Millstreet is a town in north County Cork, with a population of 1,555. The town is most famous for hosting Eurovision Song Contest 1993. Millstreet is within the Civil Parish of Drishane, within a Poor Law Union called Millstreet; the Millstreet Union encompasses the civil parishes of Kilcorney. The town is at the foot of Clara Mountain; the townlands within Millstreet Poor Law Union were part of the barony of West Muskerry. Aubane was a neighborhood of Millstreet Poor Law Union within the townlands of Tooreenbane and Tullig, is outside of the town proper. Despite its small population, Millstreet has hosted many major events. One of the largest equestrian centres in Ireland, the Green Glens Arena, is in Millstreet. Part of the centre is a facility for exhibitions; the town's Catholic church is dedicated to St. Patrick. Since 1985, the town has been twinned with Pommerit-le-Vicomte in France; the town is on the Mallow–Killarney–Tralee line of the Irish railway network. Millstreet railway station opened in 1853 and closed for goods traffic in 1976, although it remains open for passenger train services.
Mark Ellis, Irish hurler Joanne O'Riordan Millstreet Town Website Aubane Historical Society
Eurovision Song Contest
The Eurovision Song Contest simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union. Each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio casts votes for the other countries' songs to determine the winner. At least 50 countries are eligible to compete as of 2018, since 2015, Australia has been allowed as a guest entrant. Winning the Eurovision Song Contest provides a short-term career boost for artists, but results in long-term success. Exceptions include ABBA, Bucks Fizz, Celine Dion, all of whom launched successful careers. Based on the Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy since 1951, Eurovision has been broadcast every year since its inauguration in 1956, making it the longest-running annual international television contest and one of the world's longest-running television programmes, it is one of the most watched non-sporting events, with audience figures of between 100 million and 600 million internationally.
It has been broadcast in several countries that do not compete, such as the United States, New Zealand, China. Since 2000, it has been broadcast online via the Eurovision website. Ireland holds the record for most victories, with seven wins, including four times in five years in 1992, 1993, 1994, 1996. Under the current voting system, in place since 2016, the highest-scoring winner is Salvador Sobral of Portugal who won the 2017 contest in Kiev, with 758 points; as a war-torn Europe was rebuilding itself in the 1950s, the European Broadcasting Union —based in Switzerland—set up an ad hoc committee to search for ways of bringing together the countries of the EBU around a "light entertainment programme". At a committee meeting held in Monaco in January 1955 with Marcel Bezençon of the Swiss television as chairman, the committee conceived the idea of an international song contest where countries would participate in one television programme to be transmitted across all countries of the union; the competition was based upon the existing Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy and was seen as a technological experiment in live television.
In those days it was a ambitious project to join many countries together in a wide-area international network. Satellite television did not exist and the Eurovision Network comprised a terrestrial microwave network; the concept known as "Eurovision Grand Prix", was approved by the EBU General Assembly in a meeting held in Rome on 19 October 1955, it was decided that the first contest would take place in spring 1956 in Lugano, Switzerland. The name "Eurovision" was first used in relation to the EBU's network by British journalist George Campey in the London Evening Standard in 1951; the first contest was held in the town of Lugano, Switzerland, on 24 May 1956. Seven countries participated—each submitting two songs, for a total of 14; this was the only contest in which more than one song per country was performed: since 1957, all contests have allowed one entry per country. The 1956 contest was won by Switzerland; the programme was first known as the "Eurovision Grand Prix". This "Grand Prix" name was adopted by Germany, Denmark and the Francophone countries, with the French designation being Le Grand-Prix Eurovision de la Chanson Européenne.
The "Grand Prix" was dropped in 1973 and replaced with Concours in French and in 2001 with the English name in German, but not in Danish or Norwegian. The Eurovision network is used to carry many news and sports programmes internationally, among other specialised events organised by the EBU. However, in the minds of the public, the name "Eurovision" is most associated with the Song Contest; the format of the contest has changed over the years, though the basic tenets have always been thus: participant countries submit original songs, performed live on a television programme broadcast across the Eurovision Network by the EBU to all countries. A "country" as a participant is represented by one television broadcaster from that country: but not always, that country's national public broadcasting organisation; the programme is hosted by one of the participant countries, the programme is broadcast from the auditorium in the host city. During this programme, after all the songs have been performed, the countries proceed to cast votes for the other countries' songs: nations are not allowed to vote for their own song.
