Kushiro, Hokkaido

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Kushiro
釧路市
City
Top:Kushiro Wetland Park, 2nd left:Lake Akan, 2nd right Port of Kushiro, 3rd: Mount Akan-Fuji, Bottom left:Kushiro Ramen, Bottom right:Kushiro Fisherman's Wharf Woo
Top:Kushiro Wetland Park, 2nd left:Lake Akan, 2nd right Port of Kushiro, 3rd: Mount Akan-Fuji, Bottom left:Kushiro Ramen, Bottom right:Kushiro Fisherman's Wharf Woo
Flag of Kushiro
Flag
Official seal of Kushiro
Symbol
Location of Kushiro in Hokkaido (Kushiro Subprefecture)
Location of Kushiro in Hokkaido (Kushiro Subprefecture)
Kushiro is located in Japan
Kushiro
Kushiro
Location in Japan
Coordinates: 42°59′N 144°23′E / 42.983°N 144.383°E / 42.983; 144.383Coordinates: 42°59′N 144°23′E / 42.983°N 144.383°E / 42.983; 144.383
Country Japan
Region Hokkaido
Prefecture Hokkaido (Kushiro Subprefecture)
Government
 • Mayor Ebina Hiroya
Area
 • Total 1,362.75 km2 (526.16 sq mi)
Population (September 30, 2016)
 • Total 174,938
 • Density 140/km2 (400/sq mi)
Symbols
 • Tree Syringa reticulata
 • Flower Nasturtium
Time zone Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
City hall address 7-5 Kuroganechō, Kushiro-shi, Hokkaido
085-8505
Website www.city.kushiro.lg.jp

Kushiro (釧路市, Kushiro-shi) is a city in Kushiro Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan. It is the capital city of Kushiro Subprefecture, as well as the most populous city in eastern Hokkaido.

History[edit]

An Imperial decree in July 1899 established Kushiro as an open port for trading with the United States and the United Kingdom.[1]

Kushiro has been an important port because it is more reliably ice-free during winter than alternative Russian Far East warm-water ports such as Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky or other ports in Hokkaido such as Hakodate, which occasionally do freeze for short periods due to the lower salinity of the Sea of Japan. For this reason, Kushiro was considered a valuable target for the Tsars during the Russo-Japanese Wars, but it only became a really important port during the 1920s with the growth of commercial fishing, for which its reliable freedom from ice reduced costs.[2] Following the Soviet invasion of the Kuril Islands in August 1945, Kushiro was favoured by the Russians as the eastern cornerstone of a border between an American-occupied south and a Soviet-occupied north--coupled with Rumoi as the western cornerstone. However, these plans were declined by President Harry S. Truman. [3]

On October 11, 2005, the town of Akan, from Akan District, and the town of Onbetsu, from Shiranuka District, was merged into Kushiro. The town of Shiranuka now lies between the two sections of Kushiro.

In 2008, the city had an estimated population of 189,539 and a total area of 1,362.75 km2 (526.16 sq mi), giving a population density of 140 persons per km² (363 persons per sq. mi.).

In addition to its port, Kushiro is serviced by Kushiro Airport with flights from Honshu and by the Super Ōzora limited express train service, which runs seven times per day to the main population centres in the west of Hokkaido.

Kushiro was one of the many Japanese cities to receive a Peace Pagoda. Built by the monks and nuns of the Buddhist order Nipponzan Myohoji, it was inaugurated in 1959.

Kushiro was accorded city status on 1 August 1922, it is the sister city of Burnaby, British Columbia; Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia; and Kholmsk, Russia.[4]

  • 1869: Kusuri becomes Kushiro.
  • 1900: Kushiro becomes a First Class Municipality as Kushiro Town.
  • 1920: Kushiro Town becomes Kushiro-ku. Kushiro Village (now Town) splits off.
  • 1922: Kushiro-ku becomes Kushiro City.
  • 2005: Kushiro City, Akan Town, and Onbetsu Town merged to form the new city named Kushiro City.

Geography[edit]

City central

Mountains[edit]

Rivers[edit]

Lakes[edit]

National Parks[edit]

Climate[edit]

Kushiro has a humid continental climate (Dfb) but its winter temperatures are less severe than those of inland East Asia at the same latitude, its port is the most reliably ice-free throughout winter in all of Hokkaido, due to the lack of indentation in the coastline and absence of large inflows of cold fresh water nearby. It is also markedly sunnier than the extremely gloomy Kuril Islands to its north, being sheltered by Hokkaido's mountains from the heavy snowfalls produced on the Sea of Japan side by the Aleutian Low, it receives only a third as much snowfall as Sapporo and almost twice as much sunshine as the Kuril Islands are estimated to.

