Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p
The Staatliches Bauhaus known as the Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. The Bauhaus was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar; the German term Bauhaus—literally "building house"—was understood as meaning "School of Building", but in spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department. Nonetheless, it was founded upon the idea of creating a Gesamtkunstwerk in which all the arts, including architecture, would be brought together; the Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in modern design, Modernist architecture and art and architectural education. The Bauhaus movement had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, typography; the school existed in three German cities—Weimar, from 1919 to 1925. Although the school was closed, the staff continued to spread its idealistic precepts as they left Germany and emigrated all over the world.
The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique and politics. For example, the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau though it had been an important revenue source. After Germany's defeat in World War I and the establishment of the Weimar Republic, a renewed liberal spirit allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts, suppressed by the old regime. Many Germans of left-wing views were influenced by the cultural experimentation that followed the Russian Revolution, such as constructivism; such influences can be overstated: Gropius did not share these radical views, said that Bauhaus was apolitical. Just as important was the influence of the 19th-century English designer William Morris, who had argued that art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function. Thus, the Bauhaus style known as the International Style, was marked by the absence of ornamentation and by harmony between the function of an object or a building and its design.
However, the most important influence on Bauhaus was modernism, a cultural movement whose origins lay as early as the 1880s, which had made its presence felt in Germany before the World War, despite the prevailing conservatism. The design innovations associated with Gropius and the Bauhaus—the radically simplified forms, the rationality and functionality, the idea that mass production was reconcilable with the individual artistic spirit—were partly developed in Germany before the Bauhaus was founded; the German national designers' organization Deutscher Werkbund was formed in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius to harness the new potentials of mass production, with a mind towards preserving Germany's economic competitiveness with England. In its first seven years, the Werkbund came to be regarded as the authoritative body on questions of design in Germany, was copied in other countries. Many fundamental questions of craftsmanship versus mass production, the relationship of usefulness and beauty, the practical purpose of formal beauty in a commonplace object, whether or not a single proper form could exist, were argued out among its 1,870 members.
The entire movement of German architectural modernism was known as Neues Bauen. Beginning in June 1907, Peter Behrens' pioneering industrial design work for the German electrical company AEG integrated art and mass production on a large scale, he designed consumer products, standardized parts, created clean-lined designs for the company's graphics, developed a consistent corporate identity, built the modernist landmark AEG Turbine Factory, made full use of newly developed materials such as poured concrete and exposed steel. Behrens was a founding member of the Werkbund, both Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer worked for him in this period; the Bauhaus was founded at a time when the German zeitgeist had turned from emotional Expressionism to the matter-of-fact New Objectivity. An entire group of working architects, including Erich Mendelsohn, Bruno Taut and Hans Poelzig, turned away from fanciful experimentation, turned toward rational, sometimes standardized building. Beyond the Bauhaus, many other significant German-speaking architects in the 1920s responded to the same aesthetic issues and material possibilities as the school.
They responded to the promise of a "minimal dwelling" written into the new Weimar Constitution. Ernst May, Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner, among others, built large housing blocks in Frankfurt and Berlin; the acceptance of modernist design into everyday life was the subject of publicity campaigns, well-attended public exhibitions like the Weissenhof Estate and sometimes fierce public debate. The Vkhutemas, the Russian state art and technical school founded in 1920 in Moscow, has been compared to Bauhaus. Founded a year after the Bauhaus school, Vkhutemas has close parallels to the German Bauhaus in its intent and scope; the two schools were
Ampelokipoi or'Ampelokipi, meaning'vineyards', is a large, central district of the city of Athens. Ampelokipoi is in the centre of Athens, near Zografou, Goudi and Pagkrati; the area is famous for hosting Panathinaikos's home ground since it was inaugurated in 1922. Two metro stations are located in the district. Ambelokipi station Panormou station Before the Greek independence, at the beginning of the 19th century, Ampelokipoi was a village a few kilometers north-east of Athens; the village Ampelokipoi is noted in the maps of this period. In the late 19th century, the village still remained outside the boundaries of Athens agglomeration; some cottages of rich Athenian were built in this area. Due to its healthy climate, many hospitals were built in Ampelokipoi in the late 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. Today in this area there are the hospitals Erythros Stavros Hospital, Errikos Dynan Hospital, Ippokrateio Hospital, Elpis Hospital and Agios Sabbas Hospital; the population explosion in Ampelokipoi happened after the Asia Minor Disaster, in 1922, when many refugees settled in this area.
For the residence of the refugees, the government had chosen the area of the stadium of Panathinaikos, built in the same period. So a conflict broke out between refugees and Panathinaikos fans and the government changed the place for the settling of refugees; the new district was located around of Panathinaikos stadium. Few years the government built a new neighbourhood for the refugees opposite of Panathinaikos stadium, known as prosfygika of Alexandras Avenue; these houses were built between 1933 and 1935 and today some of them have proclaimed monuments of historical heritage. Ampelokipoi is, it as the home to Ampelokipoi B. C. a basketball club founded in 1929. Important buildings located in the area: Hellenic Police Headquarters Court of Cassation Athens Prefecture Building Erythros Stavros Hospital Errikos Dynan Hospital Hippokrateio Hospital Elpis Hospital Agios Savvas Hospital Formerly the Philippine School in Greece Panathinaikos A. O. Stadium Athens Tower Apollo Tower - the tallest residential tower in Greece.
It consists of 25 floors. Prosfygika of Alexandras Avenue Petraki Monastery President Hotel Athens Aavora Alfavil Astron Athinaion Danaos Galaxias Nirvana ODEON Zina Plaza This is a list of residential streets in the Ampelokipoi area. Most of these are named after geographic locations
Akadimia "Academy", is a neighborhood in central Athens, Greece. Located directly north and slight west of Syntagma Square, it is bounded by Akadimias Street, Panepistimiou Street, Solonos Street and Stadiou Street, it is named after the Academy of Athens, since this was the first educational building to be built there in 1859. One of the busiest areas of Athens, many important buildings are found here; the Panepistimio metro station serves Line 2 of the Athens Metro, while there is a tram stop at Plateia Klafthmonos. Academy of Athens Athens Law School Catholic Church of Agios Dionysios Central Offices of the Bank of Greece Council of State Eye Hospital National and Kapodistrian University of Athens National Library of Greece State Legal Council
Constantine Kanaris or Canaris was a Greek Prime Minister and politician who in his youth was a freedom fighter in the Greek War of Independence. He was grew up on the island of Psara, close to the island of Chios, in the Aegean, his exact year of birth is unknown. The official records of the Hellenic Navy indicate 1795 but modern Greek historians believe that 1793 is more probable. Constantine was left an orphan at a young age. Having to support himself, he chose to become a seaman like most members of his family since the beginning of the 18th century, he was hired as a boy on the brig of his uncle Dimitris Bourelovw Constantine gained his fame during the Greek War of Independence. Unlike most other prominent figures of the War, he had never been initiated into the Filiki Eteria, which played a significant role in the revolution against the Ottoman Empire by secret recruitment of supporters against the Empire. By early 1821, it had gained enough support to declare a revolution; this declaration seems to have surprised Constantine, absent at Odessa.
He returned to Psara in haste and was there when the island joined the Revolution on April 10, 1821. The island formed its own fleet of ships and the famed seamen of Psara known for their successful naval combats against pirates and their well-equipped ships, proved to be effective at full naval war. Constantine soon distinguished himself as a fire ship captain. At Chios, on the moonless night of June 6/June 7, 1822 forces under his command destroyed the flagship of the Turkish admiral Nasuhzade Ali Pasha in revenge for the Chios Massacre; the admiral was holding a celebration, so Kanaris and his men managed to place a fire ship next to it without being noticed. When the flagship's powder store caught fire, all men aboard were killed; the Ottoman casualties comprised 2000 men, both naval officers and common sailors, as well as Kara-Ali himself. In the year he led another successful attacks against the Turkish fleet at Tenedos in November 1822, he was famously said to have encouraged himself by murmuring "Konstantí, you are going to die" every time he was approaching a Turkish warship on the fire boat he was about to detonate.
The Turkish fleet captured Psara on June 21, 1824. A part of the population, including Kanaris, managed to flee the island, but those who didn't were either sold into slavery or slaughtered. After the destruction of his home island, Kanaris continued to lead his men into attacks against the Turks, he took part to sea fights in the Dodecanese in August 1824. In August 1825, Kanaris led the raid on Alexandria, a daring attempt to destroy the Egyptian fleet via fire ships that might have been successful if the wind had not failed just after the Greek ships entered Alexandria harbor. Following the end of the war and the independence of Greece, Constantine became an officer of the new Greek Navy, reaching the rank of admiral, became a prominent politician. Constantine Kanaris was one of the few with the personal confidence of Ioannis Kapodistrias the first Head of State of independent Greece. Kanaris served as Minister in various governments and as Prime Minister, in the provisional government, from March 11-April 11, 1844.
He served a second term, as Navy Minister in Mavrokordatos' 1854 cabinet. In 1862, he was one of the few War of Independence veterans that helped in the bloodless revolution that deposed King Otto of Greece and put Prince William of Denmark on the Greek throne as King George I of Greece. Under George I, he served as a prime minister for fourth term and fifth and last term. Kanaris died on 2 September 1877 whilst still serving in office as Prime Minister. Following his death his government remained in power until September 14, 1877 without agreeing on a replacement at its head, he was buried in the First Cemetery of Athens, where most Greek prime ministers and celebrated figures are buried. After his death he was honored as a national hero. To honour Kanaris, three ships of the Hellenic Navy have been named after him. Kanaris. S. Navy on 1 July 1972. Kanaris. In 1817, he married Despina Maniatis, from a historical family of Psara, they had seven children: Nikolaos Kanaris, - a member of a military expeditionary force to Beirut, killed there in 1848.
Themistoklis Kanaris, - a member of a military expeditionary force to Egypt, killed there in 1851. Thrasyvoulos Kanaris, - Admiral. Miltiadis Kanaris, - Admiral, member of the Greek Parliament for many years, Naval Minister three times in 1864, 1871, 1878. Lykourgos Kanaris, - Lawyer Maria Kanari, - married A. Balambano. Aristeidis Kanaris, - officer killed in the uprising of 1863. Wilhelm Canaris, a German Admiral, speculated. An official genealogical family history, researched in 1938 showed that he was unrelated and that his family was from Italy. Woodhouse, "The Story of Modern Greece", Faber and Faber Listed among other Major Figures of the Greek War of Independence The History of the Grand Lodge of Greece Explains the Origins of the Philiki Etairia Short profile of Mohammad Ali, Viceroy of Egypt Short Profile of Ibrahim Pasha Statue of K. Kana
Panellinios G. S. full name, Panellinios Gymnastikos Syllogos, is a Greek multi-sport club, located in Athens and was founded in 1891. It is one of the oldest and more successful multi-sports clubs in Greece and one of the oldest sports clubs in Europe; the name Panellinios can be translated as Pan-Hellenic in English, can be interpreted to mean the Greek Nation. Gymnastikos Syllogos can be translated as gymnastics club. Therefore, the club's full name can be translated and/or interpreted as Pan-Hellenic Gymnastics Club; the Greek multi-sports club Panathinaikos A. O. was founded by Giorgos Kalafatis in 1908, when he and 40 other athletes decided to break away from Panellinios Gymnastikos Syllogos, following the club's decision to discontinue its football team. Panellinios B. C. - basketball Panellinios V. C. - volleyball The club had a team of gymnasts compete at the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens. The team’s leader was Spyridon Athanasopoulos. Members included Nikolaos Andriakopoulos, Petros Persakis, Thomas Xenakis, 29 others.
The team placed second of the three teams in the parallel bars team event. Other club members who medaled in athletics at the 1896 Olympics were Alexandre Tuffère, Charilaos Vasilakos, Miltiadis Gouskos, Ioannis Persakis and Sotirios Versis. Panellinios B. C. was founded in 1929 and has been the Greek League champion six times in the years 1929, 1939, 1940, 1953, 1955, 1957. In the early 1950s era the team was called "The Golden Five", referring to players Panagiotis Manias, Themis Cholevas, Kostas Papadimas, Mimis Stefanidis, Aristeidis Roubanis, they dominated not only European basketball in general. The Panellinios team headlined the 1952 Greek Olympic Team. During the mid-to-late 1950s, the team was led by Antonis Christeas. Men's Basketball - Panellinios B. C.: 6 Greek Championships: Men's Volleyball - Panellinios V. C.: 6 Greek Championships: Women's Volleyball: 2 Greek Championships: 1 Greek Cup: Men's Handball: 5 Greek Championships: 3 Greek Cups Men's Athletics: 36 Greek Championships: 20 Greek Indoor Championships: 19 Greek Cross Country Championships: Women's Athletics: 30 Greek Championships: 21 Greek Indoor Championships: 13 Greek Cross Country Championships: Fencing: 18 Greek Épée team Championships, Men: 11 Greek Foil team Championships, Men: 12 Greek Sabre team Championships, Men: 4 Greek Épée team Championships, Women: 5 Greek Foil team Championships, Women: 3 Greek Sabre team Championships, Women: Men's Weightlifting: 6 Greek Championships: Women's Weightlifting: 1 Greek Championship: Men's Boxing: 9 Greek Championships: Table tennis: 6 Greek Championships, Women: 1 Greek Cup, Women: Shooting: 4 Greek Championships: Modern Pentathlon: 9 Greek Championships: Judo: 14 Greek Championships, Men: 15 Greek Championships, Women: Official Website Official Basketball Club Website Panellinios Club's Training Facilities
Modern architecture, or modernist architecture was based upon new and innovative technologies of construction the use of glass and reinforced concrete. It emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II until the 1980s, when it was replaced as the principal style for institutional and corporate buildings by postmodern architecture. Modern architecture emerged at the end of the 19th century from revolutions in technology and building materials, from a desire to break away from historical architectural styles and to invent something, purely functional and new; the revolution in materials came first, with the use of cast iron, plate glass, reinforced concrete, to build structures that were stronger and taller. The cast plate glass process was invented in 1848, allowing the manufacture of large windows; the Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton at the Great Exhibition of 1851 was an early example of iron and plate glass construction, followed in 1864 by the first glass and metal curtain wall.
These developments together led to the first steel-framed skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, built in 1884 by William Le Baron Jenney. The iron frame construction of the Eiffel Tower the tallest structure in the world, captured the imagination of millions of visitors to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition. French industrialist François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete, that is, concrete strengthened with iron bars, as a technique for constructing buildings. In 1853 Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four-story house in the suburbs of Paris. A further important step forward was the invention of the safety elevator by Elisha Otis, first demonstrated at the Crystal Palace exposition in 1852, which made tall office and apartment buildings practical. Another important technology for the new architecture was electric light, which reduced the inherent danger of fires caused by gas in the 19th century; the debut of new materials and techniques inspired architects to break away from the neoclassical and eclectic models that dominated European and American architecture in the late 19th century, most notably eclecticism and Edwardian architecture, the Beaux-Arts architectural style.
This break with the past was urged by the architectural theorist and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. In his 1872 book Entretiens sur L'Architecture, he urged: "use the means and knowledge given to us by our times, without the intervening traditions which are no longer viable today, in that way we can inaugurate a new architecture. For each function its material; this book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, Antoni Gaudí. At the end of the 19th century, a few architects began to challenge the traditional Beaux Arts and Neoclassical styles that dominated architecture in Europe and the United States; the Glasgow School of Art designed by Charles Rennie MacIntosh, had a facade dominated by large vertical bays of windows. The Art Nouveau style was launched in the 1890s by Victor Horta in Belgium and Hector Guimard in France. In Barcelona, Antonio Gaudi conceived architecture as a form of sculpture. In 1903–1904 in Paris Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage began to use reinforced concrete only used for industrial structures, to build apartment buildings.
Reinforced concrete, which could be molded into any shape, which could create enormous spaces without the need of supporting pillars, replaced stone and brick as the primary material for modernist architects. The first concrete apartment buildings by Perret and Sauvage were covered with ceramic tiles, but in 1905 Perret built the first concrete parking garage on 51 rue de Ponthieu in Paris. Henri Sauvage added another construction innovation in an apartment building on Rue Vavin in Paris. Between 1910 and 1913, Auguste Perret built the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, a masterpiece of reinforced concrete construction, with Art Deco sculptural bas-reliefs on the facade by Antoine Bourdelle; because of the concrete construction, no columns blocked the spectator's view of the stage. Otto Wagner, in Vienna, was another pioneer of the new style. In his book Moderne Architektur he had called for a more rationalist style of architecture, based on "modern life", he designed a stylized ornamental metro station at Karlsplatz in Vienna an ornamental Art Nouveau residence, Majolika House, before moving to a much more geometric and simplified style, without ornament, in the Austrian Postal Savings Bank.
Wagner declared his intention to express the function of the building in its exterior. The reinforced concrete exterior was covered with plaques of marble attached with bolts of polished aluminum; the interior was purely functional and spare, a large open space of steel and concrete where the only decoration was the structure itself. The Viennese architect Adolf Loos began removing any ornament from his buildings, his S