Oraibi referred to as Old Oraibi, is a Hopi village in Navajo County, United States, in the northeastern part of the state. Known as Orayvi by the native inhabitants, it is located on Third Mesa on the Hopi Reservation near Kykotsmovi Village. There are no accurate census estimates for the village population. Oraibi was founded sometime before the year 1100 CE, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited settlements within the United States. Archeologists speculate that a series of severe droughts in the late 13th century forced the Hopi to abandon several smaller villages in the region and consolidate within a few population centers; as Oraibi was one of these surviving settlements its population grew and became populous and the most influential of the Hopi settlements. By 1890 the village was estimated to have a population of 905 half of the 1,824 estimated to be living in all of the Hopi settlements at the time. Oraibi remained unknown to European explorers until about 1540 when Spanish explorer Pedro de Tovar encountered the Hopi while searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold.
Contact with the Europeans remained scant until 1629 when the San Francisco mission was established in the village. In 1680 the Pueblo Revolt resulted in decreased Spanish influence in the area and the cessation of the mission. Subsequent attempts to reestablish the missions in Hopi villages were met with repeated failures; the former mission is still visible today as a ruin. Hopi interaction with outsiders increased during the 1850–1860 time period through missionaries and surveyors for the US government. Contact remained sporadic and informal until 1870 when an Indian agent was appointed to the Hopi, followed by the establishment of the Hopi Indian Agency in Keams Canyon in 1874. Interaction with the US government increased with the establishment of the Hopi reservation in 1882; this led to a number of changes for the Hopi way of life. Missionary efforts intensified and Hopi children were kidnapped from their homes and forced to attend school, exposing them to new cultural influences. In 1890 a number of residents more receptive to the cultural influences moved closer to the trading post to establish Kykotsmovi Village, sometimes called New Oraibi.
The continuing tension caused by the ideological schism between the "friendlies", those who were open to these cultural influences, the "hostiles" who opposed them led to an event called the Oraibi Split in 1906. Tribal leaders on differing sides of the schism engaged in a bloodless competition to determine the outcome, which resulted in the expulsion of the hostiles, who left to found the village of Hotevilla. Subsequent efforts by the displaced residents to reintegrate resulted in an additional split, with the second group founding Bacavi. With the loss of much of its population Oraibi lost its place as the center of Hopi culture. Although the Hopi tribal constitution, maneuvered into being by the Coal Mining Interests in 1939, provides each village with a seat on the tribal council, where most of the traditional Hopi settled, has declined to elect a representative and maintains independence from the tribal council. Kykotsmovi Village is now the seat of the Hopi tribal government. In spite of the "friendly" outcome of the Oraibi Split, Old Oraibi has since maintained a more traditional Hopi way of life and has resisted the adoption of the more modern culture visible in Kykotsmovi.
While visitors to the pueblo are welcomed, the residents tend to be private and do not allow photographs to be taken in the town, thus there are no known reliable photographs of the settlement as it exists in the modern day. Old Oraibi is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1964. Oraibi features prominently in a famous writing by Aby Warburg, "Das Schlangenritual. Ein Reisebericht.", the transcript of a lecture given in Kreuzlingen, Switzerland in 1923. Warburg with the help of Henry Voth attended a ritual spring dance, he found in the symbolism of the Hopi a key to understanding similar symbols in other cultures. Warburg took several pictures of the Hopi ceremonies. Hopi life in Oraibi is described in Don C. Talayesva's autobiography, Sun chief, the autobiography of a Hopi Indian. Talayesva was born in Oraibi in 1890. Talayesva started working in 1938 with a Yale University anthropologist, Leo Simmons, who helped him write his autobiography.
Hopi educator and potter Polingaysi Qöyawayma related stories of growing up in Oraibi in her 1964 autobiography No Turning Back. The social anthropologist Sherry Ortner uses the phrase "Another pot from Old Oraibi" to characterize a style of exhaustive "thickness" in ethnographic writing which—hubristically, in her view—attempts a "holistic" comprehension of the culture under scrutiny. Thompson, Laura; the Hopi Way. New York: Russell & Russell. Pp. 12, 29, 30
Snowflake is a town in Navajo County, United States. It was founded in 1878 by Erastus William Jordan Flake, Mormon pioneers and colonizers, it has been noted on lists of unusual place names. According to 2012 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the town is 5,564. Snowflake is 25 miles south of Interstate 40 via Highway 77; the Apache Railway provides freight service. Snowflake is located at 34°31′20″N 110°05′29″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 30.9 square miles, of which, 30.8 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,460 people, 1,312 households, 1,070 families residing in the town; the population density was 144.8 people per square mile. There were 1,536 housing units at an average density of 49.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 87.24% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 6.93% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 3.00% from other races, 2.00% from two or more races.
