The German Wikipedia is the German-language edition of Wikipedia, a free and publicly editable online encyclopedia. Founded in March 2001, it is the second-oldest, after the English Wikipedia, with 2,291,320 articles, at present the fourth-largest edition of Wikipedia by number of articles, behind the English Wikipedia and the bot-generated Swedish Wikipedia and Cebuano Wikipedia, it has the second-largest number of over 260,000 disambiguation pages. On 7 November 2011, it became the second edition of Wikipedia, after the English edition, to exceed 100 million page edits. On 21 March 2019 the German Wikipedia went offline to inform users about the situation of the European Union's copyright law reformation, the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market, which will be voted on in the European Parliament on 27 March 2019. Opponents of the reformation are concerned about the restriction of fundamental rights including a free press and the freedom of speech and arts; the German edition of Wikipedia was the first non-English Wikipedia subdomain, was named deutsche.wikipedia.com.
Its creation was announced by Jimmy Wales on 16 March 2001. One of the earliest snapshots of the home page, dated 21 March 2001, can be seen at the Wayback Machine site. Aside from the home page, creation of articles in the German Wikipedia started as early as April 2001 with translations of Nupedia articles; the earliest article still available on Wikipedia's site is Polymerase-Kettenreaktion, dated May 2001. Andrew Lih wrote that the hacker culture in Germany and the verein concept solidified the German Wikipedia's culture; the geography of Europe facilitated face-to-face meetups among German Wikipedians. On 27 December 2009, the German Wikipedia edition exceeded 1,000,000 articles, becoming the first edition after the English-language Wikipedia to do so; the millionth article was Ernie Wasson. In November 2008, 90% of the edition's articles had more than 512 bytes, 49% had more than 2 kilobytes, the average article size was 3,476 bytes. In the middle of 2009 this edition had nearly 250,000 biographies and in December 2006 more than 48,500 disambiguations.
Compared to the English Wikipedia, the German edition tends to be more selective in its coverage rejecting small stubs, articles about individual fictional characters and similar materials. Instead, there is one article about all the characters from a specific fictional setting only when the setting is considered important enough. A dedicated article about a single fictional entity exists only if the character in question has a significant impact on popular culture. Andrew Lih wrote that German Wikipedia users believe that "having no article at all is better than a bad article." Therefore, growth on the German Wikipedia leveled before it did for the English Wikipedia, with accelerating growth in article count shifting to constant growth in mid-2006. The number of users signing up for accounts began to decline in 2007 through 2008; the January 2005, Google Zeitgeist announced that "Wikipedia" was the eighth most-searched query on Google.de. In February 2005, Wikipedia reached third place behind Valentine's Day.
In June 2005, Wikipedia ranked first. Separate Wikipedias have been created for several other varieties of German, including Alemannic German, Pennsylvania German, Low German and Bavarian; these however, have less popularity than the German Wikipedia. The German Wikipedia is different from the English Wikipedia in a number of aspects. Compared to the English Wikipedia, different criteria of encyclopedic notability are expressed through the judgments of the editors for deciding if an article about a topic should be allowed; the criteria for notability are more specific, each field has its own specific guidelines. There are no fair use provisions. Images and other media that are accepted on the English Wikipedia as fair use may not be suitable for the German Wikipedia. However, the threshold of originality for works of applied art is set much higher, which allows the use of company logos and similar icons, too; the use of scholarly sources, in preference over journalistic and other types of sources, is more encouraged.
