Molasses or black treacle is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar. Molasses varies by amount of sugar, method of extraction, age of plant. Sugarcane molasses is used for sweetening and flavoring foods in the United States and elsewhere. Molasses is a defining component of fine commercial brown sugar. Sweet sorghum syrup may be colloquially called "sorghum molasses" in the southern United States. Similar products include honey, maple syrup, corn syrup, invert syrup. Most of these alternative syrups have milder flavors; the word comes from the Portuguese melaço. Cognates include Ancient Greek μέλι, Latin mel, Spanish melaza, French miel. Cane molasses is an ingredient used in cooking, it was popular in the Americas prior to the 20th century. To make molasses, sugar cane is stripped of leaves, its juice is extracted by cutting, crushing, or mashing. The juice is boiled promoting sugar crystallization; the result of this first boiling is called first syrup, it has the highest sugar content.
First syrup is referred to in the Southern states of the United States as cane syrup, as opposed to molasses. Second molasses is created from a second boiling and sugar extraction, has a bitter taste; the third boiling of the sugar syrup yields dark, viscous"blackstrap molasses", known for its robust flavor. The majority of sucrose from the original juice has been removed; the caloric content of blackstrap molasses is due to the small remaining sugar content. Unlike refined sugars, it contains significant amounts of vitamin B6 and minerals, including calcium, magnesium and manganese. Blackstrap is a good source of potassium. Blackstrap molasses has long been sold as a dietary supplement. Blackstrap molasses is more bitter than "regular" molasses, it is sometimes used in baking or for producing ethanol and rum, as an ingredient in cattle feed, as fertilizer. The term "black-strap" or "blackstrap" is an Americanism dating from 1875 or before, its first known use is in a book by detective Allan Pinkerton in 1877.
The exaggerated health benefits sometimes claimed for blackstrap molasses were the topic of a 1951 novelty song, "Black Strap Molasses", recorded by Groucho Marx, Jimmy Durante, Jane Wyman, Danny Kaye. Molasses made from sugar beets differs from sugarcane molasses. Only the syrup left from the final crystallization stage is called molasses. Intermediate syrups are called high green and low green, these are recycled within the crystallization plant to maximize extraction. Beet molasses is 50% sugar by dry weight, predominantly sucrose, but contains significant amounts of glucose and fructose. Beet molasses is limited in biotin for cell growth; the nonsugar content includes many salts, such as calcium, potassium and chloride. It contains the trisaccharide raffinose; these are a result of concentration from the original plant material or chemicals in processing, make it unpalatable to humans. So, it is used as an additive to animal feed or as a fermentation feedstock. Extracting additional sugar from beet molasses is possible through molasses desugarization.
This exploits industrial-scale chromatography to separate sucrose from non-sugar components. The technique is economically viable in trade-protected areas, where the price of sugar is supported above market price; as such, it is practiced in the U. S. and parts of Europe. Sugar beet molasses is consumed in Europe. Molasses is used for yeast production. Many kinds of molasses on the market come branded as "unsulphured". Many foods, including molasses, were once treated with sulfur dioxide as a preservative, helping to kill off molds and bacteria. Sulfur dioxide is used as a bleaching agent, helped to lighten the color of molasses. Most brands have moved away from using sulphured molasses, due to the stable natural shelf life of untreated molasses and the off flavor and trace toxicity of low doses of sulfur dioxide. In Middle Eastern cuisine, molasses is produced from carob, dates and mulberries. In Nepal it is called chaku used in the preparation of Newari foods such as yomari. Molasses can be used: The principal ingredient in the distillation of rum In dark rye breads or other whole grain breads In some cookies and pies In gingerbread In barbecue sauces In beer styles such as stouts and porters To stabilize emulsification of home-made vinaigrette As a humectant in jerky processing A source for yeast production An additive in mu'assel, the tobacco smoked in a hookah.
The carbon source for in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons Blended with magnesium chloride and used for de-icing A stock for ethanol fermentation to produce an alternative fuel for motor vehicles As a brightener in copper electroforming solution when used in tandem with thiourea As a minor component of mortar for brickwork Mixed with gelatin glue and glycerine when casting composition ink rollers on early printing presses As a soil additive to promote microbial activity Molasses is composed of 22% water, 75% carbohydrates, no protein or fat. In a 100 gram reference amount, molasses is a rich source of vitamin B6 and several dietary minerals, including manganese, m
Chesterfield is a brand of cigarettes owned and manufactured by Altria. It is named after Virginia. Chesterfield was a sponsor of the Surtees team during the 1976 Formula One season and 1977 Formula One season. A second car entered in was sponsored by Chesterfield in 1977, while their main car was controversially sponsored by Durex. Chesterfield sponsored the BMS Scuderia Italia team in the 1993 FIA Formula One World Championship, they only sponsored the team for one season due to the retirement of the team from F1 to focus on the World Touring Car Cup. Chesterfield was a sponsor of Max Biaggi's Aprilia RSV 250 from the 1994 to the 1996 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season in the 250cc World Championship; the livery of the bike was black with the mark on the side fairings. In the same years, Aprilia adopted the same livery in the series production of its RS road bikes; the success was so great that today Italians are used to say "La Chesterfield" to refer to the Aprilia RS models of those years.
