Kyrgyzstani som

The som is the currency of the Kyrgyz Republic. In the Soviet Union, speakers of Kazakh and Uzbek called the ruble the som, this name appeared written on the back of banknotes, among the texts for the value of the bill in all 15 official languages of the Union; the word som means "pure" in Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Uzbek, as well as in many other Turkic languages. The word implies "pure gold"; the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic approved an underlined С as the official currency symbol for the KGS in February 2017. No Unicode currency symbol is registered, although it can be represented by the sequence С̲. After the collapse of the Soviet Union attempts were made by most republics to maintain a common currency. Certain politicians were hoping to at the least maintain "special relations" among former Soviet republics, or the "near abroad". Another reason were the economic considerations for maintaining the ruble zone; the wish to preserve the strong trade relations between former Soviet republics was considered the most important goal.

The break-up of the Soviet Union was not accompanied by any formal changes in monetary arrangements. The Central Bank of Russia was authorized to take over the State Bank of the USSR on 1 January 1992, it continued to ship USSR ruble notes and coins to the central banks of the fourteen newly independent countries, the main branches of Gosbank in the republics. The political situation, was not favorable for maintaining a common currency. Maintaining a common currency requires a strong political consensus in respect to monetary and fiscal targets, a common institution in charge of implementing these targets, some minimum of common legislation; these conditions were far from being met amidst the turbulent political situation. During the first half of 1992, a monetary union with 15 independent states all using the ruble existed. Since it was clear that the situation would not last, each of them was using its position as "free-riders" to issue huge amounts of money in the form of credit; as a result, some countries were issuing coupons in order to "protect" their markets from buyers from other states.

The Russian central bank responded in July 1992 by setting up restrictions to the flow of credit between Russia and other states. The final collapse of the ruble zone began when Russia pulled out with the exchange of banknotes by the Central Bank of Russia on Russian territory at the end of July 1993; the som was introduced on May 1993, replacing the Soviet ruble at a rate of 1 som = 200 rubles. Only banknotes were issued, coins were not introduced until 2008. Circulation coins were first introduced in January 2008, making Kyrgyzstan second to last of the former Soviet republics to issue them. Belarus became the last; this move came with growing demand from vendors for coins from slot machine industries and those desiring a more efficient system for collecting fare money. The coins were issued in 1, 3 and 5 som. A 10 som coin was issued a year for 2009. All coins are minted by the Kazakhstan mint in Ust-Kamenogorsk and bear some resemblance to coins of the Russian Federation. There are several commemorative non circulation coins made of silver and gold, a special collector's issue of brass 1 tyiyn coin.

Starting in 1995, the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic has issued a large number of commemorative coins intended for collectors. They are not used in everyday circulation. On 10 May 1993, the government issued 1, 10 and 50 tyiyn notes and the Kyrgyzstan Bank issued notes for 1, 5 and 20 som. In 1994, the Kyrgyz Bank issued a second series of notes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 som. A third series followed from 1997 onwards in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 som. A fourth series was issued in 2009 and 2010 in denominations of 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 5000 som. Several commemorative banknotes intended for collectors were issued. Notes valued 1 and 10 tyiyin with serial numbers KT and ZT were issued in 1999. 50 tyiyins of with serial numbers KT and ZT were issued in 2001. All others in 1993. Notes of the first series were designed by A. P. Tsygank, they were printed by De La Rue in Great Britain. Notes valued 1, 10 and 50 tyiyin stayed in use until coins were introduced in January 2008.

Banknotes of 1, 5 and 20 som of the first series were withdrawn from circulation and replaced with banknotes of the second series starting in 1994. The second series of banknotes followed in 1994-1995 when “the banknotes of the stabilization period” were issued; these banknotes had a better counterfeit protection than the banknotes of the first series. Starting in 1997, a new series of banknotes was introduced with similar themes, but enhanced design, compared to the previous series. In January 2008 coins of 1 and 5 som and in December 2009 coins of 10 som where introduced; as a result, production of banknotes of these values ceased. The banknotes are instead being phased out. In January 2008 the Kyrgyz National Bank estimated that within 2 years the 1 and 5 som banknotes would have completely disappeared from circulation. In 2009 the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic issued a 5000 som note. New editions for 20, 50 and 100 som denominations followed. Among other things, these notes have enhanced security features compared to the previous series.