The German Verifiability guideline classifies scholarly sources as inherently more reliable than non-academic sources. In September 2005, Erik Möller voiced concern that "long term page protection is used excessively on the German Wikipedia": on 14 September 2005, 253 pages were protected for more than two weeks; this was the highest number of such blocks of all Wikipedias. As of May 2008, the German Wikipedia still had the highest percentage of semi-protected articles - 0.281% - among the ten largest Wikipedias, but with respect to the fraction of protected articles it ranks fourth, behind the Japanese and English Wikipedias. Vandalism and other abuse is handled in a less formal way. Vandals may get blocked on their first edit and without warning if their edit shows lack of interest for actual encyclopaedic work; this is true if the added text includes unlawful statements, such as holocaust denial. The Checkuser function is used to determine multiple accounts, as "suspicious" accounts are block
The Azerbaijani Wikipedia is a Wikipedia in Azerbaijani language, launched in January 2002. As of 30 November 2010 it had 42,518 articles and 14,523 uploaded files in its content, as well as 23,766 registered users; the editorial process is being supported by forty bots. Within the first two years of its existence the article number in Azerbaijani Wikipedia reached 3,000; as of November 2010 the local list of requested articles contains ten entries. Pending November 2010 translation requests comprise three English and three Turkish entries; the categorization is maintained through nine topic categories: culture, history, mathematics, science and technology. Hidden categories embrace 111 entries; the backlog category contains 14 subcategories. There are fourteen portals about architecture, chemistry, Islam, literature, philosophy, Azerbaijani cinema, Azerbaijani military, as well as country-specific ones about Georgia and Azerbaijan itself. Azerbaijani Wikipedia is increasing its number of articles, but at some point in 2015 this number somewhat decreased returning to values smaller than 100,000.
In 2010, Azerbaijani Wikipedia books published by professor Rasim Aliguliyev and senior scientist Irada Alakbarova. The book edited by Alovsat Aliyev. 2 June 2002 – Creation of first section in Azerbaijani Wikipedia. 9 March 2007 – 5 000 articles. 22 July 2007 – 10 000 articles. 29 July 2011 – 75 000 articles. 75 000th article صفیخانلو was written by user E THP. 17 September 2012 – 90 000 articles. 25 March 2014 – 100 000 articles. The first meetup was held in Baku on 6 December 2009; the event was organized in order to establish relations of friendship and familiarity between Wikipedians and a number of other issues – including technical problems and prospects for future development. In order to solve the problems, an emergency meeting was organized on 23 October 2010 in Baku. About 9 users participated in it. North Azerbaijani Wikipedia Azerbaijani Wikipedia mobile versionSouth Azerbaijani Wikipedia Azerbaijani Wikipedia mobile version
The Japanese Wikipedia is the Japanese-language edition of Wikipedia, a free, open-content encyclopedia. Started on 11 May 2001, the edition attained the 200,000 article mark in April 2006 and the 500,000 article mark in June 2008; as of April 2019, it has over 1,147,000 articles. In April 2016, the project had 4,192 active editors who made at least five edits in that month, ranking fourth behind the English and Russian editions. In March 2001, three non-English editions of Wikipedia were created, the German, the Catalan, the Japanese Wikipedias; the original site address of the Japanese Wikipedia was http://nihongo.wikipedia.com and all pages were written in the Latin alphabet or romaji, as the software did not work with Japanese characters at the time. The home page showed an early attempt at creating a vertical text; the first article was named "Nihongo no Funimekusu". Until late December in that year, there were only two articles. On January 31, 2003, a Japanese online magazine, Wired News Japanese edition, covered Wikipedia.
After that, the number of participants started to increase and many pages about the Wikipedia project were translated or created. On February 12, 2003, the Japanese edition of Wikipedia reached the 1,000-page milestone, two years after the English edition. Given that accomplishment, Slashdot Japan posted a story about the Japanese Wikipedia. Several days after that, the number of participants doubled, attesting to the power of the Slashdot effect; because of this exposure, a variety of articles started to appear, among them physics, information technology, music, games and celebrities. On July 15, 2003 the Japanese Wikipedia reached 10,000 articles, four months and three days after the 1,000-article milestone, beating the time it took the English Wikipedia to achieve the same feat. By early 2004 the Japanese Wikipedia contained 30,000 articles; the increase in both articles and contributors was steady after that, by late September it had reached 75,000 articles. The major force behind the expansion appeared to be a number of links at Yahoo!
