Samarinda is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo. The city lies on the banks of the Mahakam River, it is the most populous city on the entire Borneo island, with an estimated population of 842,691, up from 726,223 at the 2010 Census. Although it is the capital of East Kalimantan, some government institutions such as the Police, Indonesian Army District VI Of Tanjung Pura, Pelabuhan Indonesia are located in the city. Samarinda is known for its traditional food amplang, as well as the cloth sarung samarinda; the city has a bridge connecting its river banks, Mahakam Bridge. The city center is on one side and the other side is named Samarinda Seberang. At the start of the Gowa War, the Dutch under Admiral Speelman's command attacked Makassar from the sea. Meanwhile, the Netherlands' local ally Arung Palaka led a ground attack; the Kingdom of Gowa was forced to surrender and Sultan Hasanuddin was made to sign the Treaty of Bongaja on 19 November 1667. The treaty did not quell all trouble for the Dutch however, since the Bugis from Gowa continued their struggle using guerilla tactics.
Some Buginese moved to other islands close by such as Kalimantan. A few thousand people led by Lamohang Daeng Mangkona or Pua Ado I, moved to East Kalimantan, known as Kutai, where they were welcomed by the local Sultan. Samarinda was a sleepy town in 1942 with several small oil fields in the vicinity, it was occupied by the Japanese. In 1955, the Apostolic Vicariate of Samarinda was established in the city. In 1961, it was promoted as the Diocese of Samarinda. In 2003, the diocese was promoted as the. Metropolitan Archdiocese of Samarinda. Recent developments such as malls and housing complex have made Samarinda a little more livable than it was before. Samarinda City is divided into six districts, tabulated below with their 2010 Census population: The name Samarinda originates from the description of the way in which the Bugis houses were constructed. At that time houses were customarily built on a raft and had the same height; this provided important social symbolism of equality between residents.
They named the settlement'Samarenda', meaning'equal in height'. After hundreds of years of use the pronunciation of the name changed and the city became known as Samarinda. Samrainda is connected by Trans-Kalimantan Highway Southern Route. From Balikpapan to Samarinda, the highway runs in parallel with the first controlled-access expressway in Borneo, the Samarinda-Balikpapan Expressway, now under construction, expected to be operational by the end of 2018; the city is served by Aji Pangeran Tumenggung Pranoto International Airport, which replaced previous Temindung Airport. It is one of Kaltim's busiest airports in terms of cargo movements, it is the primary hub of Kaltim Airlines. The prominent coal loading port of Tanjung Bara lies about 160 kilometres to the north of Samarinda; the territory's population in 2014 was 800,000, with an average annual growth rate of 6.7% over the previous 5 years. The majority of the people of Samarinda are of Chinese descent. There are Americans, Canadians and Koreans working in Samarinda.
Life expectancy in Samarinda is 73.6 years as of 2014. Samarinda's main religions are Islam and Confucianism. A Christian community of around 89,000 forms about 10.2% of the total population. There are Hindu communities. L, Klemen. "Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942". GovSamarinda Samarinda Government portal
Müeller's gibbon known as the grey gibbon is a primate in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae. Unlike most gibbon species, Müeller's gibbon does not show sexual dimorphism in its fur coloration, its fur is grey- or brown-colored with a ring of bright fur around its face. On the head, it has a darkly colored cap. Weighing between 4–8 kg, it ranks among the smaller of the gibbons. Müeller's gibbon is endemic to the island of Borneo, inhabiting the northern and eastern part of the island. In the southwest of the island lives the Bornean white-bearded gibbon. Grey gibbons are diurnal rain forest dwellers, characterized by the long arms that all gibbons have, with which they brachiate through the trees, they live together in monogamous pairs, defend their family territory against intruders with long, loud singing. Their diet consists of fruits. Little is known about the reproductive patterns of this species, but it is thought to be similar to that of other gibbon species. Müeller's gibbon occurs in a number of protected areas, including Betung Kerihun National Park, Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park, Kayan Mentarang National Park, Kutai National Park, Sungai Wain Protection Forest and Tanjung Puting National Park in Indonesia and Pulong Tau National Park the Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary and Semengok Forest Reserve in Malaysia.
Image of Grey gibbon Müller's Bornean Gibbon photos Müller's Bornean Gibbon songs Gibbon Conservation Center Müller's Bornean Gibbon at Animal Diversity Web
Dipterocarpaceae are a family of 16 genera and 695 known species of tropical lowland rainforest trees. The family name, from the type genus Dipterocarpus, is derived from Greek and refers to the two-winged fruit; the largest genera are Shorea, Hopea and Vatica. Many are large forest emergent species reaching heights of 40–70 m, some over 80 m, with the tallest known living specimen 93.0 m tall. The species of this family are of major importance in the timber trade, their distribution is pantropical, from northern South America to Africa, the Seychelles, Indochina and Malaysia. The greatest diversity of Dipterocarpaceae occurs in Borneo; some species are now endangered as a result of overcutting, extensive illegal logging and habitat conversion. They provide valuable woods, aromatic essential oils, balsam and are a source for plywood; the dipterocarp family is divided into two subfamilies: Dipterocarpoideae: the largest of the subfamilies, it contains 13 genera and about 475 species. Distribution includes the Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia to New Guinea, a large distribution in Borneo, where they form the dominant species in the lowland forests.
North Borneo is the richest area in the world for dipterocarp species. The Dipterocarpoideae can be divided morphologically into two groups, the tribe names Shoreae and Dipterocarpeae are sometimes used, but genetic evidence so far does not support this division:Valvate - Dipterocarpeae group; the genera of this group have valvate sepals in fruit, solitary vessels, scattered resin canals, basic chromosome number x = 11. Imbricate - Shoreae group; the genera of this group have imbricate sepals in fruit, grouped vessels, resin canals in tangential bands, basic chromosome number x = 7. A recent molecular study suggest that the genus Hopea forms a clade with Shorea sections Anthoshorea and Doona, should be merged into Shorea. Monotoideae: 3 genera, 30 species. Marquesia is native to Africa. Monotes has 26 species, distributed across Madagascar. Pseudomonotes is native to the Colombian Amazon. Pakaraimoideae: placed here contains a single species, Pakaraimaea roraimae, found in the Guaianan highlands of South America.
It is now found to be more related to Cistaceae and is placed there in the APG IV A recent genetic study found that the Asian dipterocarps share a common ancestor with the Sarcolaenaceae, a tree family endemic to Madagascar. This suggests that ancestor of the Dipterocarps originated in the southern supercontinent of Gondwana, that the common ancestor of the Asian dipterocarps and the Sarcolaenaceae was found in the India-Madagascar-Seychelles land mass millions of years ago, were carried northward by India, which collided with Asia and allowed the dipterocarps to spread across Southeast Asia and Malaysia; the first dipterocarp pollen has been found in Myanmar and it dates from the upper Oligocene. The sample appears to increase in terms of diversity and abundance across the region into the mid-Miocene Chemical traces of dipterocarp resins have been found dating back to the Eocene of India. 52-million-year-old amber found in the Gujarat province, containing a large amount of fossilized arthropods, was identified as sap from the Dipterocarpaceae family.
Dipterocarpaceae species can be either deciduous. Species occurring in Thailand grows from sea level to c. 1300 m elevation. Environments in which the species of the family occur in Thailand include: Lowland dipterocarp forest 0–350 m. Dipterocarp timber classification Media related to Dipterocarpaceae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Dipterocarpaceae at Wikispecies Center for International Forestry Research. A Review of Dipterocarps: Taxonomy and silviculture. ISBN 978-979-8764-20-2. Dipterocarpaceae Data Base
North Penajam Paser Regency
North Penajam Paser Regency is a regency in East Kalimantan province in Indonesia. Its capital city is Penajam. North Penajam Paser is a new regency, having been a part of Paser Regency until its separation in 2002, it covers an area of 3,333.06 sq.km, had a population of 142,922 at the 2010 Census. North Penajam Paser Regency has the seventh largest area among the regencies in East Kalimantan province, being six times larger than Balikpapan City, which it adjoins on the city's west side. North: Kutai Kartanegara Regency East: Makassar Strait and Balikpapan City South: Paser Regency West: Paser Regency and West Kutai Regency North Penajam Paser Regency major commodities are palm oil and timber that makes up over 70 percent of it economy. There's some traditional mining coal, rice fields and harvesting that supplies the local market and Balikpapan cities market like fruits, chickens, fish, etc. People here work at palm oil industries and the timber industries. Badly road coverage and peoples density that spreads over all the area slowing down the economic development.