At the end of the programme, the song with the most points is declared as the winner. The winner receives the prestige of having won—although it is usual for a trophy to be awarded to the winning songwriters, the winning country is formally invited to host the event the following year; the programme is invariably opened by one or more presenters. Between the songs and the announcement of the voting, an interval act is performed; these acts can be any form of entertainment. Interval entertainment has included such acts as the Wombles and the first international performance of Riverdance; as national broadcasters join and leave the Eurovision feed transmitted by the EBU, the EBU/Eurovision network logo ident is displayed. The accompanying theme music is the prelude to Marc-Antoine Charpentier's Te Deum; the same logo was used for both
Radiotelevizija Slovenija – abbreviated to RTV Slovenija – is Slovenia's national public broadcasting organization. Based in the country's capital, Ljubljana, it has regional broadcasting centres in Koper and Maribor and correspondents around Slovenia and the world. RTV Slovenija's national radio services operate under the name Radio Slovenija, while the television division carries the name Televizija Slovenija or TV Slovenija; the names are sometimes Anglicized as TV Slovenia, respectively. There are three national and four regional radio services. RTV Slovenija finances the RTV Slovenia Symphony Orchestra and the RTV Slovenia Big Band; the legal foundation for the institution is the Radiotelevizija Slovenija Act. It is the only public nonprofit broadcasting organization in Slovenia to operate both radio and television stations; the law requires it to air radio and television services for the country's two indigenous linguistic minorities, which it does in collaboration with the regional broadcasting centres in Maribor and in Koper.
73% of RTV Slovenija's funding comes from television licence fees. Radio Ljubljana signed on the air for the first time on September 1, 1928, with experimental broadcasts. By October 28 the radio station had a scheduled programme. On April 11, 1941, the station's transmitter in Domžale was destroyed and the station was occupied by Italy. On April 1, 1949, the first TV laboratory was established in Ljubljana, but was separate from the radio station. However, the task of setting up a television service was assigned to Radio Ljubljana. Second radio program started in 1951. On November 11, 1958 the TV channel got a regular schedule, but it was shared by other Yugoslav republics, with TV Ljubljana getting around 30% of airtime. TV Ljubljana produced its first broadcast for Eurovision, showing ski jumping in Planica, in 1960; the color program broadcasting started in 1966. During that decade, the amount of programming produced for Slovenian audiences increased substantially. On April 15, 1968, the main evening newscast was broadcast in the Slovenian language for the first time.
It had originated in Belgrade and was produced in Serbo-Croatian. In 1970, the RTV Slovenia record label was established. In 1971, TV Koper/Capodistria, a subsidiary of RTV Ljubljana, was launched as the first bilingual TV station in Slovenia, serving the Italian community in Slovenia and Croatia. However, it enjoyed huge popularity in many parts of Italy. There, RAI still had a monopoly on television, so many Italians eagerly tuned into the new Yugoslav station, which broadcast in color. Private companies built transmitters and translators in various parts of Italy that made TV Koper-Capodistria available to millions of Italians; because the station used the PAL color standard, Italians bought PAL TV sets in large numbers, ending the hopes of the French government that Italy might adopt its SECAM system instead. With the advent of owned, purely commercial television in Italy, the station's popularity began to diminish. During the 1970s, TV Ljubljana's main service was gradually converted to color.
In 1984, teletext was introduced, whereas the digitalization started in 1986. In 1989, Radio Ljubljana started transmitting an RDS signal. At first, TV Ljubljana's second television network relayed programs from other Yugoslav television stations. In the late 1980s, the percentage of TV Ljubljana's own programs on the second network increased dramatically. A year before Slovenia's independence in 1991, the institution was renamed to Radiotelevizija Slovenija. On January 1, 1993, RTV Slovenija was admitted as a full active member of the European Broadcasting Union following the collapse of Yugoslavia, began participation in the Eurovision Song Contest. In the mid- to late 1990s, TV Slovenia began to face increased competition from Slovenia's commercial television stations. In 1995, RTV Slovenija published its first web page. Radio digitalization started in 1995, whereas the digitalization of television broadcasting started in 1999. In 1997, satellite broadcasting started via Hot Bird 3. In 2001, RTV Slovenija's Multimedia Centre was established to help introduce new technologies.
