Susanoo known as Takehaya Susanoo no Mikoto and Kumano Ketsumiko no Kami at Kumano shrine, is the Shinto god of the sea and storms. He is considered to be ruler of Neno-Katasu-Kuni, he is married to Kushinadahime. In Japanese mythology, the powerful storm god, is the brother of Amaterasu, the goddess of the Sun, of Tsukuyomi, the god of the Moon. All three were born from Izanagi, when he washed his face clean of the pollutants of Yomi, the underworld. Amaterasu was born when Izanagi washed out his left eye, Tsukuyomi was born from the washing of the right eye, Susanoo from the washing of the nose. Susanoo used Totsuka-no-Tsurugi as his weapon; the oldest sources for Susanoo myths are ca. 720 CE Nihon Shoki. They tell of a long-standing rivalry between his sister; when he was to leave Heaven by orders of Izanagi, he went to bid his sister goodbye. Amaterasu was suspicious, but when Susanoo proposed a challenge to prove his sincerity, she accepted; each of them took an object of the other from it birthed gods and goddesses.
Amaterasu birthed three women from Susanoo's Totsuka-no-Tsurugi while he birthed five men from her necklace. Claiming the gods were hers because they were born of her necklace, the goddesses were his, she decided that she had won the challenge, as his item produced women; the two were content for a time. In a fit of rage, he destroyed his sister's rice fields, hurled a flayed pony at her loom, killed one of her attendants. Amaterasu, in fury and grief, hid inside the Ama-no-Iwato, thus hiding the sun for a long period of time. Though she was persuaded to leave the cave, Susano-o was punished by being banished from Heaven, he descended to the province of Izumo, where he met an elderly couple who told him that seven of their eight daughters had been devoured by the eight-headed dragon Yamata no Orochi and it was nearing time for their eighth, Kushinada-hime. The Nihon Shoki, here translated by William George Aston in Nihongi, gives the most detailed account of Susanoo and Amaterasu slaying Yamata no Orochi.
Compare to that found in the Kojiki, translated by Basil Hall Chamberlain in The Kojiki, where Susanoo is translated as "His-Swift-Impetuous-Male-Augustness": Then Susanoo no Mikoto descended from Heaven and proceeded to the head-waters of the River Hi, in the province of Idzumo. At this time he heard a sound of weeping at the head-waters of the river, he went in search of the sound, he found there an old woman. Between them was set a young girl, whom they were caressing and lamenting over. Susanoo no Mikoto asked them, saying:-"Who are ye, why do ye lament thus?" The answer was:-"I am an Earthly Deity, my name is Ashi-nadzuchi. My wife's name is Te-nadzuchi; this girl is our daughter, her name is Kushi-nada-hime. The reason of our weeping is that we had eight children, daughters, but they have been devoured year after year by an eight-forked serpent and now the time approaches for this girl to be devoured. There is no means of escape for her, therefore do we grieve.” Sosa no wo no Mikoto said: "If, so, wilt thou give me thy daughter?"
He replied, said: "I will comply with thy behest and give her to thee." Therefore Sosa no wo no Mikoto on the spot changed Kushi-nada-hime into a many-toothed close-comb which he stuck in the august knot of his hair. He made Ashi-nadzuchi and Te-nadzuchi to brew eight-fold sake, to make eight cupboards, in each of them to set a tub filled with sake, so to await its coming; when the time came, the serpent appeared. It had an eight-forked tail; as it crawled it extended over a space of eight valleys. Now when it came and found the sake, each head drank up one tub, it became drunken and fell asleep. Susanoo no Mikoto drew the ten-span sword which he wore, chopped the serpent into small pieces; when he came to the tail, the edge of his sword was notched, he therefore split open the tail and examined it. In the inside there was a sword; this is the sword, called Kusa-nagi no tsurugi. This sword from the dragon's tail, the Ama-no-Murakumo-no-Tsurugi or the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi, was presented by Susanoo to Amaterasu as a reconciliation gift.