Penajam is the most populous area in a single area. There's no Mall at North Penajam regency, so the people cross the sea via "kelotok" or medium wooden boat or with ferry to go to Balikpapan to shopping, but its planned to connecting North Penajam Regency with Balikpapan with Sea Bridge which long 8 km and planned to start the construction of the bridge at 2018 to help growing up the economical development. North Penajam Paser Regency is divided into four districts, tabulated below with their areas and their 2010 Census populations: North Penajam Paser Regency is ruled by Major Yusran Aspar; the highest local political body is the Peoples Councils Area which makes political and other decisions for the sake of the region. The North Penajam Paser Regency ise under the jurisdiction of Military District Command 0913 North Penajam Paser of Military Area Command V Mulawarman, Police District North Penajam Paser under the Police Area Eastern Borneo province. Under the Soeharto Dictatorship, the area was controlled and secured by the Military until the Indonesia Police were separated from the Indonesia Armed Forces.
In some circumstances, the military exercises were placed here for survival training, jungle warfare, anti-terror, because the area is virgin forest and it's good as an extreme military training field. With such a large area, North Penajam Paser Regency has only between 150 and 200 km of roads covered by asphalt, most road are still unmade ground or rocky. Only the protocol road covered by asphalt or cement, it means that the economical development can't grow faster than the expected. People use motorcycles for transport. Angkutan umum only can be found at the regency capital of Penajam. People using bus, modified mini pick-up, modified truck for mass transport. To take an example, a modified Isuzu Truck can hold up to 60 people - each truck to transport workers, a modified Suzuki Carry can hold up to 16 people to transport students from their villages to their school. For the sea transport there are ferries, speed boats, medium wooden boats up to 17 Metres in length, longer heavy wooden boats up to 35 metres using single propeller engines.
In North Penajam Paser Regency, there's a thousand flowers park beside the Police District Station at Penajam. For tourism there are three beaches for tourism. Pantai Lango, Pantai Lawe-Lawe, Pantai Senipah that viewed Balikpapan City and Makassar's Strait, but in 2013, as the Sea Bridges Planned. Senipah Beach fondated for the Bridges Construction. In Riko, there's a waterfall for tourism and there's another two waterfalls, one near ex. PT International Timber Corporation Indonesia area, another deep to the jungle from Sepaku, its location is kept secret by local people to secure the waterfall's protection from the effects of tourism. In Sepaku, there's a high mountain named "Parung" for local camping. Mount parung was a mountain upper the another mountain that can seen from 50 km away and there's a big Cave for Bats and Swallow Nest and pre-Historic giant stone formation at the peaks of Mount Parung. In Api-api Village, Waru District there are endemic sambar deer conservation with more than 200 deer.
Provinces of Indonesia
The Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the country and the highest tier of the local government. Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities, which are in turn subdivided into subdistricts; each province has its own local government, headed by a governor, has its own legislative body. The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. Indonesia has 34 provinces, eight of which have been created since 1999, namely: North Maluku, West Papua, Bangka Belitung Islands, Riau Islands, West Sulawesi and North Kalimantan. Five provinces have special status: Aceh, for the use of the sharia law as the regional law of the province. Special Capital Region of Jakarta as the capital city. Special Region of Yogyakarta, has sultan Hamengkubuwono as hereditary Governor and Paku Alam as hereditary vice-governor. Papua and West Papua, for granting implementation of sustainable development; the provinces are grouped into seven geographical units.