A new multimedia web portal was introduced in 2002. This portal includes regular news updates, broadcast archives, the live transmission on line of most services, both radio and television. RSS feeds were introduced in 2005; the public broadcaster referendum, 2005 was approved by a slight majority of voters, but the referendum saw a low turnout. On November 12, 2005 a law was passed stating that Radio-television Slovenia is "a public institution of special cultural and national importance..."In May 2008 TV Slovenia began airing a new TV channel, TV Slovenija 3, dedicated to live Parliament coverage. In August 2008 TV Slovenia broadcast their first HD event – Olympic Games 2008 on test DVB-T channel; the Slovenian public broadcaster law referendum, 2010 was rejected by voters. In 2011, analogue signal was abandoned; the 1994 Law on RTV Slovenia regulates public broadcasting. RTV Slovenia has a Supervisory Board; the law requires the public broadcaster to provide radio and TV pr
Hungary in the Eurovision Song Contest
Hungary has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 16 times since making its debut in 1994. Hungary attempted to participate in 1993 but failed to qualify from a special qualifying competition set up for seven former eastern bloc countries. Hungary's first contest in 1994 remains its most successful, with Friderika Bayer finishing in fourth place; the country's only other top five result is András Kállay-Saunders' fifth-place in 2014. Their other top ten results are Magdi Rúzsa finishing ninth in 2007, ByeAlex tenth in 2013, Joci Pápai eighth in 2017, giving Hungary a total of five top ten placements; the country's first entry would have been Andrea Szulák's in 1993 but a qualification round was installed just for former Eastern Bloc countries and she did not manage to qualify to the Grand Final. The first real participation was of Friderika Bayer in 1994. After three rounds of voting the Hungarian entry had taken the top marks each time and was in contention to win. However, as the competition progressed it attracted fewer votes, though it still ended up in a credible fourth place.
This made Hungary the only debuting nation to lead the voting. The 1995 entry was not as successful. In 1996 Hungary suffered another qualification lost when Gjon Delhusa's song didn't make it through the pre-qualification round. Hungary began a hiatus from the competition after the 1998 contest, returning in 2005 when they reached a 12th place in the final with NOX. Hungary however announced not to participate again in 2006, although it returned to the contest in 2007 with Magdi Rúzsa, the winner of the 3rd season of the Hungarian talent show Megasztár, she came 9th in Helsinki with her song "Unsubstantial Blues", the first Hungarian entry in English, receiving 128 points in the final. After coming last in the semi-final in the 2008 contest, Magyar Televízió, the Hungarian broadcaster, confirmed Hungary's participation at the 2009 contest in Russia. After MTV's original choice was revealed to have been released before 1 October 2008, breaking contest rules, it was decided that Zoltán Ádok would be Hungary's next Eurovision entrant, performing "Dance with Me", after MTV's second choice to represent Hungary declined.
Ádok finished 15th in the second semi-final, failing to qualify Hungary to the grand final for the second time. On 22 October 2009, MTV confirmed that they would withdraw from the 2010 Eurovision due to financial limitations in the company which prevent them from sending a Hungarian entry to the contest in Bærum, Norway. Duna TV broadcast the event live in 2010 and applied for EBU membership to send a representative to Germany in 2011, however during the EBU's 65th conference they rejected Duna TV's bid to become an active member. On 27 December 2010, it was confirmed. On 22 May 2011, MTV confirmed their 2012 participation. In 2013, Hungary made it to the Top 10, when ByeAlex reached the 10th place with "Kedvesem", they achieved more success in 2014, when András Kállay-Saunders reached the 5th place with his song "Running", achieving the best result Hungary has had since their first participation in 1994. Hungary made it to the top ten once again in 2017, when Joci Pápai reached the 8th place with "Origo", achieving their best result in three years.