According to legends, she bequeathed it to her descendant Ninigi along with the Yata no Kagami mirror and Yasakani no Magatama jewel or orb. This sacred sword and jewel collectively became the three Imperial Regalia of Japan. While Amaterasu is enshrined at the Honden of the Ise Grand Shrine, Susanoo is enshrined at Kumano Taisha located in Shimane, where he descended when banished from heaven; the iwami kagura - Orochi The jōruri - Nihon Furisode Hajime by Chikamatsu Monzaemon Aston, William George, tr. 1896. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. 2 vols. Kegan Paul. 1972 Tuttle reprint. Chamberlain, Basil H. tr. 1919. The Kojiki, Records of Ancient Matters. 1981 Tuttle reprint. Susanoo, Encyclopedia of Shinto Susano-O no Mikoto, Kimberley Winkelmann, in the Internet Archive as of 5 December 2008 Shinto Creation Stories: Sosa no wo in Izumo, Richard Hooker, in the Internet Archive as of 28 August 2006 Susanoo vs Yamata no Orochi animated depiction
In Japanese folklore, Ryūgū-jō is the undersea palace of Ryūjin, the dragon kami of the sea. Depending on the version of the legend, it is built from solid crystal; the inhabitants of the palace were Ryūjin's servants, who were denizens of the sea. In some legends, on each of the four sides of the palace it is a different season, one day in the palace is equal to a century outside its boundaries; the most famous legend about the palace concerns Urashima Tarō's visit to Ryūgū-jō for three days. Katase-Enoshima Station in Fujisawa, Kanagawa Prefecture, is designed to evoke the feeling of Ryūgū-jō. In the Ryukyuan religion, Ryūgū-jō is the source of fire for all village hearths; the Sea King and Vasilisa the Wise Eglė the Queen of Serpents
Tengu are a type of legendary creature found in Japanese folk religion and are considered a type of Shinto god or yōkai. Although they take their name from a dog-like Chinese demon, the tengu were thought to take the forms of birds of prey, they are traditionally depicted with both human and avian characteristics; the earliest tengu were pictured with beaks, but this feature has been humanized as an unnaturally long nose, which today is considered the tengu's defining characteristic in the popular imagination. Buddhism long held that the tengu were disruptive harbingers of war, their image softened, into one of protective, if still dangerous, spirits of the mountains and forests. Tengu are associated with the ascetic practice of Shugendō, they are depicted in the garb of its followers, the yamabushi; the tengu in art appears in a variety of shapes. It falls somewhere between a large, monstrous bird and a wholly anthropomorphized being with a red face or an unusually large or long nose. Early depictions of tengu show them as kite-like beings who can take a human-like form retaining avian wings, head or beak.
The tengu's long nose seems to have been conceived in the 14th century as a humanization of the original bird's bill. This feature allies them with the Shinto deity Sarutahiko, described in the Japanese historical text the Nihon Shoki with a similar nose measuring seven hand-spans in length. In village festivals, the two figures are portrayed with identical red, phallic-nosed mask designs; some of the earliest representations of tengu appear in Japanese picture scrolls, such as the Tenguzōshi Emaki, painted c. 1296, which parodies high-ranking priests by endowing them the hawk-like beaks of tengu demons. Tengu are pictured as taking the shape of some sort of priest. Beginning in the 13th century, tengu came to be associated in particular with the yamabushi, the mountain ascetics who practice Shugendō; the association soon found its way into Japanese art, where tengu are most depicted in the yamabushi's distinctive costume, which includes a tokin and a pom-pommed sash. Due to their priestly aesthetic, they are shown wielding the Shakujo, a distinct staff used by Buddhist monks.
Tengu are depicted holding a magical ha-uchiwa, fans made of feathers. In folk tales, these fans sometimes have the ability to grow or shrink a person's nose, but they are attributed the power to stir up great winds. Various other strange accessories may be associated with tengu, such as a type of tall, one-toothed geta sandal called tengu-geta; the term tengu and the characters used to write it are borrowed from the name of a fierce demon from Chinese folklore called tiāngoǔ. Chinese literature assigns this creature a variety of descriptions, but most it is a fierce and anthropophagous canine monster that resembles a shooting star or comet, it brings war wherever it falls. One account from the Shù Yì Jì, written in 1791, describes a dog-like tiāngoǔ with a sharp beak and an upright posture, but tiāngoǔ bear little resemblance to their Japanese counterparts; the 23rd chapter of the Nihon Shoki, written in 720, is held to contain the first recorded mention of tengu in Japan. In this account a large shooting star appears and is identified by a Buddhist priest as a "heavenly dog", much like the tiāngoǔ of China, the star precedes a military uprising.