Climate data for Kushiro, Hokkaido (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
7.9
(46.2)
15.1
(59.2)
23.5
(74.3)
28.0
(82.4)
32.4
(90.3)
29.7
(85.5)
31.1
(88)
29.0
(84.2)
22.9
(73.2)
18.7
(65.7)
12.4
(54.3)
32.4
(90.3)
Average high °C (°F) −0.6
(30.9)
−0.4
(31.3)
2.7
(36.9)
7.7
(45.9)
12.0
(53.6)
15.2
(59.4)
18.6
(65.5)
21.2
(70.2)
19.7
(67.5)
14.8
(58.6)
8.7
(47.7)
2.5
(36.5)
10.2
(50.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.4
(22.3)
−4.7
(23.5)
−0.9
(30.4)
3.7
(38.7)
8.1
(46.6)
11.7
(53.1)
15.3
(59.5)
18.0
(64.4)
16.0
(60.8)
10.6
(51.1)
4.3
(39.7)
−1.9
(28.6)
6.2
(43.2)
Average low °C (°F) −10.4
(13.3)
−9.9
(14.2)
−4.9
(23.2)
0.3
(32.5)
5.0
(41)
9.0
(48.2)
12.8
(55)
15.5
(59.9)
12.3
(54.1)
5.5
(41.9)
−0.8
(30.6)
−7.1
(19.2)
2.3
(36.1)
Record low °C (°F) −28.3
(−18.9)
−27
(−17)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−14.1
(6.6)
−4.6
(23.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
3.3
(37.9)
5.4
(41.7)
−2.2
(28)
−6.9
(19.6)
−15.2
(4.6)
−25.7
(−14.3)
−28.3
(−18.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.3
(1.744)
29.4
(1.157)
58.4
(2.299)
78.8
(3.102)
113.0
(4.449)
106.5
(4.193)
115.4
(4.543)
123.3
(4.854)
153.1
(6.028)
106.5
(4.193)
71.3
(2.807)
45.2
(1.78)
1,045.2
(41.15)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 54
(21.3)
39
(15.4)
48
(18.9)
12
(4.7)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
6
(2.4)
27
(10.6)
187
(73.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 6.4 5.4 8.3 8.8 10.7 9.7 11.8 11.3 11.4 7.9 7.9 7.9 107.5
Average snowy days 15.8 15.7 15.6 7.2 0.7 0 0 0 0 0.2 3.8 10.9 69.9
Average relative humidity (%) 69 67 68 77 79 87 88 88 82 75 69 67 76.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 182.0 181.9 200.6 181.9 188.3 129.3 107.4 127.1 149.7 180.9 166.6 173.6 1,969.3
Source #1: Japan Meteorological Agency[5]
Source #2: Japan Meteorological Agency (records)[6]

Education[edit]

Universities[edit]

National[edit]

Public[edit]

Colleges[edit]

National[edit]

  • Kushiro National College of Technology

Private[edit]

  • Kushiro junior College

High schools[edit]

Public[edit]

  • Hokkaido Kushiro Koryo High School
  • Hokkaido Kushiro Konan High School
  • Hokkaido Kushiro Meiki High School
  • Hokkaido Kushiro Commercial High School
  • Hokkaido Kushiro Technical High School
  • Hokkaido Akan High School
  • Hokkaido Kushiro Hokuyo High School

Private[edit]

  • Bushukan High School
  • Ikegami Gakuen High School, Kushiro Campus

Transportation[edit]

Sports[edit]

Ice hockey is one of the most popular winter sports in Kushiro. In addition to several leagues devoted top amateur play of all ages, Kushiro is home to the Asia League Ice Hockey Nippon Paper Cranes, three time Asia League Champions.

Kushiro and many other cities are interested in hosting bandy teams,[7] on January 8 2017, the township of Akan hosted the first national championship,[8] although the size of the field was a smaller version than the official rules for a bandy field.

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

                  Nelson Bay, Port Stephens, Australia (since 1994)

References[edit]

  1. ^ US Department of State. (1906). A digest of international law as embodied in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Vol. 5, p. 759.
  2. ^ Port of Kushiro
  3. ^ Holloway, David, ‘Jockeying for Position in the Postwar World: Soviet Entry into the War with Japan in August 1945’, in The End of the Pacific War: Reappraisals, ed. by Tsuyoshi Hasegawa (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 145-188 (pp. 178-179).
  4. ^ Russian presence in Japan Archived March 7, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2010-03-06. 
  6. ^ "観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2010-03-06. 
  7. ^ Greetings from Hiromasa Takamura President Japan Bandy Federation
  8. ^ [1]

External links[edit]