The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland and Alaska. The Inuit languages are part of the Eskimo–Aleut family. Inuit Sign Language is a critically endangered language isolate used in Nunavut. In Canada and the States, the term "Eskimo" was used by ethnic Europeans to describe the Inuit and Siberia's and Alaska's Yupik and Iñupiat peoples. However, "Inuit" is not accepted as a term for the Yupik, "Eskimo" is the only term that applies to Yupik, Iñupiat and Inuit. Since the late 20th century, Indigenous peoples in Canada and Greenlandic Inuit consider "Eskimo" to be a pejorative term, they more identify as "Inuit" for an autonym. In Canada, sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 classified the Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal Canadians who are not included under either the First Nations or the Métis; the Inuit live throughout most of Northern Canada in the territory of Nunavut, Nunavik in the northern third of Quebec and NunatuKavut in Labrador, in various parts of the Northwest Territories around the Arctic Ocean.
These areas are known in the Inuktitut language as the "Inuit Nunangat". In the United States, the Iñupiat live on the Alaska North Slope and on Little Diomede Island; the Greenlandic Inuit are descendants of ancient indigenous migrations from Canada, as these people migrated to the east through the continent. They are citizens of Denmark. Inuit are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule people, who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 CE, they had split from the related Aleut group about 4000 years ago and from northeastern Siberian migrants related to the Chukchi language group, still earlier, descended from the third major migration from Siberia. They spread eastwards across the Arctic, they displaced the related Dorset culture, called the Tuniit in Inuktitut, the last major Paleo-Eskimo culture. Inuit legends speak of the Tuniit as people who were taller and stronger than the Inuit. Less the legends refer to the Dorset as "dwarfs". Researchers believe that Inuit society had advantages by having adapted to using dogs as transport animals, developing larger weapons and other technologies superior to those of the Dorset culture.
By 1300, Inuit migrants had reached west Greenland. During the next century, they settled in East Greenland Faced with population pressures from the Thule and other surrounding groups, such as the Algonquian and Siouan-speaking peoples to the south, the Tuniit receded; the Tuniit were thought to have become extinct as a people by about 1400 or 1500. But, in the mid-1950s, researcher Henry B. Collins determined that, based on the ruins found at Native Point, the Sadlermiut were the last remnants of the Dorset culture, or Tuniit; the Sadlermiut population survived up until winter 1902–03, when exposure to new infectious diseases brought by contact with Europeans led to their extinction as a people. In the early 21st century, mitochondrial DNA research has supported the theory of continuity between the Tuniit and the Sadlermiut peoples, it provided evidence that a population displacement did not occur within the Aleutian Islands between the Dorset and Thule transition. In contrast to other Tuniit populations, the Aleut and Sadlermiut benefited from both geographical isolation and their ability to adopt certain Thule technologies.
In Canada and Greenland, Inuit circulated exclusively north of the "arctic tree line", the effective southern border of Inuit society. The most southern "officially recognized" Inuit community in the world is Rigolet in Nunatsiavut. South of Nunatsiavut, the descendants of the southern Labrador Inuit in NunatuKavut continued their traditional transhumant semi-nomadic way of life until the mid-1900s; the Nunatukavummuit people moved among islands and bays on a seasonal basis. They did not establish stationary communities. In other areas south of the tree line, non-Inuit indigenous cultures were well established; the culture and technology of Inuit society that served so well in the Arctic were not suited to subarctic regions, so they did not displace their southern neighbors. Inuit had trade relations with more southern cultures. Warfare was not uncommon among those Inuit groups with sufficient population density. Inuit such as the Nunamiut, who inhabited the Mackenzie River delta area engaged in warfare.
The more sparsely settled Inuit in the Central Arctic, did so less often. Their first European contact was with the Vikings who settled in Greenland and explored the eastern Canadian coast; the sagas recorded meeting skrælingar an undifferentiated label for all the indigenous peoples whom the Norse encountered, whether Tuniit, Inuit, or Beothuk. After about 1350, the climate grew colder during the period known as the Little Ice Age. During this period, Alaskan natives were able to continue their whaling activities. But, in the high Arctic, the Inuit were forced to abandon their hunting and whaling sites as bowhead whales disappeared from Canada and Greenland; these Inuit had to subsist on a much poorer diet, lost access to the essential raw materials for their tools and architecture which they had derived from whaling. The changing climate forced the Inuit to work their way south, pushing them into marginal niches along the edges of the tree line; these were areas which Native Americans had not occupied or where they were weak enough for the Inuit to live near them.