Although the Chinese characters for tengu are used in the text, accompanying phonetic furigana characters give the reading as amatsukitsune. M. W. de Visser speculated that the early Japanese tengu may represent a conglomeration of two Chinese spirits: the tiāngoǔ and the fox spirits called huli jing. How the tengu was transformed from a dog-meteor into a bird-man is not clear; some Japanese scholars have supported the theory that the tengu's image derives from that of the Hindu eagle deity Garuda, pluralized in Buddhist scripture as one of the major races of non-human beings. Like the tengu, the garuda are portrayed in a human-like form with wings and a bird's beak; the name tengu seems to be written in place of that of the garuda in a Japanese sutra called the Emmyō Jizō-kyō, but this was written in the Edo period, long after the tengu's image was established. At least one early story in the Konjaku Monogatari describes a tengu carrying off a dragon, reminiscent of the garuda's feud with the nāga serpents.
In other respects, the tengu's original behavior differs markedly from that of the garuda, friendly towards Buddhism. De Visser has speculated that the tengu may be descended from an ancient Shinto bird-demon, syncretized with both the garuda and the tiāngoǔ when Buddhism arrived in Japan. However, he found little evidence to support this idea. A version of the Kujiki, an ancient Japanese historical text, writes the name of Amanozako, a monstrous female deity born from the god Susanoo's spat-out ferocity, with characters meaning tengu deity; the book describes Amanozako as a raging creature capable of flight, with the body of a human, the head of a beast, a long nose, long ears, long teeth that can chew through swords. An 18th-century book called the Tengu Meigikō suggests that this goddess may be the true predecessor of the tengu, but the date and authenticity of the Kujiki, of that edition in particular, remain disputed; the Konjaku Monogatarishū, a collection of stories published in the late Heian period, contains some of the earliest tales of tengu characterized as t
Ame-no-Uzume-no-mikoto is the goddess of dawn and revelry in the Shinto religion of Japan, the wife of fellow-god Sarutahiko Ōkami. She famously relates to the tale of Amaterasu Omikami, her name can be pronounced as Ama-no-Uzume. She is known as Ōmiyanome-no-ōkami, an inari kami due to her relationship with her husband. Amaterasu's brother, the storm god Susano'o, had vandalized her rice fields, threw a flayed horse at her loom, brutally killed one of her maidens due to a quarrel between them. In turn, Amaterasu retreated into the Heavenly Rock Cave, Amano-Iwato; the world, without the illumination of the sun, became dark and the gods could not lure Amaterasu out of her hiding place. The clever Uzume overturned a tub near the cave entrance and began a dance on it, tearing off her clothing in front of the other deities, they considered this so comical. This dance is said to have founded Kagura. Uzume had hung a beautiful jewel of polished jade. Amaterasu heard them, peered out to see what all the fuss was about.
When she opened the cave, she saw the jewel and her glorious reflection in a mirror which Uzume had placed on a tree, came out from her clever hiding spot. At that moment, the god Ame-no-Tajikarawo-no-mikoto dashed forth and closed the cave behind her, refusing to budge so that she could no longer retreat. Another god tied a magic shimenawa across the entrance; the deities Ame-no-Koyane-no-mikoto and Ame-no-Futodama-no-mikoto asked Amaterasu to rejoin the divine. She agreed, light was restored to the earth. Ame-no-Uzume-no-Mikoto is still worshiped today as a Shinto kami, spirits indigenous to Japan, she is known as Ame-no-Uzume-no-Mikoto, The Great Persuader, The Heavenly Alarming Female. She is depicted in kyōgen farce as a woman who revels in her sensuality. According to Michael Witzel, Uzume is most related to the Vedic goddess Ushas, a descendant of the Proto-Indo-European goddess Hausos. Both goddesses share many similarities such as the cave and the exposure of breasts as a sign of friendship.