Japan News. It is unknown when Yahoo! started to put links to the edition in their articles, but as of August 2004, dozens of news articles posted on Yahoo! Japan contained links to the edition to explain terms in the articles. In September 2004, the Japanese Wikipedia was awarded the "2004 Web Creation Award Web-Person Special Prize" from the Japan Advertisers Association; this award given to individuals for great contributions to the Web in Japanese, was accepted by a long-standing contributor on behalf of the project. The Japanese Wikipedia is different from the English Wikipedia in a number of ways. An edit is kept only if it is legal under both Japanese and United States laws, to account for the fact that the vast majority of contributors live in Japan; this has two major consequences: The fair use provisions of US law are not considered to be applicable. Articles and media files which do not have a GFDL-compatible license are prohibited if they would be legal under the "fair use" doctrine in the US.
Materials considered illegal cannot be kept in the archive reverted by oneself but caught in history archive. If an illegal edit is inserted between valid versions, a SysOp may remove specific revisions by deleting the article temporarily and restoring valid revisions. Quotation is discouraged. There is controversy over the GFDL compatibility of quotations. Articles that contain quotations will be deleted unless they meet all the following legal requirements: The source is referred to; the quotation is necessary. The quoting and quoted works can be regarded as the principal and subordinate both in quantity and quality; the quoting and quoted works are distinguishable. Cut-and-paste moves within Wikipedias, including merging and translation from other language are not allowed unless the original article source and date is explicitly referred to in the edit summary, because such moves are considered to be GFDL violations. Articles created in such a manner will be deleted. A comparable policy is in place on the English Wikipedia.
IP users' contributions are high compared to other major language versions of Wikipedia. The Japanese Wikipedia has the lowest number of administrators per active users. Edit wars are frowned upon. Articles may be protected as a result of an edit war with as little as four edits. Protected pages will not be unprotected; because of this, as of September 2005 the Japanese Wikipedia had the second-highest number of articles protected for over two weeks, after the German Wikipedia. In May 2008, 0.0906% of articles were protected, by far the highest percentage among the ten largest Wikipedias. Articles on sensitive topics, such as Japan's World War II, war crimes and current territorial disputes, are always under lengthy protection. On April 18, 2010 there was a proposal to create a new namespace for WikiProjects to shorten the name of a WikiProject; this proposal passed and a new namespace named "プロジェクト:" was created for WikiProjects on September 20 the same year. Articles will be deleted if they contain the names of private citizens, unless they are public figures.
An article about Shosei Koda, a Japanese citizen kidnapped in Iraq, does not refer to him by name, but former Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda's name may be mentioned due to his public position. Convicted criminals and their victims are considered private citizens if the case was extensively covered in Japan
The Croatian Wikipedia is the Croatian version of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, started on February 16, 2003. This version has 204,566 articles and a total of 5.23 million edits have been made. It has 216,762 registered user accounts, out of which 574 are active, the number of administrators is 16. In late 2013, the Croatian Wikipedia received attention from international media for promoting a fascist worldview as well as bias against Serbs of Croatia and anti-LGBT propaganda by the means of historical revisionism and by negating or diluting the severity of crimes committed by the Ustaše regime. Apart from whitewashing the crimes and vices of WW2-era criminals, the same is done for contemporary Croatian politicians and public figures. Throughout 2014, fewer than two dozen editors made more than 100 edits a month. Over 600 articles are ranked as featured. In a study by Kubelka and Šoštarić from 2011, the reliability of the Croatian Wikipedia was compared to the Croatian Encyclopedia - the Croatian national encyclopedia.