Researchers have difficulty defining when Inuit stopped this territorial
Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport
Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport or Montréal–Trudeau known as Montréal–Dorval International Airport, is an international airport serving Montreal, Canada, located on the Island of Montreal, 20 km from Downtown Montreal. The airport terminals are located in the suburb of Dorval, while one runway is located in the Montreal borough of Saint-Laurent. Air Canada, the country's flag carrier has its corporate headquarters complex on the Saint-Laurent side of the airport, it serves Greater Montreal and adjacent regions in Quebec and eastern Ontario, as well as the states of Vermont and northern New York in the United States. The airport is named in honour of Pierre Elliott Trudeau, the 15th Prime Minister of Canada and father of current Prime Minister Justin Trudeau; the airport is one of two managed and operated by Aéroports de Montréal, a not-for-profit corporation without share capital. Montréal–Trudeau is owned by Transport Canada which has a 60-year lease with Aéroports de Montréal, as per Canada's National Airport Policy of 1994.
Trudeau is the busiest airport in the province of Quebec and the third-busiest airport in Canada by both passenger traffic and aircraft movements, with 19.42 million passengers and 240,159 movements in 2018. It is one of eight Canadian airports with United States border preclearance and is one of the main gateways into Canada with 12.2 million or 63% of its passengers being on non-domestic flights, the highest proportion amongst Canada's airports during 2018. It is one of four Air Canada hubs and, in that capacity, serves Quebec, the Atlantic Provinces and Eastern Ontario. On an average day, 53,000 passengers transit through Montréal-Trudeau. Airlines servicing Trudeau offer year-round non-stop flights to five continents, namely Africa, Europe, North America and South America, it is one of only two airports in Canada with direct flights to five continents or more, the other being Toronto Pearson International Airport. Trudeau airport is the headquarters of and a large hub for Air Canada, the country's largest airline.
It is the headquarters of Air Inuit and Air Transat, an operation base for Sunwing Airlines and Porter Airlines. It plays a role in general aviation as home to the headquarters of Innotech-Execair, Starlink, ACASS and Maintenance Repair & Overhaul facilities of Air Transat and Air Inuit. Transport Canada operates a Civil Aviation Maintenance and Overhaul facility on site, with a fleet of Government owned and operated civil aircraft. Bombardier Aerospace has an assembly facility on site where they build regional jets and Challenger business jets. By the 1940s, it was clear that Montreal's original airport, Saint-Hubert Airport, in operation since 1927, was no longer adequate for the city's needs; the Minister of Transport purchased land at the Dorval Race Track, considered the best location for an enlarged airport because of its good weather conditions and few foggy days. The airport opened on September 1941, as Dorval Airport/Aéroport Dorval with three paved runways. By 1946 the airport was hosting more than a quarter of a million passengers a year, growing to more than a million in the mid-1950s.
During World War II thousands of Allied aircraft passed through Dorval on the way to England. At one time Dorval was the major transatlantic hub for commercial aviation and the busiest airport in Canada, with flights from airlines such as British Overseas Airways Corporation; until 1959, it doubled as RCAF Station Lachine. Airport diagram for 1954 In November 1960 the airport was renamed Montreal–Dorval International Airport/Aéroport international Dorval de Montréal. On December 15 of that year the Minister of Transport inaugurated a new $30 million terminal; the structure was built by Illsley, Templeton and Larose. At its height, it was one of the biggest in the world, it was the gateway to Canada for all European air traffic and served more than two million passengers per year. Eight years Montréal–Dorval International Airport underwent a major expansion program. Despite this, the government of Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Elliott Trudeau predicted that Dorval would be saturated by 1985 and projected that 20 million passengers would be passing through Montreal's airports annually.