Witzel proposed that the Japanese and Vedic religions are much more related compared to other mythologies under what he calls Laurasian mythology, that the two myths may go back to the Indo-Iranian period, around 2000 BCE. Music, Ame-no-Uzume op. 4 composed by Hiroaki Zakōji In Lewis Libby’s The Apprentice, Ame-no-Uzume-no-Mikoto is praised at the novel’s climax as “the goddess who brought laughter to the heavens and coaxed the sun from its cave”, while mocked by the novel’s narrator as a “false goddess” who merits her ceremonial murder at the novel’s climax by a figure leaping from the back of the stage. After her death, various successors take up her powers, regaining control of the novel’s youthful protagonist. Ame-no-Uzume appears in the second season of American Gods, played by actress Uni Park. Littleton, C. Scott. Mythology: The Illustrated Anthology of World Myth and Storytelling. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. Pp. 464–467. A substantial article on this subject Amaterasu and Uzume, Goddesses of Japan, at Goddess Gift A one-paragraph glossary entry in Italian
A ghost story may be any piece of fiction, or drama, that includes a ghost, or takes as a premise the possibility of ghosts or characters' belief in them. The "ghost" may be summoned by magic. Linked to the ghost is the idea of "hauntings", where a supernatural entity is tied to a place, object or person. Ghost stories are examples of ghostlore. Colloquially, the term "ghost story" can refer to any kind of scary story. In a narrower sense, the ghost story has been developed as a short story format, within genre fiction, it is a form of supernatural fiction and of weird fiction, is a horror story. While ghost stories are explicitly meant to be scary, they have been written to serve all sorts of purposes, from comedy to morality tales. Ghosts appear in the narrative as sentinels or prophets of things to come. Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form. A widespread belief concerning ghosts is that they are composed of a misty, airy, or subtle material.
Anthropologists link this idea to early beliefs that ghosts were the person within the person, most noticeable in ancient cultures as a person's breath, which upon exhaling in colder climates appears visibly as a white mist. Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form; the campfire story, a form of oral storytelling involves recounting ghost stories, or other scary stories. Some of the stories are decades old, with varying versions across multiple cultures. Many schools and educational institutions encourage ghost storytelling as part of literature. In 1929, five key features of the English ghost story were identified in "Some Remarks on Ghost Stories" by M. R. James; as summarized by Frank Coffman for a course in popular imaginative literature, they were: The pretense of truth "A pleasing terror" No gratuitous bloodshed or sex No "explanation of the machinery" Setting: "those of the writer's own day"The introduction of pulp magazines in the early 1900s created new avenues for ghost stories to be published, they began to appear in publications such as Good Housekeeping and The New Yorker.
Ghosts in the classical world appeared in the form of vapor or smoke, but at other times they were described as being substantial, appearing as they had been at the time of death, complete with the wounds that killed them. Spirits of the dead appear in literature as early as Homer's Odyssey, which features a journey to the underworld and the hero encountering the ghosts of the dead, as well as the Old Testament in which the Witch of Endor calls the spirit of the prophet Samuel; the play Mostellaria, by the Roman playwright Plautus, is the earliest known work to feature a haunted dwelling, is sometimes translated as The Haunted House. Another early account of a haunted place comes from an account by Pliny the Younger. Pliny describes the haunting of a house in Athens by a ghost bound in chains, an archetype that would become familiar in literature. Ghosts appeared in the tragedies of the Roman writer Seneca, who would influence the revival of tragedy on the Renaissance stage Thomas Kyd and Shakespeare.
The One Thousand and One Nights, sometimes known as Arabian Nights, contains a number of ghost stories involving jinn and corpses. In particular, the tale of "Ali the Cairene and the Haunted House in Baghdad" revolves around a house haunted by jinns. Other medieval Arabic literature, such as the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity contain ghost stories; the 11th century Japanese work The Tale of Genji contains ghost stories, includes characters being possessed by spirits. In the mid-16th century, the works of Seneca were rediscovered by Italian humanists, they became the models for the revival of tragedy. Seneca's influence is evident in Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy and Shakespeare's Hamlet, both of which share a revenge theme, a corpse-strewn climax, ghosts among the cast; the ghosts in Richard III resemble the Senecan model, while the ghost in Hamlet plays a more complex role. The shade of Hamlet's murdered father in Hamlet has become one of the more recognizable ghosts in English literature.
