Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, with a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europes 16th-largest country. Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on current Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period and its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians, Persians, Romans, Goths and Huns. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State, the following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 it became a one-party socialist state as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc, in December 1989 the ruling Communist Party allowed multi-party elections, which subsequently led to Bulgarias transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.
Bulgarias population of 7.2 million people is predominantly urbanised, most commercial and cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are industry, power engineering. The countrys current political structure dates to the adoption of a constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative. Human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria can be traced back to the Paleolithic, animal bones incised with man-made markings from Kozarnika cave are assumed to be the earliest examples of symbolic behaviour in humans. Organised prehistoric societies in Bulgarian lands include the Neolithic Hamangia culture, Vinča culture, the latter is credited with inventing gold working and exploitation. Some of these first gold smelters produced the coins and jewellery of the Varna Necropolis treasure and this site offers insights for understanding the social hierarchy of the earliest European societies.
Thracians, one of the three primary groups of modern Bulgarians, began appearing in the region during the Iron Age. In the late 6th century BC, the Persians conquered most of present-day Bulgaria, and kept it until 479 BC. After the division of the Roman Empire in the 5th century the area fell under Byzantine control, by this time, Christianity had already spread in the region. A small Gothic community in Nicopolis ad Istrum produced the first Germanic language book in the 4th century, the first Christian monastery in Europe was established around the same time by Saint Athanasius in central Bulgaria. From the 6th century the easternmost South Slavs gradually settled in the region, in 680 Bulgar tribes under the leadership of Asparukh moved south across the Danube and settled in the area between the lower Danube and the Balkan, establishing their capital at Pliska
Leontopodium alpinum, commonly called edelweiss, is a well-known mountain flower, belonging to the Asteraceae. The plant prefers rocky places at about 1, 800–3,000 metres altitude. It is non-toxic, and has been used traditionally in medicine as a remedy against abdominal. The dense hair appears to be an adaptation to high altitudes, protecting the plant from cold, according to folk tradition, giving this flower to a loved one is a promise of dedication. The common name is from the German word Edelweiß as a compound of edel noble, Edelweiß was one of several regional names for the plant, and entered wide usage during the first half of the 19th century, in the context of early Alpine tourism. Alternative names include Chatzen-Talpen, and the older Wullbluomen, the scientific name is a latinisation of the Greek leontopódion, lions paw. Since 1822 Leontopodium has no longer considered part of the Gnaphalium genus. In 2003, Leontopodium alpinum was re-classified as a subspecies of Leontopodium nivale, the alpine edelweiss is currently recognized as being divided into two subspecies, Leontopodium nivale subsp.
Alpinum Greuter and Leontopodium nivale subsp and flowers are covered with white hairs and appear woolly. Flowering stalks of edelweiss can grow to a size of 3–20 centimetres in the wild, or, each bloom consists of five to six small yellow clustered spikelet-florets surrounded by fuzzy white petals in a double-star formation. The flowers bloom between July and September, Leontopodium alpinum is grown in gardens for its interesting inflorescence and silver foliage. The plants are short lived and can be grown from seed, in the 19th century, the edelweiss became a symbol of the rugged purity of the Alpine region and of its native inhabitants. This idea at the time was becoming part of the mythology of early alpinism. It is called by botanists the Gnaphalium leontopodium, but by the Swiss EDELWEISS and these original 3 Regiments wore their edelweiss on the collar of their uniform. During World War I the edelweiss was granted to the German alpine troops, the 1-10th SFG Soldiers adopted the symbol under the command of Col.
The edelweiss is used in the logotype of the Union of International Mountain Leader Associations
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight, it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses and they abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice, between 35°N and 35°S, glaciers occur only in the Himalayas, Rocky Mountains, a few high mountains in East Africa, New Guinea and on Zard Kuh in Iran. Glaciers cover about 10 percent of Earths land surface, continental glaciers cover nearly 13,000,000 km2 or about 98 percent of Antarcticas 13,200,000 km2, with an average thickness of 2,100 m. Greenland and Patagonia have huge expanses of continental glaciers, Glacial ice is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth. Within high altitude and Antarctic environments, the temperature difference is often not sufficient to release meltwater. A large piece of compressed ice, or a glacier, appears blue as large quantities of water appear blue and this is because water molecules absorb other colors more efficiently than blue.
