Kyokutenhō Masaru in Nalaikh, Ulan Bator, Mongolia is a former professional sumo wrestler. He made his debut in March 1992 out of Ōshima stable, with the first group of Mongolians to join the sport in Japan, reaching the top makuuchi division in January 1998. In his exceptionally long career he received seven special prizes for Fighting Spirit, won one yūshō, in May 2012 from the maegashira ranks, which made him at 37 the oldest first–time yūshō winner in sumo history, he was runner-up in one other tournament, his highest rank was sekiwake. He was the first wrestler since the 1950s to be ranked in the top division after the age of 40, he made more appearances in the top division than any other wrestler at 1470, only Ōshio fought more than his 1870 career bouts. He announced his retirement in July 2015 and declared his intention to stay in sumo as an elder, having acquired Japanese citizenship in 2005. In 2017 he became the head coach of Tomozuna stable and he is known as Tomozuna-oyakata. In 1991, Tsevegnyam came to Japan with five other Mongolian wrestlers, including Kyokushūzan, joining Ōshima stable.
They were the first Mongolians to join professional sumo. In Mongolia he had had little experience of wrestling or judo, concentrating on basketball in junior high school. Six months after they came to Japan, due to cultural difference, language problems, the harsh training methods used in sumo, Kyokutenhō, Kyokushuzan and three others ran away and sought refuge in the Mongolian embassy, but he was persuaded by Kyokutenzan to return to his stable. In March 1996, he was promoted to the second highest jūryō division, achieving sekitori status for the first time. After temporarily dropping down to makushita, he climbed the jūryō division and first won promotion to the top makuuchi division in January 1998. However, he did not establish himself in the division until May 1999, he won his first sanshō or special prize in January 2000. He first achieved a san ` yaku rank in January 2002, he has earned two kinboshi or gold stars for yokozuna upsets at maegashira rank, defeating Takanohana in the latter's comeback tournament in September 2002 and fellow Mongolian Asashōryū in his first tournament as a yokozuna in March 2003.
He defeated Asashōryū and Musashimaru whilst ranked in san'yaku. He made his sekiwake debut in July 2003 but did not achieve a kachi-koshi or winning score in his three attempts at the rank. On 28 April 2007 he caused a car accident in Tokyo, he was punished for defying the Japan Sumo Association's ban on wrestlers driving cars by being forced to sit out the May tournament, resulting in demotion to the jūryō division. This broke a string of over 700 consecutive top division bouts dating from his re-entry into makuuchi in May 1999, the longest streak among active wrestlers. However, he won immediate promotion back to the top division with a 12-3 record in July. On his return to the top division in September he was runner-up to yokozuna Hakuhō, his first runner-up score in makuuchi, he was awarded his fifth Fighting Spirit prize. In March 2009 he was promoted to komusubi for the first time in 17 tournaments, became the first former san'yaku wrestler since Mitoizumi in 1988 to drop to the jūryō division and make a return to the san'yaku ranks.
He made komusubi once again in July 2009. Following the retirement of Kaiō in July 2011 Kyokutenhō became the longest serving member of the top division, it had been thought he would become head of Ōshima stable when Asahikuni reached the mandatory retirement age of sixty-five in April 2012, but Kyokutenhō was still comfortably ranked in the top division at the time, active wrestlers are not permitted to become stablemasters. Instead he transferred along with his colleagues to Tomozuna stable. In May 2012, in his first tournament for his new stable, he won his first Emperor's Cup by beating Tochiōzan in a playoff after both finished with 12-3 records. In this tournament, Kyokutenhō had been in professional sumo just over twenty years, at 37 years and 8 months was the oldest wrestler to take a top division championship in modern sumo history, he was the first maegashira ranked wrestler to win a tournament since Kotomitsuki in 2001. As Kyokutenhō had acquired Japanese citizenship, he was technically the first Japanese to win the championship since Tochiazuma in January 2006, although he will still be regarded as a'foreign' champion in the Sumo Association's record book.
His yūshō was the 50th won by a Mongolian born wrestler. Despite his tournament victory Kyokutenhō did not return to the san'yaku ranks for the July tournament, instead being ranked at maegashira 1, he is the first maegashira to win the yūshō and not achieve san'yaku promotion since Sadanoyama in 1961. Kyokutenhō scored only 2–13 in this tournament, losing his first 13 bouts – the worst performance by a defending yūshō champion since Takatōriki scored 2–13 in May 2000. In September 2014 he became the first 40-year-old to be ranked in makuuchi since the six tournament a year system began in 1958, he drew level with Terao on 1795 career appearances, behind only Ōshio's 1891. In November he won ten bouts and was awarded his seventh and final special prize, all for Fighting Spirit. In the May 2015 tournament he surpassed Kaiō's record with his 1445th appearance in the top division. Kyokutenhō left the ring in tears after losing his twelfth bout of the July 2015 tournament, a result which meant his demotion to the second division was certain.
He announced his retirement the following day, stating "I have run out of strength and don’t have the spirit anymore." Hakuhō gave him a ride in the yokozuna's v
2013 in sumo
The following are the events in professional sumo during 2013. Hatsu basho, Ryōgoku Kokugikan, Tokyo, 13 January – 27 January Haru basho, Osaka Prefectural Gymnasium, Osaka, 10 March – 24 March Natsu basho, Ryōgoku Kokugikan, Tokyo, 12 May – 26 May Nagoya basho, Aichi Prefectural Gymnasium, Nagoya, 7 July – 21 July Aki basho, Ryōgoku Kokugikan, Tokyo, 15 September – 29 September Kyushu basho, Fukuoka Kokusai Center, Kyushu, 10 November – 24 November 10: It is announced that the famous Nishonoseki stable is to close after the Hatsu basho, due to the poor health of the incumbent stablemaster, ex komusubi Kongō. 19: The 48th Yokozuna Taihō, winner of a record 32 tournament championships, dies aged 72. He is regarded as the greatest sumo wrestler of the post-war period. 27: Yokozuna Harumafuji bounces back from his disappointing 9–6 debut in November to take his fifth top division championship with a perfect 15–0 record, defeating fellow yokozuna Hakuhō who finishes on 12–3, having lost to maegashira Myōgiryū and ōzeki Kotoōshū.
Hakuhō has to share runners up honours with rank and filer Takayasu, who wins his first Fighting Spirit Award. Myogiryu misses out on a special prize. Baruto, returning from injury, is unable to win back his ozeki rank as he can score only 8–7. Veteran former ozeki Miyabiyama wins only three bouts at the bottom maegashira rank and will be demoted to jūryō. Another veteran, the eccentric and popular Takamisakari, announces his retirement after facing demotion to makushita, he will stay in sumo as a coach at his Azumazeki stable under the name "Furiwake". Former maegashira Bushūyama retires; the jūryō championship is won by young Mongolian Takanoiwa. 29: The 4th Kimura Masanao, a san'yaku gyōji, dies of cancer while active, aged 59. 7: Due to imminent mandatory retirement of its head coach, former ozeki Kaiketsu, Hanaregoma stable is absorbed by Shibatayama stable. 25: The banzuke for the forthcoming March basho is released. Harumafuji and Hakuhō exchange sides. 24: Hakuhō wins his 24th title with a record 9th perfect 15–0 record, defeating Harumafuji, who again can only manage 9–6, having lost to Takayasu, Chiyotairyū, Kakuryū, Kisenosato.
Okinoumi claims his second for Fighting Spirit. Hometown favorite Gōeidō, who finishes 10–5, is unable to secure a promotion to ōzeki, having lost to both yokozuna. Miyabiyama retires after facing demotion to makushita, he will remain in the sumo world as a coach at his Fujishima stable, under the name "Futagoyama". Kyokushūhō wins the jūryō title after forcing a playoff against Azumaryū, while nine wrestlers contest the jonidan title, with Kinunonami coming out on top. 25: Magaki stable closes due to the poor health of its stablemaster, the former Wakanohana Kanji II, with all personnel moving to Isegahama stable. The Tokyo District Court rules that the former wrestler Sōkokurai was wrongly dismissed in April 2011 over match fixing allegations. Sōkokurai says, “Let me return to the sumo ring.” The Sumo Association is considering. 1: The 67th Yokozuna Musashimaru leaves his old stable and opens his own Musashigawa stable, the first new heya since Onoe in 2006. 3: The Sumo Association announce that they will accept Sōkokurai's return, that he will appear on the July banzuke at maegashira 15, his last rank before he was thrown out of sumo.25: The banzuke for the forthcoming May basho is released.