In another of Shakespeare’s works, the murdered Banquo returns as a ghost to the dismay of the title character. In English Renaissance theatre, ghosts were depicted in the garb of the living and in armour. Armour, being out-of-date by the time of the Renaissance, gave the stage ghost a sense of antiquity; the sheeted ghost began to gain ground on stage in the 1800s because an armoured ghost had to be moved about by complicated pulley systems or lifts, became clichéd stage elements and objects of ridicule. Ann Jones and Peter Stallybrass, in Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory, point out, "In fact, it is as laughter threatens the Ghost that he starts to be staged not in armor but in some form of'spirit drapery'." An interesting observation by Jones and Stallybrass is that "at the historical point at which ghosts themselves become implausible, at least to an educated elite, to believe in them at all it seems to be necessary to assert their immateriality, their invisibility. The drapery of ghosts must now, indeed, be as spiritual as the ghosts themselves.
This is a striking departure both from the ghosts of the Renaissance stage and from the Greek and Roman theatrical ghosts upon which that stage drew. The most prominent feature of Renaissance ghosts is their gross materiality, they appear to us conspicuously clothed." Ghosts figured prominently in traditional
Yūrei are figures in Japanese folklore, analogous to Western legends of ghosts. The name consists of two kanji, 幽, meaning "faint" or "dim" and 霊, meaning "soul" or "spirit". Alternative names include 亡霊, meaning ruined or departed spirit, 死霊 meaning dead spirit, or the more encompassing 妖怪 or お化け. Like their Chinese and Western counterparts, they are thought to be spirits kept from a peaceful afterlife. According to traditional Japanese beliefs, all humans have a spirit or soul called a 霊魂; when a person dies, the reikon leaves the body and enters a form of purgatory, where it waits for the proper funeral and post-funeral rites to be performed so that it may join its ancestors. If this is done the Reikon is believed to be a protector of the living family and to return yearly in August during the Obon Festival to receive thanks. However, if the person dies in a sudden or violent manner such as murder or suicide, if the proper rites have not been performed, or if they are influenced by powerful emotions such as a desire for revenge, jealousy, hatred or sorrow, the Reikon is thought to transform into a Yūrei, which can bridge the gap back to the physical world.
The emotion or thought need not be strong or driving, innocuous thoughts can cause a death to become disturbed. Once a thought enters the mind of a dying person, their Yūrei will come back to complete the action last thought of before returning to the cycle of reincarnation; the Yūrei exists on Earth until it can be laid to rest, either by performing the missing rituals, or resolving the emotional conflict that still ties it to the physical plane. If the rituals are not completed or the conflict left unresolved, the yūrei will persist in its haunting. Oftentimes the lower the social rank of the person who died violently or, treated harshly during life, the more powerful as a yūrei they would return; this is illustrated in the fate of Oiwa in the story Yotsuya Kaidan, or the servant Okiku in Banchō Sarayashiki. In the late 17th century, a game called Hyakumonogatari Kaidankai became popular, kaidan became a subject for theater and other arts. Ukiyo-e artist Maruyama Ōkyo created the first known example of the now-traditional Yūrei, in his painting The Ghost of Oyuki.
The Zenshō-an in Tokyo houses the largest single collection of Yūrei paintings which are only shown in August, the traditional month of the spirits. Today, the appearance of Yūrei is somewhat uniform signalling the ghostly nature of the figure, assuring that it is culturally authentic. White clothing: Yūrei are dressed in white, signifying the white burial kimono used in Edo period funeral rituals. In Shinto, white is a color of ritual purity, traditionally reserved for the dead; this kimono can either be a kyokatabira. They sometimes have a hitaikakushi, a small white triangular piece of cloth tied around the head. Black hair: The hair of a yūrei is long and disheveled, which some believe to be a trademark carried over from kabuki theater, where wigs are used for all actors; this is a misconception: Japanese women traditionally grew their hair long and wore it pinned up, it was let down for the funeral and burial. Hands and feet: A Yūrei's hands dangle lifelessly from the wrists, which are held outstretched with the elbows near the body.