Chesterfield was the main sponsor of the motorcycle team "BYRD" at the Paris-Dakar Rally from 1987 to 1994. The competition team "Yamaha Sonauto" was sponsored by the cigarette brand Gauloises. In addition, under the name "Chesterfield Scout" a collaboration with the enduro sport on a more private level. For example, at Yamaha in 1989, there was a "Chesterfield DT" with 125 cc, for the Yamaha XTZ 750 Super Ténéré gave it in its first model year in 1989, the color variant "Chesterfield". In the 1930s through the 1950s, Chesterfield sponsored popular radio programs. An early one was the radio series Music That Satisfies, broadcast in 1932-1933; the Chesterfield Hour featured big bands such as those of Paul Whiteman and Glenn Miller and Fred Waring. It was followed by Johnny Mercer's Chesterfield Music Shop and the Chesterfield Supper Club which featured Perry Como and Jo Stafford with Peggy Lee replacing Stafford on some episodes beginning in 1948. Johnny Mercer wrote the pop standard song "Dream" as the theme song for his Chesterfield radio program.
Liggett & Myers sponsored Dragnet, during the 1950s. The 1954 theatrical version of Dragnet had Chesterfield product placements, such as advertisements in scenes taking place at drug stores and news counters, or cigarette vending machines. Jack Webb as Sgt. Joe Friday was seen smoking Chesterfields in the movie and TV series; the Martin and Lewis Show, on NBC radio from 1949 to 1953, was sponsored or co-sponsored for most of its run by Chesterfield. In the 1950s, Gunsmoke on both radio and TV was sponsored by Chesterfields and L&Ms. In the 1940s and 1950s Ronald Reagan, Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, Perry Como, Arthur Godfrey were among Chesterfield's official spokesmen. Chesterfield is sold in: Argentina, Austria, Belgium and Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom. On February 8, 2018, Phillip Morris USA discontinued Chesterfield non-filter cigarettes in the United States.
In January 2019, Phillip Morris USA began testing some filtered varieties in North and South Carolina. The varieties include Reds and Green. Ian Fleming makes references to different smoking products in his famous James Bond novels; the Chesterfield brand of cigarette are portrayed as one of Bond's favorites as seen in the 1959 book Goldfinger. In this novel, James Bond demands of Goldfinger's servant, "Oddjob, I want a lot of food, quickly, and a bottle of bourbon and ice. A carton of Chesterfields, king-size..."In numerous Stephen King novels, his characters smoke Chesterfield cigarettes. In the popular 2010 HBO TV series Boardwalk Empire, Agent Knox is seen giving three packs of Chesterfield cigarettes to Clayton. Humphrey Bogart appeared in Chesterfield advertisements. A scene from the 1944 movie To Have and Have Not shows him with a pack of Chesterfields. Chesterfield was made famous notably through Jean-Luc Godard's 1960 film À bout de souffle in which the cigarette smoked by the actress Jean Seberg is a Chesterfield.
Vittorio Gassman bought two packs of Chesterfield cigarettes in the movie Il Sorpasso. In Jack Clayton's 1974 adaptation of The Great Gatsby, Gatsby splits the last Chesterfield in his pack with Nick Carraway while the two chat on Carraway's porch. Nick Carraway is a thinly-disguised F. Scott Fitzgerald in The Great Gatsby. Fitzgerald's favorite cigarette was Chesterfield's. Jake Blues smoked Chesterfield cigarettes in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers. Near the end of the scene at Bob's Country Bunker, Jake is seen flashing a flattened and nearly empty pack of Chesterfield cigarettes, pretending it is his musician's union ID card. In Jim Jarmusch's 1984 film Stranger Than Paradise the main characters smoke Chesterfields, at times discussing where they can purchase them. In the 1989 film Fratelli d'Italia, Jerry Calà draws a pack of Chesterfield Reds several times. In Quentin Tarantino's 1992 movie Reservoir Dogs, Mr. White offers Mr. Pink a Che
Marlboro is an American brand of cigarettes owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA within the United States, by Philip Morris International outside the United States. Richmond, Virginia, is the location of the largest Marlboro cigarette manufacturing plant. Marlboro is the global best-selling cigarette brand since 1972. Philip Morris cigarette maker, opened a New York subsidiary in 1902 to sell many of its cigarette brands; the mark "Marlboro" was registered in the United States in 1908 although no cigarette was marketed under this name until 1923. In 1924, the brand was launched, they are first marketed as "America's luxury cigarette" and were sold in hotels and resorts. Around the 1930s, it was starting to be advertised as a women's cigarette, based on the slogan "Mild As May"; the name was taken from a street in London. However, as early as 1885, a brand called "Marlborough" was being marketed as a "ladies' favorite" by Philip Morris & Co. In the 1930s, advertising for the cigarette was based on how ladylike the filter cigarette was, in an attempt to appeal to the mass market.