They decided to construct a new airport in Sainte-Scholastique, what became Montréal–Mirabel International Airport. As the first phase in the transition that would have seen Dorval closed, all international flights were to be transferred to the new airport in 1975. On November 29, 1975, Mirabel International Airport went into service. With an operations zone of 70 km2 and a buffer zone of 290 km2, it became the largest airport in the world. Many connecting flights to Canadian centres were transferred to Mirabel and 23 international airlines moved their overseas activities there; as a consequence, Montréal–Dorval was repurposed to serve domestic flights and transborder flights to the United States. Mirabel's traffic decreased due to the advent in the 1980s of longer-range jets that did not need to refuel in Montreal before crossing the Atlantic Ocean. Montreal's economic decline in the late 1970s and 1980s had a significant effect on the airport's traffic, as international flights bypassed Montreal altogether in favour of Toronto Pearson International Airport.
Kuujjuaq Airport, is located 1.5 nautical miles southwest of Kuujjuaq, Canada. The airport site at Fort Chimo was located and surveyed on 12 July 1941 by a USAAF team under Captain Elliott Roosevelt, operating by amphibious aircraft out of Gander and Labrador; the chosen site was five miles upstream on the opposite shore. River access was difficult due to sandy banks and ice and high tides in the estuary. Code-named Crystal I, Fort Chimo was founded on 10 October 1941 by about a 12-man weather station and radio communications crew under Antarctic veteran Lt. Cdr. Isaac Schlossbach. Runway construction commenced next summer; the Crystal stations were part of the Crimson East project for trans-Atlantic ferry flights, Chimo being referred to as "Bookie". Fort Chimo did not serve in this intended capacity, but the station was useful for weather reporting and local support duties. Canada took control in 1944, although American crews remained for a period. Seasonal resupply was by U. S. Coast Guard cutters.
Fort Chimo was one of three "Crystal" sites in the Canadian Arctic Region, Frobisher Bay Air Base, Northwest Territories being "Crystal II", a station on Padloping Island being "Crystal III". A detachment of the 8th Weather Squadron, Air Transport Command took up residence at the station on 1 October 1942; the initial mission of the Crystal sites was to provide long-range weather information to the combat forces building up in the United Kingdom. Crystal I was planned to be a transport hub between the Eastern Route, which originated at Presque Isle Army Airfield and the Central Route, which originated at Romulus Army Airfield, Michigan. From Crystal I, the aircraft would be ferried via Baffin Island; the development of the Mid-Atlantic Transport through the Azores and improved performance of the Gander-Iceland main route led to the cancellation of the Crimson Route project in 1943. The United States presence at Crystal I was reduced to a skeleton weather squadron. Nav Canada opened a $7-million air traffic control facility near the airport.
The radar station allows controllers in Montreal to monitor the steady stream of transatlantic air traffic over northern Quebec. A large-scale terminal expansion project was carried out at the airport between 2006 and 2008; the $14.9 million project included the expansion of the airport apron and the construction of a brand new 1,225m2 terminal to replace the cramped building built in 1972. The building, designed by architect Alain Fournier, received a silver certification under the Canadian Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program. Kuujjuaq Airport is a mandatory frequency airport with an operating Flight Service Station. Passenger Cargo Christie, Carl: Ocean Bridge The History of RAF Ferry Command. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1995 Hansen, Chris: Enfant Terrible: The Times and Schemes of General Elliott Roosevelt. Able Baker, Tucson, 2012 Pocock, Arthur: Red Flannels and Green Ice. Random House, New York, 1949. See station reports at AFHRA, Maxwell AFB, Alabama.
Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Kuujjuaq Airport from Nav Canada as available
Air Inuit is an airline based in the Montreal borough of Saint-Laurent, Canada. It operates charter and cargo services in Nunavik and Nunavut, its main base is Kuujjuaq Airport. The airline was established and started operations in 1978 using a de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver aircraft; the airline is collectively owned by the Inuit of Nunavik through the Makivik Corporation. In 2012, Air Inuit relocated their headquarters to a new multi-purpose facility on Côte-Vertu Boulevard near the Montreal-Trudeau International Airport. In 2016, Air Inuit pilot Melissa Haney became the first female Inuk pilot to reach the rank of captain, she was featured on a commemorative postage stamp released by the Canadian Ninety-Nines. Air Inuit operates scheduled services to the following domestic destinations: Kattiniq - via Val-d'Or - Nunavik Nickel mining project Air Inuit offers other charter services to anywhere in Canada, the United States and abroad; as of April 2018 the Air Inuit fleet includes the following aircraft: Air Inuit has access to a Eurocopter Ecureuil through Nunavik Rotors and a de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter through Johnny May's Air Charters.
On 1 March 2016, Bombardier Inc. announced that Air Inuit would be the launch customer for the Bombardier Q300 Large Cargo Door freighter. On 16 March 1981, Douglas C-47A C-FIRW was damaged beyond repair when it broke through the frozen surface of Lac Bienville while taxiing for take-off on a cargo flight. Official website
La Grande Rivière Airport
La Grande Rivière Airport is an airfield location about 30 km south southwest of Radisson, Canada. It is used to shuttle Hydro-Québec personnel between Radisson and the larger cities in Quebec, but it is served by regular scheduled flights of Air Inuit. Air Creebec served the airport until March 2012. During the mid and late 1970s, Nordair operated scheduled passenger flights nonstop to Montreal Dorval Airport with Boeing 737-200 jetliners on a weekly basis. On 15 November 1975, Douglas C-47 C-FCSC of Nordair was damaged beyond economic repair by fire at La Grande Rivière Airport. La Grande-3 Airport La Grande-4 Airport Accident history for YGL at Aviation Safety Network Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for La Grande Rivière Airport from Nav Canada as available
Val-d'Or Airport, is located 2.5 nautical miles south of Val-d'Or, Canada. On 19 June 1970, Douglas C-47A CF-AAC of Austin Airways was written off in an accident. On 13 March 1994, during a flight between Val-d'Or and Montreal Dorval a Canadian Airlines ATR 42-300 registered as C-GIQV suffered a propeller blade failure at 17,000 ft; the aircraft landed safely at Montreal. List of airports in the Val-d'Or area Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Val-d'Or Airport from Nav Canada as available
Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication. It is the nation's official airport directory, it contains information on all registered Canadian and certain Atlantic aerodromes and certified airports. The CFS is published, separately in English and French, as a paper book by Nav Canada and is issued once every 56 days on the ICAO AIRAC schedule; the CFS was published by Natural Resources Canada on behalf of Transport Canada and the Department of National Defence until 15 March 2007 edition, at which time Nav Canada took over production. The CFS presents runway data and departure procedures, air traffic control and other radio frequencies and services such as fuel, hangarage that are available at each listed aerodrome; as well, the CFS contains useful reference pages, including interception instructions for civil aircraft, chart updating data and search and rescue information. Most pilots flying in Canada carry a copy of the CFS in case a weather or mechanical diversion to another airport becomes necessary.
The Canada Flight Supplement is made up of seven sections: Special Notices — list of new or amended procedures. General Section — glossary, airport code listing, list of abandoned aerodromes, other introductory information. Aerodrome/Facility Directory — list all aerodromes alphabetically by the community in which they are located. A sketch of the airport is included showing runway layout, locations of buildings and tower. Included in the sketch is an obstacle clearance circle. Planning — general flight planning information, including flight plans and position reports, lists of significant new towers and other obstructions, chart updating, preferred IFR routes, similar information. Radio Navigation and Communications — listing of radio navigation aids and communication outlets, together with all known commercial AM broadcasters and their locations and frequencies. Military Flight Data and Procedures — military flight and reporting procedures for Canada and the U. S. Emergency — emergency procedures and guidelines for hijacks, fuel dumping and rescue, etc.
Carrying "current aeronautical charts and publications covering the route of the proposed flight and any probable diversionary route" is a requirement under CAR 602.60 for night VFR, VFR Over-The-Top and instrument flight rules flights. This Canadian Aviation Regulation does not require carriage of a copy of the CFS, but, one way to satisfy the regulation; because information in the CFS may be out of date with regard to such issues as runway closures and fuel availability, pilots should check NOTAMs before each flight. NOTAM information in Canada can be obtained from the Nav Canada Aviation Weather Website or by contacting the appropriate regional Nav Canada Flight Information Centre. While Nav Canada's CFS has the monopoly on paper-version airport directories in Canada, there are several competing internet publications, including the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association's Places to Fly user-editable airport directory. Nav Canada publishes the Water Aerodrome Supplement, as a single volume in English and French.
This contains information on all Canadian water aerodromes as shown on visual flight rules charts and other information such as navaids. The WAS is published on an annual basis. Airport/Facility Directory – U. S. publications equivalent to the Aerodrome/Facility and Planning chapters of the CFS, but divided into several volumes covering different regions. Official website