They lack legs and feet, floating in the air. These features originated in Edo period ukiyo-e prints, were copied over to kabuki. In kabuki, this lack of legs and feet is represented by using a long kimono or hoisting the actor into the air by a series of ropes and pulleys. Hitodama: Yūrei are depicted as being accompanied by a pair of floating flames or will o' the wisps in eerie colors such as blue, green, or purple; these ghostly flames are separate parts of the ghost rather than independent spirits. While all Japanese ghosts are called Yūrei, within that category there are several specific types of phantom, classified by the manner they died or their reason for returning to Earth: Onryō: Vengeful ghosts who come back from purgatory for a wrong done to them during their lifetime. Ubume: A mother ghost who died in childbirth, or died leaving young children behind; this Yūrei returns to care for her children bringing them sweets. Goryō: Vengeful ghosts of the aristocratic class those who were martyred.
Funayūrei: The ghosts of those who died at sea. These ghosts are sometimes depicted as scaly fish-like humanoids and some may have a form similar to that of a mermaid or merman. Zashiki-warashi: The ghosts of children. Floating spirits: These spirits do not seek to fulfill an exact purpose and wanders around aimlessly. In ancient times, the disease of the Emperor of Japan was thought to arise as a result of these spirits floating in the air. Earth-bound spirits: Similar to a Fuyūrei and is rare, these spirits do not seek to fulfill an exact purpose and are instead bound to a specific place or situation. Famous examples of this include the famous story of Okiku at the well of Himeji Castle, the haunting in Ju-On: The Grudge. There are two types of ghosts specific to Buddhism, both being examples of unfulfilled earthly hungers being carried on after death, they are different from other classifications of Yūrei due to their religious nature: Gaki Jikininki In Japanese folklore, not only the dead are able to manifest their reikon for a haunting.
Living creatures possessed by extraordinary jealousy or rage can release their spirit
Fudoki are ancient reports on provincial culture and oral tradition presented to the reigning monarchs of Japan known as local gazetteers. They contain agricultural and historical records as well as mythology and folklore. Fudoki manuscripts document local myths and poems that are not mentioned in the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki chronicles, which are the most important literature of the ancient national mythology and history. In the course of national unification, the imperial court enacted a series of criminal and administrative codes called ritsuryō and surveyed the provinces established by such codes to exert greater control over them. In the narrower sense, Fudoki refer to the oldest records written in the Nara period called Kofudoki. Compilation of Kofudoki was completed over a 20-year period. Following the Taika Reform in 646 and the Code of Taihō enacted in 701, there was need to centralize and solidify the power of the imperial court; this included accounting for lands under its control.
According to the Shoku Nihongi, Empress Genmei issued a decree in 713 ordering each provincial government to collect and report the following information: Names of districts and townships Natural resources and living things Land fertility Etymology of names for geographic features, such as mountains and rivers Myths and folktales told orally by old people Empress Genmei ordered in 713 that place names in the provinces and townships should be written in two kanji characters with positive connotations. This required name changes. For example, Hayatsuhime became Ishinashi no Oki became Ishii. At least 48 of the Gokishichidō provinces contributed to their records but only that of Izumo remains nearly complete. Partial records of Hizen, Bungo and Hitachi remain and a few passages from various volumes remain scattered throughout various books; those of Harima and Hizen are designated National Treasures. Below is a list of scattered passages. In 1966 the Agency for Cultural Affairs called on the prefectural governments to build open-air museums and parks called Fudoki no Oka near historic sites such as tombs and provincial temples.
These archaeological museums preserve and exhibit cultural properties to enhance public understanding of provincial history and culture. Japanese Historical Text Initiative Akimoto, Kichirō. Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 2: Fudoki. Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 4-00-060002-8. Sakamoto, Masaru. Zusetsu Chizu to Arasuji de Wakaru! Fudoki. Seishun Publishing. ISBN 978-4-413-04301-4. Kojima, Noriyuki. Nihon no Koten wo Yomu 3 Nihon Shoki Ge • Fudoki. Shogakukan. ISBN 978-4-09-362173-1. 風土記 texts of the remaining Fudoki & scattered passages in other books. Manuscript scans at Waseda University Library: Hizen, 1800,Bungo, 1800, unknown Tsukamoto, Tetsuzō. Kojiki, Fudoki. Yūhōdō Shoten. Pp. 383–586. Scan at the Internet Archive. 風土記 国土としての始原史～風土記逸文