This clickable map shows provinces of Indonesia as of 25 October 2012. Click on a province name to go to its main article. Upon the independence of Indonesia, eight provinces were established: West Java, Central Java, East Java, Maluku still exist as of today despite divisions, while Sumatra, Kalimantan and Lesser Sunda were liquidated; the province of Central Sumatra existed from 1948 to 1957, while East Timor was annexed as a province from 1976 until its independence as a country in 1999. List of Indonesian provinces by Human Development Index List of Indonesian provinces by GRP per capita List of Indonesian floral emblems List of Indonesian animal emblems Armorial of IndonesiaGeneral: Subdivisions of Indonesia List of regencies and cities of Indonesia Daftar 34 Provinsi Di Indonesia Map at Indonesian Wikipedia
Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Located east of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan; the provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. Bali is the only Hindu-majority province in Indonesia, with 83.5% of the population adhering to Balinese Hinduism. Bali is Indonesia's main tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy, it is renowned for its developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, painting, leather and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali. In March 2017, TripAdvisor named Bali as the world's top destination in its Traveller's Choice award. Bali is part of the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species.
In this area alone, over 500 reef-building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about seven times as many as in the entire Caribbean. Most Bali was the host of the Miss World 2013 and 2018 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. Bali is the home of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is home to a unified confederation of kingdoms composed of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, each house ruling a specific geographic area. The confederation is the successor of the Bali Kingdom; the royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia. Bali was inhabited around 2000 BCE by Austronesian people who migrated from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines and Oceania. Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island's west. In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Siwa Shidanta, Bodha, Resi and Ganapatya.
Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. Inscriptions from 896 and 911 do not mention a king, until 914, they reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously. Mpu Sindok's great-granddaughter, married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa around 989, giving birth to Airlangga around 1001; this marriage brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Princess Sakalendukirana appeared in 1098. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150. Jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204. Balinese culture was influenced by Indian and Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD; the name Bali dwipa has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation.
Some religious and cultural traditions still practiced. The Hindu Majapahit Empire on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343; the uncle of Hayam Wuruk is mentioned in the charters of 1384–86. A mass Javanese immigration to Bali occurred in the next century when the Majapahit Empire fell in 1520. Bali's government became an independent collection of Hindu kingdoms which led to a Balinese national identity and major enhancements in culture and economy; the nation with various kingdoms became independent for up to 386 years until 1906, when the Dutch subjugated and repulsed the natives for economic control and took it over. The first known European contact with Bali is thought to have been made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão sighted its northern shores, it was the first expedition of a series of bi-annual fleets to the Moluccas, that throughout the 16th century traveled along the coasts of the Sunda Islands. Bali was mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues, aboard the expedition.
In 1585, a ship foundered off the Bukit Peninsula and left a few Portuguese in the service of Dewa Agung. In 1597, the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived at Bali, the Dutch East India Company was established in 1602; the Dutch government expanded its control across the Indonesian archipelago during the second half of the 19th century. Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island's north coast, when the Dutch pitted various competing Balinese realms against each other. In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island's south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control. In June 1860, the famous Welsh naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, travelled to Bali from Singapore, landing at Buleleng on the north coast of the island. Wallace's trip to Bali was instrumental in helping him devise his Wallace Line theory; the Wallace Line is a faunal boundary that runs through the strait between Lombok. It has been found to be a boundary between species.
In his travel memoir The Malay Archipelago, Wallace wrote of his experience in Bali, of which has strong mention of the unique Balinese irrigation methods: I was both astonished and delighted.
Bontang is a city on the eastern coast of the island of Borneo in Indonesia, in the province of East Kalimantan. It occupies an area of 497.57 km2, the population was 140,787 at the 2010 Census, the 2017 Civil Registry estimated the population of the city as 170,611. In 2010, Bontang is a municipality's highest GDP per capita in Indonesia, with Rp375,407,000 according to Statistics Indonesia. However, the income and GDP per capita trend always decrease since 2015 because decline of coal mining and LNG production sector impact to negative economic growth; the etymology of Bontang refers to the town's traditional status throughout history as a humble village populated by immigrants. ‘Bon’ can refer in Indonesian to ‘receipt’ and ‘tang’ to ‘debt.’ Alternately, the name of the town means group of visitors. A coastal town, Bontang was a settlement governed under the Kutai Sultanate based in Tenggarong, a city in East Kalimantan. In 1920 the village of Bontang was established as a sub-district town, which at that time was called the Onder of the Van Bontang District.