8.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,312 households out of which 46.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.5% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.4% were non-families. 15.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.37 and the average family size was 3.81. In the town, the population was spread out with 37.9% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 21.8% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $37,439, the median income for a family was $42,500. Males had a median income of $30,517 versus $21,164 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,391. About 10.4% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.7% of those under age 18 and 14.1% of those age 65 or over.
The town and surrounding area have experienced steady growth to the east and south. An additional 9-holes were added to the 18-hole golf course where the Snowflake Arizona Temple was built by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 2002; the remoteness of Snowflake and the low level of pollution attracted many individuals suffering from multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome to the town. As of July 2016 there were 20 households who reports to be suffering from MCS. Silver Creek Performing Arts Association Thursday Night at the Park Ground Hog Breakfast Little Theater Easter Egg Hunt Fourth of July Celebrations Pioneer Days Celebration Silver Creek Symphony 12 Days of Christmas Snowflake is a part of the Snowflake Unified School District, consisting of Highland Primary School, Snowflake Intermediate School, Snowflake Junior High and Snowflake High School. Taylor Elementary School in the neighboring town of Taylor, Arizona is part of the Snowflake Unified school District. Northland Pioneer College's Silver Creek campus extension is located in Snowflake.
Snowflake experiences a four-season climate with a warm summer, mild autumn, mild to cold winter and cool, windy spring. Typical high temperatures hover around 90 °F during July and August and 30 to 55 °F in December/January; the logging crew involved in the Travis Walton abduction incident lived in this town, several events surrounding that incident happened here. These events were dramatized in the science fiction film Fire in the Sky. References to Snowflake are made in the 2001 murder mystery Brigham City, the 2004 war film Saints and Soldiers. A character named Jonah Flake appears in Armistead Maupin's Mary Ann in Autumn, a Tales of the City novel published in 2010. Jonah says he is a descendant of the Flake family that helped found the city; the 99 Percent Invisible podcast has an episode about the people in Snowflake with MCS. Jeff Flake, former United States Senator Marilyn Jarrett, Arizona businesswoman and politician, was born in Snowflake. Buzz Miller, was born in Snowflake. Jesse N. Smith, was a Mormon pioneer, church leader and colonizer of Snowflake.
The Jesse N. Smith House, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Travis Walton, abducted by aliens, is an author and was played by D. B. Sweeney in the 1993 film Fire In The Sky, lives in Snowflake; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Arizona Town website History of Snowflake, AZ Information on Judicial Services in Snowflake
Pinetop–Lakeside is a small town in Navajo County, United States. According to 2010 census, the population of the town is 4,282, it was founded in 1984 when the neighboring towns of Lakeside merged. Pinetop–Lakeside is a popular summer resort and second-home area for Arizona desert residents. In 2002, a large forest fire, the Rodeo-Chediski fire, forced an evacuation; the town is near extensive forests, in normal times is a popular recreational area. Pinetop-Lakeside is located at 34°8′31″N 109°57′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 11.3 square miles, of which, 11.3 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Pinetop-Lakeside has a Mediterranean dry-summer subtropical climate abbreviated with Csa; the average temperature year round is 51.9 °F. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,582 people, 1,436 households, 1,020 families residing in the town; the population density was 318.1 people per square mile.
There were 2,750 housing units at an average density of 244.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 89.17% White, 1.03% Black or African American, 2.29% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.61% from other races, 2.54% from two or more races. 11.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,436 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.7% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.9% were non-families. 23.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.92. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $36,706, the median income for a family was $42,195. Males had a median income of $36,622 versus $23,594 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,541. About 6.6% of families and 10.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.6% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. The town is served by the Blue Ridge Unified School District. Schools that serve the town include Blue Ridge Elementary School, Blue Ridge Middle School, Blue Ridge Junior High School, Blue Ridge High School. Zella Day – Singer, songwriter Official Website Official History https://www.pinetoplakeside.com/about-us/town-history/
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University