Twenty-four reviewers, experts in specific fields, analyzed a representative selection of articles according to the parameters of informativeness, accuracy of presented information, sufficiency and objectivity. Articles were analyzed in 11 thematic categories: culture. Articles were sorted into categories using machine learning techniques, feature weight statistics were calculated using tf–idf. A total of 500 articles in 250 pairs were randomly chosen and sorted into categories to serve as representative samples. In both samples facts were manually enumerated - 3015 from the Croatian Encyclopedia and 3315 from Croatian Wikipedia. Comparison for factual accuracy showed that for every error in the Croatian Encyclopedia 2.25 errors were found in Croatian Wikipedia. Analysis by individual categories showed that most errors in Croatian Wikipedia were in the philosophy category, where on average two errors in ten articles were found; the only category where the Croatian Encyclopedia had more errors was natural sciences, where the ratio was 1.25:0.75 in favor of Croatian Wikipedia.
Of those factual errors, the ratio was 21:12 for major errors, 34:23 for minor errors. The overall ratio for minor factual errors was thus lower, the only exception being the society and social sciences category, where the minor error ratio was 3:1; the reliability analysis for Croatian Wikipedia indicated that 74% of articles were error-free, 11% had minor errors. Major factual errors were found in 5% of articles, while 4% of articles had both major and minor errors. Overall 85% of articles were deemed "satisfactory", while in comparison 92% of articles in the Croatian Encyclopedia achieved the same rating. Forty percent of articles in Croatian Wikipedia were assessed as sufficiently informative, as opposed to sixty-two percent of articles in the Croatian Encyclopedia. Sixteen percent of Croatian Wikipedia articles were assessed as "insufficiently informative", as opposed to five percent of articles from the Croatian Encyclopedia; the criterion of objectivity measured the neutral point of view in articles.
Two percent of Croatian Wikipedia articles were assessed as non-neutral, as opposed to zero in the Croatian Encyclopedia. According to their subjective preference, reviewers chose 53% of articles in the Croatian Encyclopedia as their preferred article version, while only 19.5% of Wikipedia articles were preferred, with 27% of articles being assessed as equal in quality. In September 2013, complaints about right-wing bias of administrators and editors on the Croatian Wikipedia began to receive attention from the media, following the launch of a Facebook page titled Razotkrivanje sramotne hr.wikipedije, created with the intent of bringing attention to the issues. Reported examples of bias include historical revisionism such as watering-down and denial of the crimes committed by the Ustashe regime, equating anti-fascism with forms of totalitarianism. Other issues included the bias against Serbs of the LGBT population. Editors who tried to remove the biased sections were being harassed by administrators and received permanent blocks under various pretexts.
The issue was reported by Croatia's daily Jutarnji list and made its print edition's front page on 11 September 2013. Two days Croatia's Minister of Science and Sports, Željko Jovanović, called for pupils and students in Croatia to avoid using the Croatian Wikipedia. In an interview given to Novi list, Jovanović said that "the idea of openness and relevance as a knowledge source that Wikipedia could and should represent has been discredited – which, for certain, has never been the goal of Wikipedia's creators nor the huge number of people around the world who share their knowledge and time using that medium. Croatian pupils and students have been wronged by this, so we have to warn them that a large part of the content of the Croatian version of Wikipedia is not only dubious but obvious forgeries, therefore we invite them to use more reliable sources of information, which include Wikipedia in English and in other major languages of the world." Jovanović has comment
The Swedish Wikipedia is the Swedish-language edition of Wikipedia and was started on 23 May 2001. It is the third largest Wikipedia by article-count with its 3,748,693 current articles, where a majority are generated by a bot, or software application, has a Wikipedia article depth of 5.6. The administrators on the Swedish Wikipedia are elected for a fixed-term period of one year and have to be re-elected after that time. Swedish Wikipedia rivalled susning.nu, a wiki created by Lars Aronsson in 2001. Susning.nu was by 28 May 2003 the world's second largest wiki. Due to several controversies involving the authority of the founder, objections to Aronsson's decision to allow advertisement on the site, several prolific Susning writers switched over to Swedish Wikipedia in 2002, more followed. Two of its pioneers were Johan Dahlin and Dan Köhl, the latter one introduced "Tinget" in November 2002; this was the first conflict handling organ at Swedish Wikipedia. In April 2004, Susning.nu's editing features were closed down to all but a handful of users, which further increased the flow to Swedish Wikipedia.
On 14 January 2005, Wikipedia's article count surpassed that of Susning.nu. In March 2006, the Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet published a comparative evaluation of Swedish Wikipedia, Susning.nu and the online version of Nationalencyklopedin. The evaluation was done by giving a selection of articles to independent subject matter experts for grading. While Nationalencyklopedin came out on top with respect to factuality and neutrality, Swedish Wikipedia received a good overall grade and came out on top with respect to being up to date and having a broad coverage including popular culture subjects. On 27 September 2012 it reached 500,000 articles. On 15 June 2013 it rose from 8th to 5th place; this meant that during 2013 the number of articles on Swedish Wikipedia more than doubled. This is in large part due to a community project where bots were used in producing articles for all existing species of plants and animals; when finished, this project alone created more than a million articles, most short and sourced through available online databases on the subject.
In 2014 about half of its articles were created by a single bot. Danish Wikipedia Norwegian Wikipedia Nationalencyklopedin Swedish Wikipedia Swedish Wikipedia mobile version
The Korean Wikipedia is the Korean language edition of the Wikipedia. It was founded in October 2002 and reached ten thousand articles on 4 June 2005; as of March 2019, it is the 24th largest Wikipedia. In April 2016, the project had 847 active editors; the Korean Wikipedia used an older version of MediaWiki. The software had problems representing Hangul. In August 2002, the software was started to support non-English scripts such as hangul. However, Internet Explorer continued to have an encoding problem, which kept contributions to the encyclopedia low. From October 2002 to July 2003, the number of articles increased from 13 to 159, in August 2003 it reached 348. In September 2003 the hangul problem was solved. From September 2003, with no accessing difficulty once the encoding error in IE was solved, the number of contributions and visits increased; the Korean Wikipedia's prospects became more optimistic following the momentum created by substantial coverage in the Korean media. The Korean Wikipedia won the Information Trust Award in the general Internet culture branch in 2005.
The Korean Wikipedia is written entirely in hangul. Hanja is only used in order to clarify certain phrases, is parenthesized. There is a group, named Dajimo, working to introduce a mixed script system to the Korean Wikipedia. A request for a separate Wikipedia in mixed script, was rejected. There are two major standards in the Korean language, the South Korea standard, the North Korea standard. North Koreans are underrepresented on the Korean Wikipedia, due to North Korean censorship of the Internet in North Korea. Therefore, most users of the Korean Wikipedia are South Koreans and most articles are written in the South Korean style; the official name of the Wikipedia is 한국어 위키백과 Hangugeo Wiki-baekgwa. Hangugeo is the name for the Korean language in South Korea, baekgwa is a clipped form of 백과사전 baekgwasajeon "encyclopedia". Businesses make use of the Korean Wikipedia in various ways, for its license, the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike License, allows modification and distribution for commercial purpose.
Empas integrated the Korean Wikipedia database in its search since 11 August 2005. The feature to search Korean Wikipedia using a mobile phone with a wireless Internet connection through Nate was available to the subscribers of SK Telecom from 6 July 2007. Since 21 August, Daum mirrored Korean Wikipedia and English Wikipedia on its portal, Naver started to present the search results from the Korean and English Wikipedia prior to others from 11 January 2008; the South Korean right-wing youth group story K favors a proactive involvement of right-wing media establishments for the Korean Wikipedia. Despite the South Korean conservative New Rights establishments pressured the government to approve the term, liberal democracy, to represent South Korea in Korean history textbooks, the head of the National Institute of Korean History, Lee Tae-jin, proposed to use this political term by citing the Korean version of Wikipedia as a main source. Human rights groups have sent copies of the Korean Wikipedia to North Korea on USB sticks by balloon.