Table key NOTES: a. ^ Hungary attempted to qualify in 1993 when there was a pre-qualifying round for seven countries hoping to make their debut in the contest and in 1996 when there was an audio-only pre-qualifier for all countries. Hungary is one of only two countries to have unsuccessfully attempted to participate in both 1993 and 1996; the official Eurovision site does not count either year in Hungary's list of appearances. As of 2018, Hungary's voting history is as follows: Composer Award All conductors are Hungarian except with a flag. Petar Ugrin Péter Wolf Miklós Malek Points to and from Hungary eurovisioncovers.co.uk
Romania in the Eurovision Song Contest
Romania has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 19 times after making its debut in the 1994 contest and has since placed six times within the top ten. Its best results were achieved by Luminița Anghel and Sistem in 2005, Paula Seling and Ovi in 2010, with both finishing third; the Selecția Națională, a song contest which takes place every year in Romania, is used to select the country's entrant for the Eurovision Song Contest. Its voting system and format have changed over the years; the year before its first appearance, Romania attempted to debut in the contest, but came last in the pre-qualifying round. After joining the next year, poor placements followed until 2002, resulting in several relegations; this changed with the introduction of semi-finals to the contest in 2004, after which Romania only failed to qualify for the Grand Final in 2018. In 2016, the European Broadcasting Union suspended broadcaster Televiziunea Română from all EBU member services due to repeated non-payment of debts, which in turn disqualified its entry from participating in the contest.
Romania's most recent Grand Final appearance in 2017 saw Alex Florea reach seventh place. Romania unsuccessfully attempted to debut in the 1993 contest, selecting Dida Drăgan and her song "Nu pleca" for the pre-qualifying round Kvalifikacija za Millstreet; the country's first official participation occurred one year when Dan Bittman's "Dincolo de nori" placed 21st in the contest's Grand Final, resulting in Romania's relegation for the next edition. The following years saw further relegations. In 2002 and 2003, Monica Anghel and Marcel Pavel, Nicola scored Romania's first top ten results, placing ninth and tenth, respectively; the country placed within the top 20 every year from 2004 to 2015. In 2005 and 2006, they claimed third and fourth position with Luminița Anghel and Sistem, Mihai Trăistariu, respectively; the third place finish remains Romania's best result in the contest alongside Paula Seling and Ovi's 2010 entry "Playing with Fire". The country returned to the top ten in 2017 when represented by Ilinca and Alex Florea, who reached seventh place.
Romania has participated in the contest 19 times, having qualified for the final every year since the introduction of the semi-finals in 2004 except for 2018. In 2016 the European Broadcasting Union suspended broadcaster Televiziunea Română from all EBU member services due to the repeated non-payment of debts and the threat of insolvency; this in turn disqualified their 2016 entry, "Moment of Silence" sung by Ovidiu Anton from participating in the contest. In 2008, Nico and Vlad won Romania's first and only Marcel Bezençon award for "Pe-o margine de lume", in the Composer Award category; the Selecția Națională is a song contest which takes place every year in Romania, selecting the Romanian entrant for the Eurovision Song Contest. Its first edition was held in 1993, with the winner chosen by 1100 households in Romania and Moldova. In 1994 and 1996, regional jury panels were introduced. Televoting data was added to their scores in 1998. In 2000, Romania's entrant was selected by televoting. From 2001 to 2015, the votes of a jury panel and televoting were used to determine the winner, while from 2016 to 2018, the public could choose from songs selected by the jury.
In 2019, for the first time, a seven-piece international jury was assembled for the final, with the audience's votes counting as one juror. The format of Selecția Națională has continuously changed throughout the years, with the winner being selected during one single show, or through multiple semi-finals; the following lists Romania's entries for the Eurovision Song Contest along with their result. Romania unsuccessfully attempted to participate in 1993 when there was a pre-qualifying round for seven countries hoping to make their debut in the contest, as well as in 1996 when there was an audio-only pre-qualifier for all countries excluding hosts Norway; the official Eurovision site does not count either year in Romania's list of appearances. The country did not take part in the contest in 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2001. Romania intended to enter in 2016, however due to the non-payment of debts, TVR was disqualified by the EBU from competing at the Eurovision Song Contest. Table key Romania in the Eurovision Young Dancers Romania in the Eurovision Young Musicians Romania in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest Romania in the Bala Türkvizyon Song Contest Romania in the Türkvizyon Song Contest