The other reason for the color of glaciers is the lack of air bubbles. Air bubbles, which give a color to ice, are squeezed out by pressure increasing the density of the created ice. The word Glaceon is a loanword from French and goes back, via Franco-Provençal, to the Vulgar Latin glaciārium, derived from the Late Latin glacia, the processes and features caused by or related to glaciers are referred to as glacial. The process of establishment and flow is called glaciation. The corresponding area of study is called glaciology, Glaciers are important components of the global cryosphere. Glaciers are categorized by their morphology, thermal characteristics, and behavior, cirque glaciers form on the crests and slopes of mountains. A glacier that fills a valley is called a valley glacier, a large body of glacial ice astride a mountain, mountain range, or volcano is termed an ice cap or ice field. Ice caps have a less than 50,000 km2 by definition. Glacial bodies larger than 50,000 km2 are called ice sheets or continental glaciers, several kilometers deep, they obscure the underlying topography.
Only nunataks protrude from their surfaces, the only extant ice sheets are the two that cover most of Antarctica and Greenland. They contain vast quantities of water, enough that if both melted, global sea levels would rise by over 70 m
A mountain range is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains. A mountain system or system of ranges, sometimes is used to combine several geological features that are geographically related. Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys, individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology. They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earths land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the worlds longest mountain system. The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, the belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges. The Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, mountain ranges outside of these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains.
If the definition of a range is stretched to include underwater mountains. The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, the sub-range relationship is often expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, and the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians. The position of mountains influences climate, such as rain or snow, when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the side, it warms again and is drier. Often, a shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are constantly subjected to forces which work to tear them down. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted and long after until the mountains are reduced to low hills, rivers are traditionally believed to be the principle erosive factor on mountain ranges, with their ability of bedrock incision and sediment transport.
The rugged topography of a range is the product of erosion. The basins adjacent to a mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. The early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example and this mass of rock was removed as the range was actively undergoing uplift
International Glaciological Society
The International Glaciological Society was founded in 1936 to provide a focus for individuals interested in glaciology and scientific aspects of snow and ice. It was originally known as the Association for the Study of Snow, the name was changed to the British Glaciological Society in 1945. The IGS publishes the Journal of Glaciology, Annals of Glaciology and ICE, the Journal of Glaciology won the ALPSP/Charlesworth Award for the Best Learned Journal of 2007. It is awarded from time to time to one who has made an outstanding contribution to glaciology so that the subject is now enriched. The Richardson Medal was created in 1993 to mark the retirement of the Secretary General and this award recognises outstanding contributions to the Society and to glaciology, and is normally awarded to members. igsoc. org/
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Koncheto is a name given to a ridge in the Pirin Mountains in Bulgaria, at an elevation of approximately 2,810 metres, between the peaks Banski Suhodol and Kutelo. There are steep slopes on either side, the side is almost vertical and 300–400 metres deep, while the southwestern side is less steep. There is a cable stretched along the top of the ridge to help hikers across. It is said that some less experienced hikers go through Koncheto by saddling the ridge edge like a horse and slowly advancing and it is not recommended for hikers with acrophobia. The epic Koncheto Ridge - do you dare
Musala (Bulgarian, Мусала, from Arabic through Ottoman Turkish, near God or place for prayer is the highest peak in the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 m. The summit of the Rila mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria, Musala is the highest peak between the Alps and the Caucasus and the highest in Eastern Europe bar the Caucasus, with a prominence of 2473 m, Musala is the 7th most prominent mountain peak in Europe. A Cosmic Ray Station was built on the peak in 1960 with cooperation from the Hungarian Academy of Science, the station conducted scientific experiments using a muon telescope. The station was destroyed by a fire on October 29,1983. With an average temperature of -2.3 °C Musala is the coldest place in Bulgaria. Temperatures stay below 0 °C for about 8 months each year, due to this about 45% of the annual precipitation on Musala is snow, and snow cover lasts for about 200 days. Three of the rivers of Bulgaria, the Iskar, Maritsa. The next highest peaks in the vicinity of Musala are Little Musala, Peak Musala has an alpine climate with cold, long winters and short, cool summers.
