Kyrgyz alphabets

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The Kyrgyz alphabets (Kyrgyz: Кыргыз алфавити, Qırğız alfaviti, قىرعىز الفابىتى, Uniform Turkic Alphabet: Qьrƣьz alfaviti, Kyrgyz pronunciation: [qɯrˈɢɯz ɑɫɸɑˈviti]) are the alphabets used to write the Kyrgyz language. The Kyrgyz language uses the following alphabets:

The Arabic script was traditionally used to write Kyrgyz before the introduction of the first Latin-based alphabets in 1927. Today an Arabic alphabet is used in China,[1] the Uniform Turkic Alphabet was used in the USSR in the 1930s until its replacement by a Cyrillic script. The Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet is the alphabet used in Kyrgyzstan, it contains 36 letters: 33 from the Russian alphabet with 3 additional letters for sounds of the Kyrgyz language: Ң, Ү, Ө.

Although the Latin script is not in official use, some Kyrgyz texts are written in the Turkish variant of the Latin alphabet, and uses Turkish spelling norms e.g. for diphthongization (ey, ay etc). Native Kyrgyz sound values are almost identical to Turkish, the exceptions being the velar nasal /ŋ/ and the voiceless uvular stop /q/ which do not exist in Turkish; in these cases they are written as "ñ" and "q" respectively.

Correspondence chart[edit]

Correspondence chart of five Kyrgyz alphabets: the Kyrgyz Cyrillic and Kyrgyz Braille alphabets used in Kyrgyzstan, the modified Turkish alphabet used unofficially by the Kyrgyz communities and Turkologists in Turkey and around the world, the Kyrgyz Latin alphabet used 1928–1938 in Kyrgyzstan, and the Kyrgyz Arabic alphabet used in Xinjiang.

Cyrillic Name Braille Arabic[2] Transliteration
(BGN/PCGN)
Transliteration
(Pinyin)
Latin
(Based on Turkish)
Latin
(1928–⁠1938)
IPA transcription
А а а ا A a A a A a A a /ɑ/
Б б бе ب B b B b B b B ʙ /b/, /w/, /v/
В в ве ۋ V v W w V v V v /v/
Г г ге گ
ع*
G g G g, Ƣ ƣ G g, Ğ ğ G g, Ƣ ƣ /ɡ/, /ʁ/, /ɢ/
Д д де د D d D d D d D d /d/
Е е e ە E e, Ye ye Ê ê, Yê yê E e, Ye ye E e, Je je /je/, /e/
Ё ё ё يو Yo yo Yo yo Yo yo Jo jo /jo/
Ж ж же ج J j J j C c Ç ç (Ƶ ƶ from 1938) /d͡ʒ/
З з зе ز Z z Z z Z z Z z /z/
И и и ى I i I i İ i I i /i/
Й й ий ي Y y Y y Y y J j /j/
К к кa ك
ق*
K k K k, K k, Q q K k, Q q /k/, /q/, /χ/
Л л эл ل L l L l L l L l /l/, /ɫ/
М м эм م M m M m M m M m /m/
Н н эн ن N n N n N n N n /n/
Ң ң ың ڭ Ng ng Ng ng Ñ ñ /ŋ/, /ɴ/
О о о و O o O o O o O o /o/
Ө ө ө ۅ Ö ö Ɵ ɵ Ö ö Ɵ ɵ /ø/
П п пe پ P p P p P p P p /p/
Р р эр ر R r R r R r R r /r/
С с эс س S s S s S s S s /s/
Т т те ت T t T t T t T t /t/
У у у ۇ U u U u U u U u /u/
Ү ү ү ۉ Ü ü Ü ü Ü ü Y y /y/
Ф ф эф ف F f F f F f F f /f/
Х х ха ح Kh kh H h, X x H h (X x from 1938) /χ/, /k/
Ц ц це (ت+س (تس Ts ts C c Ţ ţ Ts ts /t͡s/
Ч ч че چ Ch ch Q q Ç ç C c /t͡ʃ/
Ш ш ша ش Sh sh X x Ş ş Ş ş /ʃ/
Щ щ ща - Shch shch Xq xq Şç şç Şc şc /ʃt͡ʃ/, /ʃː/
Ъ ъ ажыратуу белгиси - - - - *[3]
Ы ы ы ى Y y E e I ı Ь ь /ɯ/
Ь ь ичкертүү белгиси - - - - *[3]
Э э э ە E e Ê ê E e E e /e/
Ю ю ю يۋ Yu yu Yu yu Yu yu Ju ju /ju/, /jy/
Я я я يا Ya ya Ya ya Ya ya Ja ja /ja/, /jɑ/

The letter H is not present in the Kyrgyz alphabet. Instead, it was replaced by a mute sound. (e.g. "Şaar" (city) in Kyrgyz corresponds to Şahar/Şähär/Şəhər in other Turkic languages.)

