The rump or croup, in the external morphology of an animal, is the portion of the posterior dorsum that is posterior to the loins and anterior to the tail. Anatomically, the rump corresponds to the sacrum, the tailhead or dock is the beginning of the tail, where the tail joins the rump. It is known as the base or root of the tail, in some mammals the tail may be said to consist of the tailbone and the skirt. In birds, the tail consists of tailbone and tailfan, some animals are subjected to docking, the amputation of the tailbone at or near the dock. These include dogs, sheep and horses, humans have a remnant tail, the coccyx, and the human equivalent of docking is coccygectomy. Usage varies from animal to animal and cattle are said to have a rump and tailhead. Dogs are said to have a rump and dock, horses are said to have a croup, thigh or haunch and dock. In bird anatomy, the rump is the body immediately above the tail, the color of plumage on the rump is a characteristic widely used by ornithologists to distinguish between related species, and sometimes between males and females of the same species.
Similarly, the silhouette of the tailfan is a widely used for purposes of identification. Some birds have a food reservoir pouch in the esophagus that is known as a croup, in some breeds it is traditional for tails to be cut off at the dock. Below the croup is the thigh or haunch, behind the thigh is the buttock. Applied to horses, the dock has two additional uses. Its meaning may be extended to either the entire tail minus the skirt or the tailhead only, in other equidae, it encompasses most of the tailbone, as most of that portion of the tail does not have long hairs. A lack of long hairs can be natural, as in zebras and the Przewalski horse, or artificial, the result of pulling, trimming, or shaving part of the skirt. A sponge used to wash the skin on the underside of the dock and other regions under the tail
Georgetown is a town and locality in the Shire of Etheridge, Australia. In the 2011 census, Georgetown had a population of 243 people, Georgetown is on the Etheridge River in Far North Queensland, Australia. The Gulf Developmental Road passes through the town, linking Cairns -380 kilometres to the east -, Georgetown is the administrative headquarters of the Shire of Etheridge, a local government area encompassing the nearby settlements of Mount Surprise and Einasleigh. The Etheridge River was the site of a rush in the 1870s. Originally known by the name Etheridge, the name was changed in 1871 to honour an early gold commissioner. Georgetown Post Office opened on 15 January 1872, Georgetown State School opened on 14 Sep 1874. By 1900 grazing had replaced gold mining as the primary source of income. At the 2006 census, Georgetown had a population of 254, in 2014, Georgetown State School had an enrolment of 57 students with 3 teachers. Georgetown is one of the locations mentioned several times in the novel A Town Like Alice by Nevil Shute.
University of Queensland, Queensland Places, Georgetown Etheridge Shire Council Town information Town map,1983
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
Djabugay belongs to the Yidinic branch of the Pama–Nyungan language family, and is closely related to Yidin. The last speaker with a knowledge of the language was Gilpin Banning. Their western boundary was defined by the margin of the rain forest from Tolga north to Mount Molloy. By 1952, the Djabugay claimed the strip between Cairns Inlet and Lamb Range, with one horde lived near Redlynch, Cairns. The somewhat ambiguous eurocentric concept of the Dreamtime devised to describe Aboriginal religion or the traditional worldview of the Djabugay and the Yidinji, was expressed in the word bulurru. It finally came to rest at Wangal Djungay In one account, he was killed by emu men at Din din, an incident which unleashed the powerful monsoonal rains on the region. There were 2 Bulurru dreamtime brothers and Guyala, who laid down the contours, created the plant foods, established the customary law, the contours of the Barron River and Redlynch Valley, for example, are thought of as representing the supine body of Damarri.
The tale of Budadjis travels along the Barron Gorge is included in the web guide of Queensland Rail to the journey from Cairns to Kuranda. European settlers explored and cleared the land for gold and tin, the euphemism for shooting groups of blacks, were undertaken at Smithfield, Bibhoora at Clohesy River close to Kuranda in the early 1880s, and near Mareeba in 1881. In May 1886, a railway was constructed from Cairns to Herberton with part of the going on top of a walking track. The Djabugay were unhappy about this development and withstood the settlement by spearing bullocks, as the settlers entered, traditional hunting and gathering grounds were taken over. This led to the notorious Speewah massacre in 1890 where John Atherton took revenge on the Djubagay by sending in native troopers to avenge the killing of a bullock. The Djubagay were segregated from them and forced to live at the Mona-Mona Mission and were unable to hunt and their numbers fell dramatically at the turn of the century. By 1896, the region supported coffee plantations and the Djabugay were used as labour on farms, many now own their own land, some other settlements and farms in the area.
On 17 December 2004, it was recognised that native title existed in the Barron Gorge National Park for the Djabugay and it followed that the physical landscape, its storyplaces and storywaters in bulurru tradition underline the inalienable connection between the native claimants, their ancestral beings and the land. In land title claims, there was a running dispute between the Djabugay and the Yirrganydji the latter claiming native title to the area from Cairns to Port Douglas. The clash arose out of the siting of the Tjapukai Cultural Theme Park, though some Djabuguy wished their claim to be included under the general claim, regarding them as part of the Dajabugay people, the Yirrganydji insisted on maintaining their separate identity. Eventually the two representing the groups thrashed out a compromise agreement
Gubbi Gubbi people
The Gubbi Gubbi, written Kabi Kabi, people are an Indigenous Australian people native to southeastern Queensland. They are now classified as one of several Murri language groups in Queensland, norman Tindale situated the Gubbi Gubbi as an inland tribe of the Wide Bay–Burnett area, whose lands extended over 3,700 sq. miles and lay west of Maryborough. The northern borders ran as far as Childers and Hervey Bay, on the south, they approached the headwaters of the Mary River and Cooroy. Westwards, they reached as far as the Coast Ranges and Kilkivan, Gubbi Gubbi country is currently located between Pumicestone Road, near Caboolture in the south, through to Childers in the north. Some Gubbi Gubbi died in the poisoning of upwards of 60 Aborigines on the Kilcoy run in 1842. A further 50-60 are said to have killed by food laced with arsenic at Whiteside Station in April 1847. In June 1849 two youths, the Pegg brothers, were speared on the property while herding sheep and they had feasted on stolen sheep.
Marksmen picked off many, even those fleeing by diving into the Burnett River, the slaughter was extensive, and the bones of many of the dead were uncovered on the site many decades later. Blaxland was in turn killed in a payback action sometime in July–August 1850 and his death was revenged in a further large-scaled massacre of tribes in the area. The escaped convict James Davis lived among other tribes, the Gubbi Gubbi John Mathew and he described their society in a 1910 monograph, Two Representative Tribes of Queensland. The Queensland lungfish was native to Gubbi Gubbi waters and the species fell under a taboo among them and it was known in their language as dala
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. ANU enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students, the universitys endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is ranked 22nd in the world by the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings, ANU was named the worlds 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2016 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, a ranking of university graduates employability. ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking, ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers,30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of Government departments of Australia, calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900.
After the location of the capital, was determined in 1908. A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock, economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANUs first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was originally organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies, the first residents’ hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the government in 1924. The first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, the Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of education in the national capital, having been established in 1929. Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution, CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university.
Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, in 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies, initially with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later, Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961. The Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art were amalgamated by ANU in 1992, ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires largely destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory, ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture