Uridine is a glycosylated pyrimidine-analog containing uracil attached to a ribose ring via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. It is one of the five standard nucleosides which make up nucleic acids, the others being adenosine, thymidine and guanosine; the five nucleosides are abbreviated to their one-letter codes U, A, T, C and G respectively. However, thymidine is more written as'dT' as it contains a 2'-deoxyribofuranose moiety rather than the ribofuranose ring found in uridine; this is because thymidine is found in not ribonucleic acid. Conversely, uridine is found in RNA and not DNA; the remaining three nucleosides may be found in both RNA and DNA. In RNA, they would be represented as A, C and G whereas in DNA they would be represented as dA, dC and dG. Uridine is produced in nature as uridine monophosphate by de novo synthesis by the decarboxylation of orotidylate, catalyzed by orotidylate decarboxylase; the orotidylate is produced from orotate, combined with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to form orotidylate by pyrimidine phosphoribosyltransferase.
PRPP is created from ribose-5-phosphate by a further phosphorylation, serving as an energetic molecule to drive the reaction forward, while orotate is generated in several steps from carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate. Uridine is regarded as a non-essential nutrient, as it is produced by the human body as needed and supplementation is not recommended, though it has been explored for specific applications; some foods that contain uridine in the form of RNA are listed below. Although claimed that none of the uridine in this form is bioavailable "since – as shown by Handschumacher's Laboratory at Yale School of Medicine in 1981 – it is destroyed in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, no food, when consumed, has been reliably shown to elevate blood uridine levels'; this is contradicted by Yamamoto et al. plasma uridine levels rose 1.8 fold 30 minutes after beer ingestion, suggesting, at the least, conflicting data. On the other hand, ethanol on its own increases uridine levels, which may explain the raise of uridine levels in the study by Yamamoto et al.
In infants consuming mother's milk or commercial infant formulas, uridine is present as its monophosphate, UMP, this source of uridine is indeed bioavailable and enters the blood. Sugarcane extract Tomatoes Brewer's yeast Beer Broccoli Offal WalnutsConsumption of RNA-rich foods may lead to high levels of purines in blood. High levels of purines are known to increase uric acid production and may aggravate or lead to conditions such as gout. Harvard researchers report that omega-3 fatty acids and uridine, two substances in foods such as fish, walnuts and sugar beets, prevented depression in rats as as antidepressant drugs. "Giving rats a combination of uridine and omega-3 fatty acids produced immediate effects that were indistinguishable from those caused by giving the rats standard antidepressant medications," said lead author of the study William Carlezon, director of McLean's Behavioral Genetics Laboratory. Uridine plays a role in the glycolysis pathway of galactose. There is no catabolic process to metabolize galactose.
Therefore, galactose is metabolized in the common glucose pathway. Once the incoming galactose has been converted into galactose 1-phosphate, it is involved in a reaction with UDP-glucose, a glucose molecule bonded to uridine diphosphate; this process is catalyzed by the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase and transfers the UDP to the galactose molecule. The end result is glucose-1-phosphate; this process is continued to allow the proper glycolysis of galactose. Deoxyuridine monophosphate Uridine monophosphate
José Manuel Corral is a lawyer, a political activist of the Unión Cívica Radical party, a member of the Coalition Frente Progresista Cívico y Social of Santa Fe. He was the President of the Municipal Council of the City of Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz, he has been reelected Mayor of the city of Santa Fe province, Argentina. He was born in Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz on October 28, 1968, to his parents Súper Manuel Corral and Celia García, he attended primary school at the School No. 6 Mariano Moreno and high School at the Industrial High School, ending his studies at the High School No. 331 Admiral Guillermo Brown, earning a high school degree with a physical-mathematical orientation. During the first years of Argentina's return to democracy, he began his political activism at his high school, where he promoted –together with other students– the creation of students’ unions throughout the city, he was elected president of the Students’ Union of the Almirante Brown school. He studied law at the Universidad Nacional del Litoral Law School, where he was elected President of the Students’ Union in 1992 with 63% of the votes.
In 1994 he chaired the Universidad Nacional del Litoral Federation, which a second-degree body which brings together all students’ unions of the Universidad Nacional del Litoral. In that year, he named Ernesto Sábato –the prestigious argentine writer– as the Honorary President of the FUL. In 1995 –at a national seminar, where more than 2,000 young activists participated– he was elected Secretary General of the National Bureau of the University Political Group Franja Morada. Corral held that position for two years. In 1998 he joined the university activity in the area of Evaluation. In 1999 he was designated Secretary of the University Extension office. In November 2003, he was elected for the position of Secretary General of the UNL, he completed his studies for an M. A. degree in Public Administration, at the College of Economic Sciences of the Universidad Nacional del Litoral. In December 2007 he was appointed Government Secretary by the mayor of Mario Barletta. In that position, he worked to incorporate transparency policies to the current administration.
He incorporated the voluntary disarmament program. He established a compulsory entrance exam to join the public administration and training courses for all municipal employees, as well as negotiations with the National Government claiming for the Train Station Manuel Belgrano and the City Train, among other projects. By the end of 2009, he was chosen in all districts of the city and became president of the Municipal Council. During his term, he worked to obtain the approval for important legislation such as the Urban Management Plan, the creation of the Industrial Area "Polygons", various initiatives for urban planning and traffic safety, the creation of the Entity of Regulation of the Urban Transport for Passengers, the recovery of emblematic public areas. Emphasis was placed on the policy of closeness to the neighbors. In July 24, 2011 the citizens of Santa Fe elected him Mayor with 45.05% of the votes, winning 11 of the 18 districts of the city. He obtained more than 60% of the votes in downtown neighborhoods and he won in traditionally peronistas neighborhoods.
During his term of office, some lines proposed in his Development Plan for Santa Fe 2020, received international recognition. This is the case of the Mayor award of the World Champion Campaign 2010–2015 "Making Cities Resilient", awarded by the Office of the United Nations Disaster Risk Reduction. Santa Fe was the first city in Argentina to join this campaign; this same institution chose Santa Fe as an example of Model City. Furthermore, Santa Fe is included in the 100 Resilient Cities initiative of The Rockefeller Foundation. Santa Fe City –during Corral’s government– obtained the Second Mention Award in Municipal Policies, awarded by the CIPPEC in the context of Innovation in Public Management for quality and growth. Santa Fe city won this recognition for its innovative Municipal System for Early Childhood Education. Personal page
The 2.-class torpedo boat was a designation in the Scandinavian countries for a type of fast steam torpedo boats between 40 tons and 80 tons, in service from the 1880s to after World War I. 1882 Torpedobaad Nr. 2 1882 Torpedobaad Nr. 3 1882 Torpedobaad Nr. 4 1882 Torpedobaad Nr. 5 1884 Torpedobaad Nr. 6 1884 Torpedobaad Nr. 7 1886 Torpedobaad Nr. 8 1886 Torpedobaad Nr. 9 1888 Torpedobaad Nr. 10 1888 Torpedobaad Nr. 11 1889 Torpedobaad Nr. 12 1894 Torpedobaad Hajen 1894 Torpedobaad Søulven HNoMS Lyn HNoMS Glimt HNoMS Blink HNoMS Pil HNoMS Snar HNoMS Orm HNoMS Oter HNoMS Varg HNoMS Raket HNoMS Djerv HNoMS Kvik HNoMS Hvas HNoMS Kjaek HNoMS Hauk HNoMS Falk HNoMS Orn HNoMS Ravn HNoMS Grib HNoMS Jo HNoMS Skarv HNoMS Teist HNoMS Kjell HSwMS Hugin
Hans Carl Paul Eduard Büsing was a German diplomat who served as Minister to Finland and Minister to Paraguay. Born in Schwerin in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin on 11 February 1880, after school education Büsing studied law at the University of Tübingen. While at university in 1899 he was a member of the Corps Suevia Tübingen. In 1902 Büsing started his career at the Ministry of Justice, receiving his doctor of law in 1903, but after a few years switched his career to the German Foreign Office in 1910. In 1911 his first posting was as Consul-General in London operating under Ambassador Paul Wolff Metternich until in 1912 when he was transferred as acting Consul in Cape Town in the absence of Consul-General Hans Paul von Humboldt-Dachroeden. In December 1913 he was appointed as Consul-General in Liberia. Büsing served in Liberia until the outbreak of the First World War in late 1914 when he signed up for active military service; however the foreign office retained him in service and appointed him Consul-General in Esbjerg, Denmark and to Christiania, Sweden in 1916 followed by an appointment as Legation Counsellor in Stockholm in 1917 under Minister Hellmuth Lucius von Stoedten.
In 1918 he returned to work in the Foreign Office in Berlin, but in 1921 was appointed Consul-General in Canton until late 1923. In November 1923 he was appointed as Consul-General to Australia, being the first German diplomat to be posted there since the war. Based in Melbourne, in 1928 he moved the consulate back to Sydney; as the German consul, Büsing attempted to repair German relations with Australians and spoke out against the treatment of German property in Australia confiscated during the war by the Australian Government. On 15 July 1932 Büsing was sent to Helsinki as Minister to Finland, serving until 1935. On 12 February 1937 Büsing received his last diplomatic appointment to Asunción as Minister to Paraguay, where he died on 20 July 1941
Mike Carr is a writer and game designer. While still a teenager living in Minneapolis in 1968, Carr created, he was invited to present and referee the game at the first Gen Con convention in Lake Geneva, but had to convince his parents to drive him to Lake Geneva for the weekend. While at Gen Con, he met the convention's organizer, Gary Gygax, became an acquaintance. Three years he co-authored Don't Give Up The Ship! with Gygax and Dave Arneson. Carr began wargaming with the International Federation of Wargamers as a teenager. After high school, Carr completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in History from Macalester College before going on to work as a restaurant manager with Ground Round in the mid-1970s. In 1976, at the invitation of Gygax, he joined TSR, Inc. and wrote an introductory Dungeons & Dragons module called In Search of the Unknown in 1979. Since it was included with the Dungeons & Dragons introductory box set, the module enjoyed a sizeable print run. Carr served as the editor of the three central rulebooks for the more complex Advanced Dungeons & Dragons: Monster Manual, Dungeon Masters Guide and Players Handbook, he wrote the foreword that appeared in the early editions of each of them.
He edited Vault of the Drow, White Plume Mountain, The Village of Hommlet, The World of Greyhawk, The Keep on the Borderlands, Descent into the Depths of the Earth, Against the Giants, Deep Dwarven Delve. In the early 1980s Carr authored three children's books which were published by TSR, including one in the Endless Quest series entitled "Robbers & Robots". Carr left TSR in 1983; that year, he was recruited by the noted Chicago commodities trader Richard Dennis for training as one of the original "Turtle Traders," gaining expertise in technical trend trading before being let go with the rest of the class of recruits as the firm retrenched after losses in 1988. Carr spent time as a futures trader, an investment manager, manager of a marketing firm, a marketing consultant and most as a freelance writer, authoring snowmobile travel articles for several magazines, he is involved in the production of Aerodrome, a fanzine founded by Carr in 1969 for devotees of the Dawn Patrol game. Carr was honored in 2007 as the only person who had attended every Gen Con convention since 1968.
His Fight in the Skies game was the only one, played at every Gen Con