arrived; as the demographic pressure from the colonists grew, the remaining Kalapuyans were forcibly removed to Indian reservations. Though some Natives escaped being swept into the reservation, most were moved to the Grand Ronde reservation in 1856.
Strict racial segregation was enforced and mixed race people, known as Métis in French, had to make a choice between the reservation and Anglo society. Native Americans could not leave the reservation without traveling papers and white people could not enter the reservation. Eugene Franklin Skinner, after whom Eugene is named, arrived in the Willamette Valley in 1846 with 1200 other colonists that year. Advised by the Kalapuyans to build on high ground to avoid flooding, he erected the first Anglo cabin on south or west slope of what the Kalapuyans called Ya-po-ah; the "isolated hill" is now known as Skinner's Butte. The cabin was used as a trading post and was registered as an official post office on January 8, 1850. At this time the settlement was known by Anglos as Skinner's Mudhole, it was relocated in 1853 and named Eugene City in 1853. Formally incorporated as a city in 1862, it was named Eugene in 1889. Skinner ran a ferry service across the Willamette River; the first major educational institution in the area was Columbia College, founded a few years earlier than the University of Oregon.
It fell victim to two major fires in four years, after the second fire, the college decided not to rebuild again. The part of south Eugene known as College Hill was the former location o
In music and music theory, the beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse, of the mensural level. The beat is defined as the rhythm listeners would tap their toes to when listening to a piece of music, or the numbers a musician counts while performing, though in practice this may be technically incorrect. In popular use, beat can refer to a variety of related concepts including: pulse, meter, specific rhythms, groove. Rhythm in music is characterized by a repeating sequence of stressed and unstressed beats and divided into bars organized by time signature and tempo indications. Metric levels faster than the beat level are division levels, slower levels are multiple levels. Beat has always been an important part of music; some music genres such as funk will in general de-emphasize the beat, while other such as disco emphasize the beat to accompany dance. As beats are combined to form measures, each beat is divided into parts; the nature of this combination and division is. Music where two beats are combined is in duple meter, music where three beats are combined is in triple meter.
Music where the beat is split in two are in simple meter, music where the beat is split in three are called compound meter. Thus, simple duple, simple triple, compound duple, compound triple. Divisions which require numbers, are irregular divisions and subdivisions. Subdivision begins two levels below the beat level: starting with a quarter note or a dotted quarter note, subdivision begins when the note is divided into sixteenth notes; the downbeat is the first beat of the bar, i.e. number 1. The upbeat is the last beat in the previous bar which precedes, hence anticipates, the downbeat. Both terms correspond to the direction taken by the hand of a conductor; this idea of directionality of beats is significant. The crusis of a measure or a phrase is a beginning; the anacrusis doesn't have the same'explosion' of sound. An anticipatory note or succession of notes occurring before the first barline of a piece is sometimes referred to as an upbeat figure, section or phrase. Alternative expressions include "pickup" and "anacrusis".
In English, anákrousis translates as "pushing up". The term anacrusis was borrowed from the field of poetry, in which it refers to one or more unstressed extrametrical syllables at the beginning of a line. In typical Western music 44 time, counted as "1 2 3 4, 1 2 3 4...", the first beat of the bar is the strongest accent in the melody and the likeliest place for a chord change, the third is the next strongest: these are "on" beats. The second and fourth are weaker—the "off-beats". Subdivisions that fall between the pulse beats are weaker and these, if used in a rhythm, can make it "off-beat"; the effect can be simulated by evenly and counting to four. As a background against which to compare these various rhythms a bass drum strike on the downbeat and a constant eighth note subdivision on ride cymbal have been added, which would be counted as follows: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 —play eighth notes and bass drum alone 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4—the stress here on the "on" beat play But one may syncopate that pattern and alternately stress the odd and beats, respectively: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 —the stress is on the "unexpected" or syncopated beat play So "off-beat" is a musical term applied to syncopation that emphasizes the weak beats of a bar, as opposed to the usual on-beat.
This is a fundamental technique of African polyrhythm. According to Grove Music, the "Offbeat is where the downbeat is replaced by a rest or is tied over from the preceding bar"; the downbeat can never be the off-beat. Certain genres tend to emphasize the off-beat, where this is a defining characteristic of rock'n'roll and Ska music. A back beat, or backbeat, is a syncopated accentuation on the "off" beat. In a simple 44 rhythm these are beats 2 and 4."A big part of R&B's attraction had to do with the stompin' backbeats that make it so eminently danceable," according to the Encyclopedia of Percussion. An early record with an emphasised back beat throughout was "Good Rockin' Tonight" by Wynonie Harris in 1948. Although drummer Earl Palmer claimed the honor for "The Fat Man" by Fats Domino in 1949, which he played on, saying he adopted it from the final "shout" or "out" chorus common in Dixieland jazz, urban contemporary gospel was stressing the back beat much earlier with hand-clapping and tambourines.