Hakuhō and Harumafuji again switch sides. In addition, the 11th Shikimori Kandayū is promoted to san'yaku gyōji, filling the gap left behind following the death of the 4th Kimura Masanao in January. 16: The 36th Kimura Shōnosuke, sumo's highest-ranking gyōji since October 31, 2011, turns the mandatory retirement age of 65, but elects to serve the remainder of the May tournament due to the possibility of a playoff between Hakuhō and Kisenosato. 25: The crunch match of the May tournament takes place with Hakuhō facing ozeki Kisenosato. Both have unblemished 13–0 records. Hakuhō emerges victorious for the 32nd time in their 40 meetings, needs only one more win to clinch the tournament. 26: On the final day of the basho Kisenosato suffers a disappointing defeat to fellow ozeki Kotoshōgiku, handing the yusho to Hakuhō. Hakuhō completes his tenth zensho yusho with a victory over Harumafuji to seal his 25th championship, drawing him level with Asashōryū in third place on the all-time list; the Technique prize goes to Myōgiryū for the fifth time after his fine 11–4 record, which includes wins over a yokozuna and two ozeki.
Kotoōshū preserves his rank yet again with a win over Kakuryū. All four makuuchi debutants post losing records, with all four plus the injured Kyokushūhō to be demoted back to jūryō. Coming up will be amongst others Kotoyūki who win
Azumaryū Tsuyoshi is a professional sumo wrestler from Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. His highest rank has been maegashira 14. After an amateur sumo career at the Kyushu Institute of Information Sciences, he turned professional in November 2008, reaching sekitori status in January 2013 upon promotion to the jūryō division, he has been ranked in the top makuuchi division on four occasions. He was demoted to the makushita division in 2015, but won promotion back to jūryō in November 2015 and has remained there since, he wrestles for Tamanoi stable. He came to Japan at the age of 15, attended Meitoku Gijuku High School, known for its strong sumo club, he joined the Kyushu Institute of Information Sciences but left in his third year when an opening became available at Tamanoi stable after the retirement of the Brazilian Takaazuma. The Japan Sumo Association had had issues with foreign wrestlers such as Hakurozan and Roho, dismissed from sumo after a cannabis scandal but Azumaryū's six years in Japan convinced the stable that he had the necessary experience of Japanese culture to be a success.
Although he was accepted by the stable in November 2008, he was not able to make his debut on the dohyo until the following tournament in January 2009, because of Sumo Association rules requiring foreigners to have satisfied all their visa requirements and attend sumo education classes. He moved through the lower divisions but found the makushita division more difficult. In November 2012 a 6–1 record at the top of makushita saw him promoted to the jūryō division, he said upon his promotion that he hoped to emulate his hero Kaiō. In just his second tournament in the division he lost a play-off for the yūshō or championship to fellow Mongolian Kyokushūhō after both finished with 12–3 records, this performance earned him promotion to the top makuuchi division for the first time. A 6–9 record saw him demoted straight back to jūryō, but he returned to the top division after a 10–5 record in January 2014 at jūryō 3. In his second makuuchi tournament in March 2014 he was ranked at maegashira 14 and stood at five wins and four losses after nine days, but finished with another 6–9 record.
The retirement of Kotoōshū after that tournament opened up an extra slot in makuuchi, but Sadanoumi, with 8–7 at jūryō 4, was given the extra rank of maegashira 17 over Azumaryū who again was demoted. He won promotion back to makuuchi for the July 2014 tournament, but injured his knee on the 14th day and had to withdraw, losing his scheduled 15th day bout by default; this was the first bout. His 7–8 record was enough to keep him in makuuchi but his injury kept him out of the following tournament in September 2014, resulting in a fall to jūryō. Although he returned in November 2014 two more losing records saw him demoted to the unsalaried makushita division for the March 2015 tournament. In September 2015 he took part in an eight-way play-off for the makushita championship, although he was defeated by Chiyoshōma in the semi-final stage his 6–1 record was good enough for a return to jūryō, he has remained in jūryō since and his run of 21 consecutive tournaments in jūryō as of March 2019 is the longest among active wrestlers.
Although he has been consistent enough to avoid demotion he has not looked like winning promotion back to the top division. Azumaryū prefers a migi yotsu grip on his opponent's mawashi, his favourite kimarite or techniques are uwatenage. Glossary of sumo terms List of active sumo wrestlers Azumaryū Tsuyoshi's official biography at the Grand Sumo Homepage
2015 in sumo
The following were the events in professional sumo during 2015. Hatsu basho, Ryōgoku Kokugikan, Tokyo, 11 January – 25 January Haru basho, Osaka Prefectural Gymnasium, Osaka, 8 March – 22 March Natsu basho, Ryōgoku Kokugikan, Tokyo, 10 May – 24 May Nagoya basho, Aichi Prefectural Gymnasium, Nagoya, 12 July – 26 July Aki basho, Ryōgoku Kokugikan, Tokyo, 13 September – 27 September Kyushu basho, Fukuoka Kokusai Center, Kyushu, 8 November – 22 November 23: Yokozuna Hakuhō wins his 33rd Yūshō and breaks the all-time tournament win record held by Taihō since 1971, he beats ōzeki Kisenosato in a re-match. It is his thirteenth straight win and with no one else scoring better than ten wins, he has wrapped up the championship with two days to spare. 24: Hakuhō wins his 800th bout in the top division with a defeat of his fellow yokozuna Harumafuji, only the fourth man after Kitanoumi and Kaiō to reach this landmark. 25: The final day of the tournament is a sell-out, meaning every day of a basho held in the Ryōgoku Kokugikan has sold out for the first time in 18 years.
Hakuhō completes his 11th zenshō yūshō or perfect score with a win over Kakuryū, meaning one third of his championships have come without suffering a single defeat. There are a record 61 sponsor's envelopes placed on his bout. Trailing in a long way behind on 11–4 are Harumafuji and maegashira Tokushōryū who share runner-up honours. There is just one special prize awarded, to Terunofuji who defeated two ōzeki and is the only man ranked between sekiwake and maegashira 5 to get a majority of wins, he is certain to be promoted to the sanyaku ranks next tournament. Gōeidō preserves his ōzeki rank by beating Kotoshōgiku, threatened with demotion; the jūryō division championship goes to Kitataiki for the second time. Retiring after this tournament are former komusubi Homasho, maegashira Tochinowaka and Towanoyama, jūryō Senshō. 27: Hakuhō receives criticism after telling a post-tournament press conference that he should not have been made to redo his match with Kisenosato as "looking at the video a child could see."
His stablemaster Miyagino apologizes on his behalf. 1: The fifth Hakuho Cup is shown live on Niconico. The event features elementary school and junior high school sumo teams from Japan, South Korea, Bulgaria, the US and Australia. 7: The former Kotomitsuki, dismissed from sumo in 2010, has an informal danpatsu-shiki or retirement ceremony in a Tokyo hotel, attended by all the active yokozuna, former stablemate Kotoshogiku and ex yokozuna Takanohana. 8: The 39th Fuji TV Grand Sumo knockout tournament is held at the Kokugikan. Harumafuji wins. Gagamaru wins the juryo event. 7: Yokozuna Kakuryū is a late withdrawal from the Osaka tournament with a shoulder injury, forfeiting his opening match. 11: Sekiwake Okinoumi withdraws through injury in his debut tournament at the rank. 13: Crowd pleaser Endo withdraws after a serious knee injury, rupturing his anterior cruciate ligament. 18: Veteran Aminishiki withdraws through injury. 21: Hakuhō wins his 34th tournament, his sixth in a row, by beating Harumafuji on the final day.
He avoids a playoff with Terunofuji, who defeated him on Day 13 bringing to an end his 36 match winning streak. Terunofuji, making his sekiwake debut, finishes on 13–2 and wins prizes for Outstanding Performance and Technique; the juryo division championship is won by Fujiazuma. The spring regional tour begins at the following locations: 29: Ise Shrine, Mie Prefecture 30: Minamiawaji, Hyōgo Prefecture 31: Himeji, Hyōgo Prefecture The spring regional tour continues at the following locations: 3: Yasukuni Shrine, The Kudan, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 4: Fujisawa, Kanagawa Prefecture 5: Shizuoka, Shizuoka Prefecture 10: Misato, Saitama Prefecture 11: Ichikawa, Chiba Prefecture 12: Hitachiōmiya, Ibaraki Prefecture 18: Takasaki, Gunma Prefecture 19: Mito, Ibaraki Prefecture 25–26: Makuhari Messe convention center, Chiba Prefecture, at Niconico's "Chokaigi 2015" 10: The May tournament sees Kakuryu once again unable to compete due to injury; this is the first time since Musashimaru in 2003 that a yokozuna has missed two tournaments in a row.
24: Terunofuji follows up his superb performance in March by winning his first top division tournament championship. His victory over Aoiyama on the final day, coupled with Hakuho's surprise defeat to Harumafuji, means Hakuho's streak of six consecutive championships comes to an end. Terunofuji's score of 12–3 is not as good as the previous tournament, but no-one else scored better than 11–4. Terunofuji wins the Fighting Spirit Award, is guaranteed promotion to ozeki. There are no other sansho winners; the juryo title goes to Kagamio. In the sandanme division, 44-year-old Dewanosato, who spent just one tournament in juryo ten years announces his retirement after an exceptional 29 years and 174 basho in sumo. 27: Terunofuji's promotion to ozeki is confirmed. 20: Elder of the Sumo Association Otowayama Oyakata, former ozeki Takanonami, dies of acute cardiac failure at age 43. 13: Yokozuna Harumafuji pulls out of the Nagoya tournament on the second day because of an elbow injury. He had had surgery on the same elbow in May.
Way down in the jonokuchi division Brodik Henderson, a 20 year old from Victoria, British Columbia, who joined Nishikido stable in March and is known as Homarenishiki, makes his first official appearance in a tournament. 26: Hakuhō wins his 35th championship, finishing on a 14–1 record. His only defeat in the tournament is to sekiwake Tochiozan, who had defeated returning yokozuna Kakuryu
Professional sumo divisions
Professional sumo is divided into six ranked divisions. Wrestlers are promoted and demoted within and between these divisions based on the merit of their win/loss records in official tournaments. For more information see make-koshi. Wrestlers are ranked within each division; the higher a wrestler's rank within a division is, the stronger the general level of opponents he will have to face becomes. According to tradition, each rank is further subdivided into East and West, with East being more prestigious, ranked higher than its West counterpart; the divisions, ranked in order of hierarchy from highest to lowest, are as follows: Makuuchi, or makunouchi, is the top division. It is fixed at 42 wrestlers. At the top of the division are the "titleholders", or "champions" called the san'yaku comprising yokozuna, ōzeki and komusubi. There are 8–12 wrestlers in these ranks with the remainder, called maegashira, ranked in numerical order from 1 downwards; this is the only division, featured on standard NHK's live coverage of sumo tournaments and is broadcast bilingually.
The latter part of the lower divisions is shown on satellite coverage. The name makuuchi means "inside the curtain", a reference to the early period of professional sumo, when the top ranked wrestlers were able to sit in a curtained off area prior to appearing for their bouts. Makuuchi can refer to the top two divisions makuuchi and jūryō as a whole, as the wrestlers in these divisions are salaried and considered salaried professionals as opposed to "in training". Jūryō, is the second highest division, is fixed at 28 wrestlers; the name means "ten ryō"', at one time the income a wrestler ranked in this division could expect to receive. The official name of the second division is jūmaime, meaning "tenth placing" and can be heard in official announcements and seen in some publications, but within and outside the sumo world it is universally known as jūryō. Wrestlers in the jūryō and the makuuchi division above are known as sekitori. Jūryō wrestlers, like those in the top makuuchi division, receive a regular monthly salary as well as other perks associated with having become a sekitori, or a member of the two upper divisions in sumo.