The Korean Wikipedia Korean Wikipedia mobile version
Creative Commons is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon and to share. The organization has released several copyright-licenses, known as Creative Commons licenses, free of charge to the public; these licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy-to-understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. Creative Commons licenses are based upon it, they replace individual negotiations for specific rights between copyright owner and licensee, which are necessary under an "all rights reserved" copyright management, with a "some rights reserved" management employing standardized licenses for re-use cases where no commercial compensation is sought by the copyright owner. The result is an agile, low-overhead and low-cost copyright-management regime, benefiting both copyright owners and licensees.
The organization was founded in 2001 by Lawrence Lessig, Hal Abelson, Eric Eldred with the support of Center for the Public Domain. The first article in a general interest publication about Creative Commons, written by Hal Plotkin, was published in February 2002; the first set of copyright licenses was released in December 2002. The founding management team that developed the licenses and built the Creative Commons infrastructure as we know it today included Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, Glenn Otis Brown, Neeru Paharia, Ben Adida. In 2002 the Open Content Project, a 1998 precursor project by David A. Wiley, announced the Creative Commons as successor project and Wiley joined as CC director. Aaron Swartz played a role in the early stages of Creative Commons; as of May 2018 there were an estimated 1.4 billion works licensed under the various Creative Commons licenses. Wikipedia uses one of these licenses; as of May 2018, Flickr alone hosts over 415 million Creative Commons licensed photos. Creative Commons is governed by a board of directors.
Their licenses have been embraced by many as a way for creators to take control of how they choose to share their copyrighted works. Creative Commons has been described as being at the forefront of the copyleft movement, which seeks to support the building of a richer public domain by providing an alternative to the automatic "all rights reserved" copyright, has been dubbed "some rights reserved". David Berry and Giles Moss have credited Creative Commons with generating interest in the issue of intellectual property and contributing to the re-thinking of the role of the "commons" in the "information age". Beyond that, Creative Commons has provided "institutional and legal support for individuals and groups wishing to experiment and communicate with culture more freely."Creative Commons attempts to counter what Lawrence Lessig, founder of Creative Commons, considers to be a dominant and restrictive permission culture. Lessig describes this as "a culture in which creators get to create only with the permission of the powerful, or of creators from the past."
Lessig maintains that modern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order to maintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products such as popular music and popular cinema, that Creative Commons can provide alternatives to these restrictions. Until April 2018 Creative Commons had over 100 affiliates working in over 75 jurisdictions to support and promote CC activities around the world. In 2018 this affiliate network has been restructured into a network organisation; the network no longer relies on affiliate organisation but on individual membership organised in Chapter. Creative Commons Japan is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in Japan. In 2003, the International University GLOCOM hold a meeting for the CC Japan preparing. In March 2004, CC Japan was initiated by that University, that, the second CC created among the world. In March 2006, the CC Japan be in motion. In the same year of March, the CC founder Lawrence Lessig came to Japan to be one of the main holder of the open ceremony.
Within same year of May to June, different international events hold in Japan which include iSummit 06 and the first to third round CCJP held. In 2007 of February, ICC x ClipLife 15 sec CM open. In June, iSummit 07 held on. After that month, the fourth CCJP held on. In the 25/7/2007, Tokyo approve Nobuhiro Nakayamato become the NGO chairman of CCJP. In 2008, Taipie ACIA join CCJP; the main theme music which chose by CCJP announced. In 2009, INTO INFINITY shown in Sapporo. I-phone held the shows with Audio Visual Mixer for INTO INFINITY. 2012, the 10 anniversary ceremony held on Japan. 2015, the renew version of CCJP overt. Creative Commons Japan Zero overt. Creative Commons Korea is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in South Korea. In March 2005, CC Korea was initiated by Jongsoo Yoon, a Presiding Judge of Incheon District Court, as a project of Korea Association for Infomedia Law; the major Korean portal sites, including Daum and Naver, have been participating in the use of Creative Commons licences.
In January 2009, the Creative Commons Korea Association was founded as a non-profit incorporated association. Since CC Korea has been promoting the liberal and open culture of creation as well as leading the diffusion of Creative Common in the country. Creative Commons Korea Creative Commons Asia Conference 2010