Usually, through winter, the temperatures dont exceed the point for months. Snow cover lasts for about 8–9 months, through the summer, temperatures rarely go above 14-15C. The summer season lasts for 2 months, and snowfalls are possible. For the period 1931-2013, the highest recorded temperature was 20.0 °C, the average annual temperature is −2.5 °C, which makes the peak the coldest place in Bulgaria. Musala Glacier on Greenwich Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Musala Peak, Musala – controllable web camera Musala climb on youtube
Vihren is the highest peak of Bulgarias Pirin Mountains. Reaching 2,914 metres, it is Bulgarias second and the Balkans third highest, after Musala, the peak is located in Pirins northern parts. The easiest route is from the Vihren chalet, reaching the summit from the south, other routes include those from Banderitsa chalet or across the ridge Koncheto from the north. A number of Pirins lakes are located around the peak, as is Europes southernmost glacial mass, Vihren Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Vihren. FC Vihren Sandanski is a Bulgarian football club of the same name, kutelo List of European ultra prominent peaks Vihren Vrh, Bulgaria on Peakbagger
Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria. The city has a population of 1.26 million, while 1.68 million people live in its metropolitan area, the city is located at the foot of Vitosha Mountain in the western part of the country, within less than 50 kilometres drive from the Serbian border. Its location in the centre of the Balkan peninsula means that it is the midway between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea, whereas the Aegean Sea is the closest to it, Sofia has been an area of human habitation since at least 7000 BC. Being Bulgarias primate city, Sofia is a hometown of many of the local universities, cultural institutions. Sofia is one of the top 10 best places for business in the world. Sofia is Europes most affordable capital to visit as of 2013, for the longest time the city possessed a Thracian name, derived from the tribe Serdi, who were either of Thracian, Celtic, or mixed Thracian-Celtic origin. It seems that the first written mention of Serdica was made during his reign, during the Romans civitas Serdenisium was mentioned the brightest city of the Serdi in official inscriptions.
The city was major throughout the past ever since Antiquity, when Roman emperor Constantine the Great referred to it as my Rome, other names given to Sofia, such as Serdonpolis and Triaditza, were mentioned by Byzantine Greek sources or coins. The Slavic name Sredets, which is related to middle and to the citys earliest name, the city was called Atralissa by the Arab traveller Idrisi and Strelisa, Stralitsa or Stralitsion by the Crusaders. The name Sofia comes from the Saint Sofia Church, as opposed to the prevailing Slavic etymology among Bulgarian cities and towns. It is ultimately derived from the Egyptian Kemetic word sbÅ, meaning star, door and wisdom and this was a tradition of collection of wise literature, shared between Mediterranean cultures, which was called sophia in Greek. In these documents the city is called Sofia, but at the time the region and the citys inhabitants are still called Sredecheski. The city became popular to the Ottomans by the name Sofya. In 1879 there was a dispute about what the name of the new Bulgarian capital should be, the citys name is pronounced by Bulgarians with a stress on the o, in contrast with the tendency of foreigners to place the stress on i.
The female given name Sofia is pronounced by Bulgarians with a stress on the i, Sofia has an area of 492 km2, while Sofia City Province has an area of 1344 km2. Sofias development as a significant settlement owes much to its position in the Balkans. It is situated in western Bulgaria, at the foot of the Vitosha mountain, in the Sofia Valley that is surrounded by the Balkan mountains to the north. The valley has an altitude of 550 metres
The Pirin Mountains are a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria, with Vihren the highest peak, situated at 41°45′50″N 23°25′30″E. The range extends about 40 km northwest-southeast, and about 25 km wide, most of the range is protected in the Pirin National Park. The mountain is named after Perun, the highest god of the Slavic pantheon, to the north Pirin is separated from Bulgarias highest mountain range, the Rila Mountains, by the Predel saddle, while to the south it reaches the Slavyanka mountain. To the west is located the valley of the Struma and to the east of the Mesta Rivers, Pirin is noted for its rich flora and fauna. Much of the area is forested, with the best conifer woods in Bulgaria, holding important populations of the Balkan endemic species Macedonian pine, Bosnian pine, animals include the wolf and the brown bear. The town of Bansko, an important tourism and winter sports centre, is situated on the northeast slopes of the Pirin Mountains, the town of Razlog lies in Razlog Valley between Pirin Mountains to the south and the Rila Mountains to the north.