There is a hand-clapping back beat on "Roll'Em Pete" by Pete Johnson and Big Joe Turner, recorded in 1938. A distinctive back beat can be heard on "Back Beat Boogie" by Harry James And His Orchestra, recorded in late 1939. Other early recorded examples include the final verse of "Grand Slam" by Benny Goodman in 1942 and some sections of The Glenn Miller Orchestra's " Kalamazoo", while amateur direct-to-disc recordings of Charlie Christian jamming at Minton's Playhouse around the same time have a sustained snare-drum back-beat on the hottest choruses. Outside U. S. popular music, there are early recordings of music with a distinctive backbeat, such as the 1949 recording of Mangaratiba by
Polyrhythm is the simultaneous use of two or more conflicting rhythms, that are not perceived as deriving from one another, or as simple manifestations of the same meter. The rhythmic conflict may be the basis of a momentary disruption. Polyrhythms can be distinguished from irrational rhythms, which can occur within the context of a single part. In some European art music, polyrhythm periodically contradicts the prevailing meter. For example, in Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni, two orchestras are heard playing together in different metres (34 and 24}: They are joined by a third band, playing in 38 time. Polyrhythm is heard near the opening of Beethoven's Symphony No. 3. It is a common feature of the music of Brahms. Writing about the Violin Sonata in G major, Op. 78, Jan Swafford says "In the first movement Brahms plays elaborate games with the phrasing, switching the stresses of the 64 meter back and forth between 3+3 and 2+2+2, or superimposing both in violin and piano. These ideas gather at the climax at measure 235, with the layering of phrases making an effect that during the 19th century only Brahms could have conceived."
In “The Snow is Dancing” from his Children’s Corner suite, Debussy introduces a melody “on a static, repeated B-flat, cast in triplet-division cross rhythms which offset this stratum independently of the sixteenth notes comprising the two dancing-snowflake lines below it.” "In this section great attention to the exactitude of rhythms is demanded by the polyrhythmic superposition of pedals and melody." Concerning the use of a two-over-three hemiola in Beethoven's String Quartet No. 6, Ernest Walker states, "The vigorously effective Scherzo is in 34 time, but with a curiously persistent cross-rhythm that does its best to persuade us that it is in 68." The illusion of simultaneous 34 and 68, suggests polymeter: triple meter combined with compound duple meter. However, the two beat schemes interact within a metric hierarchy; the triple beats are primary and the duple beats are secondary. The four-note ostinato pattern of Mykola Leontovych's "Carol of the Bells" is the composite of the two-against-three hemiola.
Another example of polyrhythm can be found in measures 64 and 65 of the first movement of Mozart's Piano Sonata No. 12. Three evenly-spaced sets of three attack-points span two measures. Cross-rhythm refers to systemic polyrhythm; the New Harvard Dictionary of Music states that cross-rhythm is: "A rhythm in which the regular pattern of accents of the prevailing meter is contradicted by a conflicting pattern and not a momentary displacement that leaves the prevailing meter fundamentally unchallenged". The physical basis of cross-rhythms can be described in terms of interference of different periodicities. A simple example of a cross-rhythm is 3 evenly spaced notes against 2 known as a hemiola. Two simple and common ways to express this pattern in standard western musical notation would be 3 quarter notes over 2 dotted quarter notes within one bar of 68 time, quarter note triplets over 2 quarter notes within one bar of 24 time. Other cross-rhythms are 5:2, 5:3, 5:4, etc.. There is a parallel between cross rhythms and musical intervals: in an audible frequency range, the 2:3 ratio produces the musical interval of a perfect fifth, the 3:4 ratio produces a perfect fourth, the 4:5 ratio produces a major third.
All these interval ratios are found in the harmonic series. These are called harmonic polyrhythms. In traditional European rhythms, the most fundamental parts emphasize the primary beats. By contrast, in rhythms of sub-Saharan African origin, the most fundamental parts emphasize the secondary beats; this causes the uninitiated ear to misinterpret the secondary beats as the primary beats, to hear the true primary beats as cross-beats. In other words, the musical "background" and "foreground" may mistakenly be heard and felt in reverse—Peñalosa. In non-Saharan African music traditions, cross-rhythm is the generating principle. Cross-rhythm was first explained as the basis of non-Saharan rhythm in lectures by C. K. Ladzekpo and the writings of David Locke. From the philosophical perspective of the African musician, cross-beats can symbolize the challenging moments or emotional stress we all encounter. Playing cross-beats while grounded in the main beats, prepares one for maintaining a life-purpose while dealing with life's challenges.
Many non-Saharan languages do not have a word for rhythm, or music. From the African viewpoint, the rhythms represent the fabric of life itself. At the center of a core of rhythmic traditions within which the composer conveys his ideas is the technique of cross-rhythm; the technique of cross-rhythm is a simultaneous use of contrasting rhythmic patterns within the same scheme of accents or meter... By the nature of the desired resultant rhythm, the main beat scheme cannot be separated from the secondary beat scheme, it is the interplay of the two elements. Eugene Novotney observes: "The 3:2 relationship is the foundation of most typical polyrhythmic textures found in West African musics." 3
The hosho are Zimbabwean musical instruments consisting of a pair of maranka gourds with seeds. They contain hota seeds inside them; the hosho are used to accompany Shona music mbira music. They make a rattling sound. However, this accompaniment is essential. So essential, in fact, that extra vibrating elements such as mirlitons are attached to the resonating tubes of marimbas and machachara are attached to the mbira and its deze. Mbiras and marimbas from Africa. From a western perspective the hosho are seen as accompanying instruments to mbira, when in actuality they are seen as the lead instruments by the mbira players. See a typical use of the hosho by selecting the link at the end of this paragraph, as played together with the mbira at Zimfest 2008, by Musekiwa Chingodza. A smaller version of the hosho is made of a wild orange called a damba, tied together with sticks and filled with hota seeds or pebbles. Other related percussion instruments from Zimbabwe include the ngoma. One of Zimbabwes most respected Hosho players is Tendai Kazuru from Mbira deNharira.
Berliner, Paul. The Soul of Mbira: Music and Traditions of the Shona People of Zimbabwe. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04268-9. Williams, Michael B.. Learning Mbira: A Beginning... HoneyRock. ISBN 0-9634060-4-3. Mbira Shona music Music of Africa Music of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe