Kuznetsky Most (Moscow Metro)
Kuznetsky Most is a Moscow Metro station in the Meshchansky District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow. It is on the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line, designed by Nina Aleshin and N. Samoylova the station was the first column type to be built since the 1950s. It was opened in 1975 as part of the segment between the Zhdanovskaya and Krasnopresnenskaya Line. Decoratively the station is a column tri-vault, the columns are faced with gazgan marble archways. The floor is covered with polarised black granite, the snow-white marble of the walls is decorated with decorative artworks created by M. Alekseyev. The vestibule of the station is located in the courtyard of Rozhdestvenka Street,6, at the opposite end of the station is a transfer to the Lubyanka station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line
Woe from Wit
Woe from Wit is Alexander Griboyedovs comedy in verse, satirizing the society of post-Napoleonic Moscow, or, as a high official in the play styled it, a pasquinade on Moscow. The play, written in 1823 in the countryside and in Tiflis, was not passed by the censorship for the stage, the play was a compulsory work in Russian literature lessons in Soviet schools, and is still considered a golden classic in modern Russia and other Russian-speaking countries. The play gave rise to numerous catchphrases in the Russian language, the play belongs to the classical school of comedy, with principal antecedents in Molière. Like Denis Fonvizin before him and like the founders of the Russian realistic tradition after him, Griboyedov lays far greater stress on the characters, the comedy is loosely constructed, but in the dialogue and in the character drawing Griboyedov is supreme and unique. Griboyedovs dialogue is a tour de force. It always attempts and achieves the impossible, the squeezing of everyday conversation into a rebellious metrical form, Griboyedov seemed to multiply his difficulties on purpose.
He was, for instance, alone in his age to use unexpected, there is just enough toughness and angularity in his verse to constantly remind the reader of the pains undergone and the difficulties triumphantly overcome by the poet. Despite the fetters of the form, Griboyedovs dialogue has the natural rhythm of conversation and is more easily colloquial than any prose. It is full of wit and character, and is a veritable store book of the best spoken Russian of a period, almost every other line of the comedy has become part of the language, and proverbs from Griboyedov are as numerous as proverbs from Krylov. For epigram, repartee and concise wit, Griboyedov has no rivals in Russian, Griboyedovs characters, while typical of the period, are stamped in the really common clay of humanity. They all, down to the most episodic characters, have the same perfection of finish and clearness of outline. With her fixity of purpose, her wit, and her deep, but reticent, she is the principal active force in the play.
Liza, Sofias maid, the headstrong and powerless maid and she boldly speaks her mind as she is unable to take action given her gender and station. She is a vehicle through which multiple characters expose their baser desires, sometimes irrelevantly eloquent, he leads a generous, if vague, revolt against the vegetably selfish world of Famusovs and Molchalins. His exhilarating, youthful idealism, his go, his élan is of the family of Romeo, tradition tells that the character is modeled after Pyotr Chaadaev, an original and controversial Russian writer and philosopher, with whom Griboyedov was acquainted. It is significant that, in spite of all his apparent lack of clear-cut personality, great Chatskys are as rare and as highly valued in Russia as are great Hamlets in Britain. A number of the characters have names that go a long way toward describing their personality and his daughters given name is Sofia, alluding to her pragmatism. Molchalins name comes from the verb molchat, to be silent, tugoukhovskys name comes from the compound word tugoukhiy, a slag equivalent of the English phrase hard of hearing
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleons political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and he was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica to a relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was serving as an officer in the French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution, he rose through the ranks of the military. The Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents, in 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power.
He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic and his ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805, in 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grand Army deep into Eastern Europe, France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support, the Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia, unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System and enticed Napoleon into another war. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse of the Grand Army, the destruction of Russian cities, in 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June, the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51
Alexey Nikolayevich Dushkin was a Soviet architect, best known for his 1930s designs of Kropotkinskaya and Mayakovskaya stations of Moscow Metro. He worked primarily for subway and railroads and is noted for his Red Gates administrative building. Alexey Dushkin studied chemistry in Kharkiv for three years since 1921, transferred to college and graduated in 1930. Dushkin worked in city planning, setting up zoning plans for Donbass towns, Dushkin associated himself with VOPRA, a left-wing artistic association led by Arkady Modrvinov and Karo Alabyan. In 1932, Dushkin applied for the Palace of Soviets contest and his draft did not win the main prize, but earned an invitation to Moscow to join the Palace design team, and Ivan Fomins Workshop No.3. This section is based on Moscow Metro,70 years His greatest chance came with the first stage of Moscow Metro. Dushkin and Yakov Lichtenberg, two architects, were awarded the honorable task of designing the Palace of Soviets metro station. The choice of young, unknown architects for the most important station is a mystery,70 years speculate that Dushkin was spotted by Lazar Kaganovich, project manager for the Metro, during the Palace of Soviets contest, or even earlier, in Kharkiv.
Basic triple-span, columnar layout was fixed by the Metro master planners, Dushkin worked within this framework and very tight construction schedule. Later, in 1973, he summarized the experience, Optical illusion is worthless, under ground, light is the most vital structural element that livens up materials and underscores shapes. We referred to the Egyptian subterranean legacy, where column tops were lit by oil lamps and this choice is the best answer for the underground reality. This work earned him a Stalin Prize in 1941 and Grand Prix awards at expositions in Paris, The columns of Kropotkinskaya look like a row of palm trees. In 1935, when the station was opened, its hall was lined up with live trees in wooden vats. This deep alignment station required heavy pylons to support the vaults, in 1930s, architects were obsessed with relieving passengers anxiety of being underground, so one of the objectives was to make these pylons look slimmer. Dushkin proposed an interesting solution - decorate the pylons with wider arches and this, he presumed, would narrow the perceived width of pylons.
His original draft called for bas relief sculptures of life-size standing figures on the corners, Matvey Manizer, a sculptor with a political backing, preferred classical, larger-than-life bronze sculptures, crouched between fake arches and the plinth. As a result, the station became heavyweight and dark, Mayakovskaya,33 meters under ground, was the first deep alignment station of columnar type. Dushkins design, although a Stalinist classic, is within the lines of Art deco, columns are faced with stainless steel and pink rhodonite and walls are finished in four different shades of granite and marble
Ivan III of Russia
Ivan III Vasilyevich, known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus. He was one of the longest-reigning Russian rulers in history, Ivans rule is marked by what subsequent Russophile historians called the Gathering of the Russian Lands. Ivan brought the independent duchies of different Rurikid princes under the control of Moscow, leaving the princes. His first enterprise was a war with the Republic of Novgorod and these wars were waged over Moscows religious and political sovereignty, and over Moscows efforts to seize land in the Northern Dvina region. Ivan visited Novgorod Central several times in the several years, persecuting a number of pro-Lithuanian boyars. In 1477, two Novgorodian envoys, claiming to have been sent by the archbishops and the entire city, Ivan dispossessed Novgorod of more than four-fifths of its land, keeping half for himself and giving the other half to his allies. Subsequent revolts were punished by the en masse of the richest and most ancient families of Novgorod to Moscow, Vyatka.
Archbishop Feofil was removed to Moscow for plotting against the Grand Prince, the rival republic of Pskov owed the continuance of its own political existence to the readiness with which it assisted Ivan against its ancient enemy. The other principalities were eventually absorbed by conquest, purchase, or marriage contract, The Principality of Yaroslavl in 1463, Rostov in 1474, Tver in 1485, the eldest, died childless on 12 September 1472. He only had a draft of a will that said nothing about his land, Ivan seized the land, much to the fury of the surviving brothers, who he placated with some land. Boris and Andrei the Elder signed treaties with Vasily in February and they agreed to protect each others land and not to have secret dealings with foreign states, they broke this clause in 1480, fleeing to Lithuania. It is unknown whether Andrei the Younger signed a treaty and he died in 1481, leaving his lands to Ivan. In 1491 Andrei the Elder was arrested by Ivan for refusing to aid the Crimean Tatars against the Golden Horde and he died in prison in 1493, and Ivan seized his land.
In 1494 Boris, the only brother able to pass his land to his sons, their land reverted to the Tsar upon their deaths in 1503 and 1515 respectively. There was one semi-autonomous prince in Muscovy when Ivan acceded, Prince Mikhail Andreevich of Vereia, in 1478 he was pressured into giving Belozersk to Ivan, who got all of Mikhails land on his death in 1486. The character of the government of Moscow changed significantly under Ivan III and this was a natural consequence of the hegemony of Moscow over the other north-eastern Rus lands, but to new imperial pretensions. Ivan himself appeared to welcome the idea, and he began to style himself tsar in foreign correspondence, fennell emphasizes Ivans success in centralizing control over local rulers, he adds, that his reign was a period of cultural depression and spiritual barrenness. Freedom was stamped out within the Muscovite lands, by his bigoted anti-Catholicism Ivan brought down the curtain between Muscovy and the west
Neglinnaya Street is a street inside the Garden Ring of Moscow, Russia. It runs from the Bolshoi Theatre to the Trubnaya Square, the street was paved over the underground Neglinnaya River in 1819. Throughout the 20th century the river flooded the street and the adjacent quarter. The highlights of the Neglinnaya include the Muir & Mirrielees building, the Petrovka Passazh, the Sandunov Baths, and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.
Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, Lithuanian and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, majjati to drown, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.
The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality
Central Administrative Okrug
Central Administrative Okrug, or Tsentralny Administrativny Okrug, is one of the twelve administrative okrugs of Moscow, located within the Kamer-Kollezhny Bank. The Kremlin Hill, from which the colonization of Moscow began, is depicted under Yury Dolgoruky, the purple background symbolizes the supreme power of Russia, concentrated in Central Administrative Okrug. The gold unicorn was a symbol of the Russian Tsars. Below him an ancient Kremlin white-stone wall is featured, the Interstate Aviation Committee, the aviation accident technical investigation body of the Commonwealth of Independent States, has its head office in the Yakimanka District in the okrug. The Federal Penitentiary Service has its office in Yakimanka District. The Ministry of Education and Science has its office in the Tverskoy District. Aeroflot has its office in the Arbat District in the okrug. United Aircraft Corporation has its office in the Krasnoselsky District in the okrug. Tupolev has its office in the Basmanny District in the okrug.
The All Nippon Airways Moscow sales office is located in the Presnensky District in the okrug, korean Air operates its CIS office in the Tverskoy District in the okrug. The Lycée Français Alexandre Dumas de Moscou, a French international school, is located in the Krasnoselsky District in the okrug, Latvia Riga, Latvia Ingolstadt, Germany Official website of Central Administrative Okrug
Childrens World or Detsky Mir is a Russian childrens retailer. Opened on June 6,1957, as of February 2017 and it is the largest childrens goods retailer in Russia and the CIS, with the retail chain in both Russia and Kazakhstan. Detsky Mir Group owns the ELC retail chain in Russia, on February 8,2017, PAO Detsky Mir listed its shares in the first major initial public offering in Russia since the annexation of Crimea. Detsky Mir first opened on June 6,1957 in the center of Moscow at Lubyanka Square, Detsky Mir became a chain of childrens retailers in Russia in the 2000s. After the original store opened, Bloomberg writes that Detsky Mir became a household name, the Wall Street Journal writes that the main owner of Detsky Mir, conglomerate AFK Sistema, put off plans for an IPO in 2014. Bloomberg writes Sistema’s founder, billionaire Vladimir Evtushenkov, shelved a planned IPO of Detsky Mir in 2014 after Russia’s annexation of Crimea, Detsky Mir no longer owns the original store it opened in Moscow.
The store was built between 1953 and 1957 in the center of Moscow, on Dzerzhinsky Square and it was designed by architect Alexei Dushkin on the site of the Lubyanka passage over the subway station Dzerzhinsk. The shop opened on June 6,1957, in 2005, the building received the status of cultural heritage at the regional level. In 2006, the owner of the building Hals-Development announced its reconstruction, because of the protected status only restoration work was allowed, it prohibits new construction in areas of cultural heritage. It was Russias largest toy shop from 1957 until 2008, when it was sold by Detsky Mir to new owners, the store was purchased by VTB in 2008 and was closed for restoration, with the cost of the restoration estimated at US $138 million. The building reopened on March 31,2015 under the name Central Childrens Store on Lubyanka, the historical name still belonged to the owner of the building as the trade network Childrens World. By 2015, the Detsky Mir chain had around 320 locations and was owned by Vladimir Evtushenkov, the company expects 2016 revenue of $1.3 billion for 2016, a 30% increase from 2015.
“Children’s World” opened around 200 stores between 2015 and early 2017, with plans to open 250 over the three years, bringing the total to 700. As of February 2017, the company had 525 stores, with plans to open 250 more by 2020, on February 8,2017, PAO Detsky Mir listed its shares in the first major initial public offering in Russia since the annexation of Crimea. The IPO raised $355 million, valuing the company at around $1 billion and it debuted on the Moscow Exchange on Friday on February 10,2017. Around 90 percent of the shares were bought by foreign investors, on February 7,2017, Detsky Mir closed the book on the IPO. Columbus Shopping Center MEGA Family Shopping Centre Zvezda Official website Detsky Mir at Sistema Photograph of store in the US Library of Congress
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Prince Dmitry Vasilyevich Ukhtomsky, Дмитрий Васильевич Ухтомский was the chief architect of Moscow, Russia during the reign of Empress Elizabeth. Ukhtomsky was born in a village to the north of Yaroslavl, at the age of 12, he moved to Moscow and studied there at the School of Mathematics and Navigation until 1733. He studied architecture and worked at Ivan Michurins workshop until 1741, in 1742, Korobov supported Ukhtomskys nomination for his first professional title and delegated him the management of a firm. In 1744, Ukhtomsky acquired a full license and the rank of captain in state hierarchy. Ukhtomskys first public success were the temporary pavilions and arched for the coronation of Empress Elisabeth I of Russia in 1742, in 1753-1757 he rebuild one of these arched into landmark Red Gates, which stood until 1927. Since the 1740s, he built buildings in nearby Basmanny District, notably the extant Church of Martyr Nikita. The grand bell-tower of the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra,81 meter tall, was one of several projects where Ukhtomsky worked first with his mentor Michurin, present-day Kuznetsky Most, literally Blacksmiths Bridge, stands on the site of a 120-meter long bridge over Neglinnaya River, designed by Ukhtomsky.
The bridge, the palace in German Quarter and many buildings by Ukhtomsky were destroyed by accidental fires. For the first time in history of Moscow, Ukhtomsky produced master plans for redevelopment of areas destroyed by the fires of 1748 and 1752, Ukhtomsky supervised repairs in Moscow Kremlin in the 1750s. He trained and influenced Matvei Kazakov, Ivan Starov, Alexander Kokorinov, in 1760, Ukhtomsky was accused of fraud and dismissed from his job, his school was closed in 1764. In 1767 he left Moscow forever, despite a 1770 verdict in his favor, Ухтомский и его школа, М.1954
Tverskoy District is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia. The district extends from Kitai-gorod northwest to Belorussky and Savyolovsky Rail Terminals, Tverskoy District houses State Duma, Federation Council, the Mayor of Moscow, Moscow City Council, and Moscow Police Headquarters. It contains Theatre Square, the district of Tverskaya Street with Pushkin Square, Petrovka Street, Dmitrovka Street. It has the highest concentration of theatres, including Bolshoi Theatre, historical areas of Patriarshy Ponds, Malaya Bronnaya Street, and most of Tverskoy Boulevard, while closely associated with Tverskaya Street actually belong to Presnensky District. In the 1990s, Tverskoy District included Kitai-gorod, which is now a separate territory managed directly by Central Administrative Okrug and this section is based on P. V. Sytins History of Moscow Streets Tverskaya Street emerged, as the road to Tver, in the 12th century. Dmitrovka Street, the road to Dmitrov, and Petrovka Street, leading to Vysokopetrovsky Monastery, until the 1820s, the territory of what is now Tverskoy District was separated from the Moscow Kremlin by the Neglinnaya River.
Because of that, the city grew primarily eastward in the Middle Ages—into the Red Square, a stone bridge connecting Tverskaya with the Red Square was built in 1595. Urban development in the western part concentrated along Tverskaya Street, in the late 15th century, it was built out with country-like wooden homes to Pushkin Square, and by the end of the 16th century the city extended beyond the present-day Garden Ring. First stone Boyar houses appeared in downtown Tverskaya around that time, Dmitrovka Street developed rapidly after the fire of 1648, as marked by the one-of-a-kind eight-tented church of Nativity in Putinki. Unusually for Moscow outskirts, it was financed by the State, as the church was located near the Embassy Inn, home to foreign guests. Peter the Greats move of the capital to Saint Petersburg actually improved the leading role of Tverskaya Street. Tverskaya acquired Moscows first triumphal arch, Gagarin family palace, and Zakhar Chernyshyov mansion, the seat of Moscow Governor and currently of the Mayor of Moscow.
The Fire of 1812 wiped out wealthy mansions and peasant homes alike, sparing only the Pushkin Square, Tverskaya was rebuilt as an upper-class street, northeastern side of Tverskoy District lagged behind Tverskaya Street and Moscows east side due to frequent floods on the Neglinnaya River. First attempt to control the river, proposed in 1775 by Matvey Kazakov, materialized in 1792 Neglinnaya Canal, once the canal was completed, the old river bed was filled with earth. In 1817–1819, the channel was covered with vaults, locking the stream in an underground tunnel. This created Neglinnaya Street, the youngest street inside Boulevard Ring, the most recent flood, in 1973, led to complete rebuilding of the aging tunnel Another legacy of the Neglinnaya river survives in Central Baths and Sandunovsky Baths. The first public theater, Petrovsky Teatr, was set up in 1780 by English entrepreneur Michael Maddox and it burned down in October 1805 after 425 successful shows. In 1825, Joseph Bove built a new, larger Bolshoi Theatre on the same site, by this time, downtown stretch of the Neglinnaya River was contained in an underground tunnel, Peters bastions of Kitai-gorod were razed, forming the Theatre Square