In October 2014 banknotes commemorating the 150th birthdate of Toktogul Satylganov and the 100th birthdate of Alykul Osmonov were issued

Mindoro stripe-faced fruit bat

The Mindoro stripe-faced fruit bat, nicknamed the "flying fox" for its foxlike face, is a species of large Philippine megabat. It is endemic to the island of Mindoro; the Mindoro stripe-faced fruit bat ranked sixth in the top ten species of 2008, selected by the International Institute for Species Exploration. Aboriginal rock art dating back some 20,000 years, from near Kalumburu in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, depicts several bats similar to Styloctenium mindorensis hanging from a branch or vine; the paintings belong to a category of sophisticated rock art known as Bradshaws. The facial markings on the paintings are clear and have led researchers to conclude that the subjects were either S. mindorensis or a related species. S. mindorensis is a typical fruit bat, possessing modified forearms for flight, short clawed hind legs and large ears. The bat shares many anatomical features with the rest of its genus, described from just one species; these include an overall orange pelage, a white stripe down the middle of the bat's rostrum and white spots above its eyes.

S. mindorensis can be distinguished from the other member of its genus by its possession of multicusped lower and upper canine teeth. Because of its distinct morphological features, it was placed in the genus Styloctenium. Prior to this, the genus was only described from the Indonesian Styloctenium wallacei; the second species in the genus to be discovered, it was formally described by Jacob Esselstyn in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Mammalogy. Esselstyn first heard rumours of the bat's existence from locals in barangay Batong Buhay in the municipality of Sablayan in the province of Occidental Mindoro; the researchers remained skeptical of the species' existence until a live specimen was unexpectedly found in February 2006. The bat was unintentionally caught in one of their nets used for surveying the local fauna. S. mindorensis is the 74th chiropteran species to be found in the Philippines and the country's 26th endemic one. While no population studies has been done so far on the species, it has been suggested that it may be threatened by hunting and habitat loss due to the general deforestation of forests on Mindoro.

Along with other large pteropodids on the island, the bat is hunted by the locals for food. The describer went so far as to state that because of these threats, the species may be at risk of extinction, it is assessed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Photo at


Harmasra is a gram panchayat under Taldangra intermediate panchayat, in Khatra subdivision of Bankura district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Harmasra is located at 23°01′28″N 87°00′00″E Census villages under Harmasra village panchayat are: Kadamara, Kiasol, Harmasra, Bhimara, Dolbagicha, Karanjabedia, Ghagar, Tilabani, Chakkuldiha, Mahishakanali, Bali Bandh, Maibandhi, Khichka,Rampur Kolsuli, Jamua. There are some small but picturesque water falls along the course of the Shilabati near Harmasra, As per 2011 Census of India Harmasra had a total population of 3,131 of which Males= 1,581 Females= 1,550. Population below 6 years was 341; the total number of literates in Harmasra was 2,044. The nearest railway station to Harmasra is Bheduasol, located in and around 23.4 kilometer distance. Bankura Railway Station is the most important among others; the following table shows its distance. Bheduasol railway station = 23.4 km. Bankura railway station = 23.5 km. Bishnupur railway station = 31.1 km.

ShriRampuram railway station = 46.7 km. Kalipahari railway station = 47.1 km. Harmasra ` s nearest. Nearest International Airport is Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport situated at 183 km. Below list shows distance. Kazi Nazrul Islam Airport, Andal - 63.7 km. Chakulia Airport - 68.7 km. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport, Dum Dum, Kolkata - 183.5 km. Bankura district was once under the influence of Jainism and a number of Jain relics lie scattered in the district. Jain relics at villages Sonatapal, Dharapat and Paresnath are now taken as Hindu relics and some of the intact images are daily worshipped as Hindu deities. Harmasra has Jain temple made up of bricks with a shikhara; the temple has an image of Parshavanatha along with small images of other tirthankars. Durga festival is widely celebrated in this village and is the main festival in the village. Harmasra has a Higher Secondary School, situated just outside the main village, it was established in 1921. It has science and arts streams.

The school has good laboratory facilities. Students from nearby villages come here to study. Below list shows all the schools located its distance. Harmasra High School - 0.6 km. Harmasra Girls School - 0.2 km