Bontang was still a sub-district under the leadership of a wedana assistant, a kiai in the government of Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit, the 19th Sultan of Kutai Kartanegara. Since 1954, a subdistrict head has taken office. After the enactment of Law Number 27 of 1959 concerning the establishment of the Regional Level II in East Kalimantan it removed the status of self-government. In 1972 the government of the Kutai regency recognized Bontang as a district; the major development of Bontang took place after two major companies were founded there in the 1970s, PT Badak Natural Gas Liquefaction and PT Pupuk Kaltim. PT Badak established early in 1974. PT Pupuk Kaltim, a company specializing in the production of ammonia and fertilizer, followed three years later. Since 1978 Bontang experienced rapid regional development; as a positive impact arising from being made Bontang as an industrial area, both by PT Badak NGL and PT Pupuk Kaltim. The two companies were building facilities and infrastructure that were important for the economic growth of the city, so the central government planned to upgrade the status of Bontang from the sub-district into an administrative city.
In 1989 its status changed to administrative city, by government law of PP No. 20 of 1989 and followed up the expansion of the Kotif region from one sub-district to two sub-districts. Namely District of North Bontang and District of South Bontang District. In 1999, Bontang upgrade status to autonomous independent city. In 1920 the village of Bontang was established as a sub-district town, which at that time was called the Onder of the Van Bontang District. Bontang was still a sub-district under the leadership of a wedana assistant, a kiai in the government of Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit, the 19th Sultan of Kutai Kartanegara. Since 1954, a subdistrict head has taken office. After the enactment of Law Number 27 of 1959 concerning the establishment of the Regional Level II in East Kalimantan it removed the status of self-government. In 1972, administrative of Bontang upgrade to kota kecamatan. In 1989 its status changed to administrative town, by government law of PP No. 20 of 1989 and followed up the expansion of the Kotif region from one kecamatan to two districts.
Namely District of North Bontang and District of South Bontang District. In 1999, Bontang upgrade status to autonomous independent city. Bontang has a democratic city government; the current mayor is the first female mayor in Bontang. Bontang is bordered by East Kutai Regency to the North, Kutai Kartanegara Regency to the South and West, by the Makassar Strait to the East. Bontang is divided into three districts, tabulated below with their 2010 Census population: Bontang is divided into 15 subdistricts: Bontang is located between 117° 23′ E and 117° 32′ E and 0° 01′ N and 0° 12′ N, it occupies an area of 497.57 km2. The town is located on an ocean estuary, it is swampy, with frequent flooding in its north district. There is little to no tectonic activity in Bontang. A mangrove forest is located in the town. Bontang gets its fresh water from the Api-Api River. Bontang has a tropical rainforest climate; as such the temperature is warm and stable throughout the year. Rainfalls are abundant. Two minor seasonal periods can be identified: one drier than the other.
The so-called'dry' season lasts from May until September. The ` rainy' season ends around May. In 2002, the population of Bontang was 105,000, was growing at a rate of 4% per year. According to a survey done that year, there were more males than females, with males accounting for 52.09% of the population. The same survey reported that the majority of people living in Bontang are young, with 42.6% of the population 19 and under, 47.3% between the ages of 20 and 44, only 10.1% of the population over the age of 44. At the 2010 Census, the city population was enumerated at 140,787. Despite being located near the sea, the fishing industry in Bontang is small, it consists of small-scale fish farming for local consumption in Bontang and nearby cities, such as Balikpapan. Small amount of the catch is being exported to Makassar, Hong Kong. Only a small portion of the land in Bontang suitable for farming; as such, only about 4% of Bontang residents are involved in agriculture. PT Pupuk Kaltim was established in 1977.
It is an Indonesian government-owned fertilizer company th