  • К – ك changes into ق if precedes or succeeds by letters а, о, у, ы.
  • Г – گ changes into ع if precedes or succeeds by letters а, о, у, ы.

Text sample[edit]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [4]

Kyrgyz in
Cyrillic script
Kyrgyz in
Arabic script
Transliteration
(Pinyin)
Kyrgyz in
Latin script (Turkish-based)
Kyrgyz in
Latin script (1928–1938)
IPA transcription English
Бардык адамдар өз беделинде жана укуктарында эркин жана тең укуктуу болуп жаралат. Алардын аң‑сезими менен абийири бар жана бири‑бирине бир туугандык мамиле кылууга тийиш. باردىق ادامدار ۅز بەدەلىندە جانا ۇقۇقتارىندا ەركىن جانا تەڭ ۇقۇقتۇۇ بولۇپ جارالات. الاردىن اڭ-سەزىمى مەنەن ابئيىرى بار جانا بئرى-بئرىنە بئر تۇۇعاندىق مامئلە قىلۇۇعا تئيىش. Bardeⱪ adamdar ɵz bêdêlindê jana uⱪuⱪtarenda êrkin jana têng uⱪuⱪtuu bolup jaralat. Alarden ang‑sêzimi mênên abiyiri bar jana biri‑birinê bir tuuƣandeⱪ mamilê ⱪeluuƣa tiyix. Bardıq adamdar öz bedelinde cana uquqtarında erkin cana teñ uquqtuu bolup caralat. Alardın añ‑sezimi menen abiyiri bar cana biri‑birine bir tuuğandıq mamile qıluuğa tiyiş. Bardьq adamdar ɵz ʙedelinde çana uquqtarьnda erkin çana teᶇ uquqtuu ʙolup çaralat. Alardьn aᶇ‑sezimi menen aʙijiri ʙar çana ʙiri‑ʙirine ʙir tuugandьk mamile qьluuƣa tijiş. bɑrdɯq ɑdɑmdɑr øz bedelinde d͡ʒɑnɑ uquqtɑrɯndɑ erkin d͡ʒɑnɑ teŋ uquqtuː boɫup d͡ʒɑrɑɫɑt. ɑɫɑrdɯn ɑɴ-sezimi menen ɑbijiri bɑr d͡ʒɑnɑ biri-birine bir tuːʁɑndɯq mɑmile qɯɫuːʁɑ tijiʃ. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Arabic[edit]

Name in Kyrgyz Transliteration IPA Final Medial Initial Isolated
a [ɑ] ا
b [b]
p [p] پ
n [n]
t [t]
j [ʒ]
č / ch [t͡ʃ]
ĥ / x [χ~q]
f [ɸ]
q [q]
ġ [ɢ~ʁ]
k [k~q] ک
g [ɡ~ɣ] گ
/ ng [ŋ~ɴ] ڭ
l [l~ɫ]
m [m]
o [o] و و
ö / oe [ø] ۅ
u [u] ۉ
ü [y]
v [v]
s [s]
š / sh [ʃ]
d [d]
r [r]
z [z]
e [je/e]
ı(b) -
o(f) [y] ﯗﺀ
i(f) ﻰﺋ
y [j] ي
i/ı
- ء
() (la) ([]) () () () (ﻻ)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Minglang Zhou (2003). Multilingualism in China: the politics of writing reforms for minority languages, 1949-2002. Volume 89 of Contributions to the sociology of language (illustrated ed.). Published Walter de Gruyter. p. 149. ISBN 3-11-017896-6. Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  2. ^ Kyrgyz alphabet, language and pronunciation
  3. ^ a b no phonemic value; only found in borrowings
  4. ^ Kyrgyz edition of Universal Declaration of Human Rights

External links[edit]