Sumo wrestlers ranked in the divisions below jūryō are considered to be in training and receive a small allowance instead of a salary. Jūryō wrestlers, along with their makuuchi counterparts, are the only professional sumo wrestlers who compete in a full fifteen bouts per official tournament. In the case of injuries with makuuchi wrestlers pulling out, jūryō wrestlers near the top of the division may find themselves in the occasional matchup with a top-division wrestler; such jūryō-makuuchi matchups are not uncommon towards the end of a sumo tournament, in order to better establish promotion and relegation of individuals between the two divisions. Once a wrestler is promoted to jūryō, he is considered a professional with significant salary and privileges; as such, promotions to jūryō are announced just a few days after a preceding tournament, whereas other rankings are not announced for several weeks. Makushita is the third highest division. Prior to the creation of the jūryō division, this division was only one below the topmost makuuchi division.
Hence makushita meaning "below the curtain". In the current system, there are 120 wrestlers in the division. Unlike the sekitori ranks above them, wrestlers compete only seven times during a tournament, it is considered that holding the rank of makushita is the first step toward becoming a professional sumo wrestler. Furthermore, it can be regarded as the most contested division, with younger sumo wrestlers on their way up competing with those older sumo wrestlers who have dropped from jūryō and are determined to regain the higher rank. A key incentive is the difference between being ranked in the topmost makushita slot versus the lowest jūryō rank, likened to being that between heaven and hell: A wrestler ranked at makushita or lower is expected to carry out chores for the stable and any sekitori within it, whereas the jūryō wrestler will be served upon; the jūryō wrestler receives a comfortable monthly salary, whereas a wrestler below makushita still only receives a small living allowance.
Winning all seven matches in a tournament grants an unconditional advance to the jūryō division if one is ranked within the top thirty wrestlers of the division. For any other member of the division a 7–0 record will guarantee promotion to within the top thirty members, so two successive 7–0 records will allow a makushita wrestler to advance to jūryō; those in the uppermost ranks of the division and thus slated for a possible advancement may have a match with those in jūryō, either as one of the seven matches they are expected to compete in, or in addition to the matches they have had. This eighth match is sometimes required as a result of tournament withdrawals due to injury of sekitori, is given to makushita wrestler who have achieved a 3–4 or worse record in their regular seven bouts, it is ignored if one loses and counted if one wins, making it a true bonus bout for a makushita wrestler. In such a match-up the makushita wrestler will have his hair fashioned into a full oicho-mage as sekitori do but continues to wear his plain cotton mawashi.
The term makushita, can be used to refer to all four divisions as a whole that are below jūryō, as these four divisions are considered wrestlers that are still in training. Sandanme
Ōshima stable was a stable of sumo wrestlers, part of the Tatsunami ichimon or group of stables. It was set up in 1980 by former ōzeki Asahikuni; the head of Tatsunami stable opposed the setting up of the new stable, did not speak to Ōshima until Asahifuji was promoted to ōzeki in 1987. Ōshima produced ten sekitori. Ōshima's senior wrestler in years was the Mongolian born veteran Kyokutenhō, who has Japanese citizenship and was seen as the successor to Ōshima. However, after Kyokutenhō indicated a desire to continue wrestling, the stable instead closed on 25 April 2012 when Ōshima reached the mandatory retirement age of 65, with its wrestlers transferring to Tomozuna stable. Most wrestlers' fighting names included the Chinese character "旭" meaning "sunrise", that can be read as either Asahi or Kyoku, taken from the founding stablemaster's shikona. 1980-2012: 2nd Ōshima Asahifuji Kyokutenhō Kyokudōzan Asahiyutaka Kyokushūzan Kyokunankai Kyokugōzan Kyokushūhō Asahisato Asahishō Shozaburo Kimura - san'yaku referee Hisayuki Kimura - makuuchi referee Akira - makuuchi usher 3-5-3 Ryōgoku, Tokyo, 10 minute walk from Ryōgoku Station List of sumo stables Glossary of sumo terms Japan Sumo Association profile of Ōshima beya
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t