It has an area of 2,585 km2 and an height of 1,033 m. Pirin is set in the southwest of the country between the Struma and Mesta Rivers, bordering Rila to the north at the Predel Saddle and Slavyanka to the south at the Parilska Saddle. The distance between two points is 60 km from the northwest to the southeast and the maximum width of Pirin is 40 km from the town of Sandanski to the village of Obidim. Other neighbouring mountains include Vlahina, Maleshevo and Ograzhden to the west and geographically Pirin is divided into three parts, a north and south one, which are however not equal in size and tourist attractivity. North Pirin is the largest of the subdivisions and the mountains downright part and it takes up 74% of the whole ranges territory, being about 42 km long and ranging from Predel to the north to the Todorova Polyana Saddle to the south. It is further subdivided into parts due to its size, Mramor Part, North Central Part, South Central Part, Polezhan Part, Kamenitsa Part, Sinanitsa Part.
Central Pirin extends between the Todorova Polyana Saddle and the Popovi Livadi Saddle and it constitutes the smallest and shortest part, being only 7 km long. The highest peak is Orelyak, while the peaks are under 2,000 m and heavily forested. There are only two resthouses, Popovi Livadi and Malina, South Pirin is the lowest and most round part, the highest peak being Svesthnik at 1,975 m. It occupies 17% of Pirin and is about 11 km long, well forested with coniferous and deciduous trees, it is the most rarely visited part of the mountains and thus lacks any resthouses. By its geological structure Pirin is an elevation with granite nucleus covered mainly with ancient metamorphous rocks. It forms as a mountain during the Tertiary and its hoisting alternated with long tranquil periods
The chamois has been introduced to the South Island of New Zealand. Some subspecies of chamois are strictly protected in the EU under the European Habitats Directive, the English name comes from French chamois. The latter is derived from Gaulish camox, itself perhaps borrowing from some Alpine language, the Gaulish form underlies German Gemse, Gams, Gämse, Italian Camoscio, Ladin Ciamorz. The usual pronunciation for the animal is UK /ˈʃæmwɑː/ or US /ʃæmˈwɑː/, when referring to chamois leather, and in New Zealand often for the animal itself, it is /ˈʃæmi/, and sometimes spelt shammy or chamy. The plural of chamois is spelled the same as the singular, however, as with many other quarry species, the plural for the animal is often pronounced the same as the singular. The Dutch name for the chamois is gems, and the male is called a gemsbok, in Afrikaans, the name gemsbok came to refer to a species of Subsaharan antelope of the genus Oryx, and this meaning of gemsbok has been adopted into English.
The chamois are in the subfamily of the family Bovidae. A fully grown chamois reaches a height of 70–80 cm and measures 107–137 cm, which weigh 30–60 kg, are slightly larger than females, which weigh 25–45 kg. Both males and females have short, straightish horns which are hooked backwards near the tip, in summer, the fur has a rich brown colour which turns to a light grey in winter. Distinct characteristics are white contrasting marks on the sides of the head with pronounced black stripes below the eyes, a white rump, female chamois and their young live in herds of up to 15 to 30 individuals, adult males tend to live solitarily for most of the year. During the rut, males engage in battles for the attention of unmated females. An impregnated female undergoes a period of 170 days, after which a single kid is usually born in May or early June - on rare occasions, twins may be born. If a mother is killed, other females in the herd may try to raise the kid, the kid is weaned at six months of age and is fully grown by one year of age.
However, the kids do not reach maturity until they are three to four years old, although some females may mate at as early two years old. Chamois eat various types of vegetation, including grasses and herbs during the summer and conifers, barks. Primarily diurnal in activity, they often rest around mid-day and may actively forage during moonlit nights, Chamois can reach an age of 22 years in captivity, although the maximum recorded in the wild is from 15 to 17 years of age. Common causes of mortality can include avalanches and predation, at present, humans are the main predator of Chamois. In the past, the predators were Eurasian lynxes, Persian leopards and gray wolves, with some predation possibly by brown bears