To this end, the filter had a printed red band around it to hide lipstick stains, calling it "Beauty Tips to Keep the Paper from Your Lips". Shortly before World War II, the brand's sales stagnated at less than 1% of tobacco sales in the US and was withdrawn from the market. After the war, Lucky Strike, Chesterfield were the only common cigarettes. After scientists published a major study linking smoking to lung cancer in the 1950s, Philip Morris repositioned Marlboro as a men's cigarette in order to fit a market niche of men who were concerned about lung cancer. At the time, filtered cigarettes were considered safer than unfiltered cigarettes, but had been until that time only marketed to women. Men at the time indicated that while they would consider switching to a filtered cigarette, they were concerned about being seen smoking a cigarette marketed to women; the red and white package was designed by the designer Frank Gianninoto. The emblem is placed on top of the pack and has the popular Latin expression Veni, vici, authored by Julius Caesar.
The repositioning of Marlboro as a men's cigarette was handled by Chicago advertiser Leo Burnett. The proposed campaign was to present a lineup of manly figures: sea captains, war correspondents, construction workers, etc; the cowboy was to have been the first in this series. While Philip Morris was concerned about the campaign, they gave the green light. Marlboro's market share rose from less than one percent to the fourth best-selling brand; this convinced Philip Morris to drop the lineup of manly figures and stick with the cowboy known as the Marlboro Man. From 1963, the television advertisements used Elmer Bernstein's theme from The Magnificent Seven. In the late 1960s, Marlboro "Longhorn 100's" were introduced. Although colour-coded with gold, they were full flavor cigarettes, not lights. In 1972, Marlboro became the best-selling brand of tobacco in the world. In order to comply with a 2006 court ruling in United States v. Philip Morris USA, Inc. et al. Philip Morris is now prevented from using words such as "Lights", "Ultra-Lights", "Medium", "Mild", or any similar designation that yields a false impression that they are safer than regular full flavour cigarettes.
Thus Marlboro and other cigarette companies must use only color-coding instead. Philip Morris responded to the popularity of Pall Mall, the number three brand, by pushing Marlboro Special Blends, a lower-priced cigarette. In 2013, Philip Morris International introduced "Marlboro 2.0". The pack design was changed; the Marlboro 2.0 packs are available in Europe and some parts of Africa and Latin America, but not in the United States, Canada and New Zealand. In 2015, Philip Morris announced they would introduce a "Firm Filter" to their Marlboro Red, Silver Blue, Ice Blast and White Menthol variants. Philip Morris managing director for the United Kingdom and Ireland, Martin Inkster, said that the Firm Filter technique was added to "offer quality you can feel, it is a cleaner way to stub out your cigarette". In the 1920s, advertising for the cigarette was based on how ladylike the filter cigarette was, in an attempt to appeal to the mass market. To this end, the filter had a printed red band around it to hide lipstick stains, calling it "Beauty Tips to Keep the Paper from Your Lips".
The red and white package was designed by the designer Frank Gianninoto. The repositioning of Marlboro as a men's cigarette was handled by Chicago advertiser Leo Burnett; the proposed campaign was to present a lineup of manly figures: sea captains, war correspondents, construction workers, etc. The cowboy was to have been the first in this series. While Philip Morris was concerned about the campaign, they gave the green light. Marlboro's market share rose from less than one percent to the fourth best-selling brand; this convinced Philip Morris to drop the lineup of manly figures and stick with the cowboy known as the Marlboro Man. From 1963, the television advertisements used Elmer Bernstein's theme from The Magnificent Seven. Over the years, Philip Morris has made many billboard and magazine adverts. Philip Morris made various sports-related billboards, s
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke. The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000 -- 3000 BC in South America. Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia in the late 17th century by European colonists, where it followed common trade routes; the practice encountered criticism from its first import into the Western world onwards but embedded itself in certain strata of a number of societies before becoming widespread upon the introduction of automated cigarette-rolling apparatus. German scientists identified a link between smoking and lung cancer in the late 1920s, leading to the first anti-smoking campaign in modern history, albeit one truncated by the collapse of Nazi Germany at the end of World War II. In 1950, British researchers demonstrated a clear relationship between cancer. Evidence continued to mount in the 1980s. Rates of consumption declined. However, they continue to climb in the developing world. Smoking is the most common method of consuming tobacco, tobacco is the most common substance smoked.
The agricultural product is mixed with additives and combusted. The resulting smoke is inhaled and the active substances absorbed through the alveoli in the lungs or the oral mucosa. Combustion was traditionally enhanced by addition of potassium or nitrates. Many substances in cigarette smoke trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings, which heighten heart rate and reaction time, among other things. Dopamine and endorphins are released, which are associated with pleasure; as of 2008 to 2010, tobacco is used by about 49% of men and 11% of women aged 15 or older in fourteen low-income and middle-income countries, with about 80% of this usage in the form of smoking. The gender gap tends to be less pronounced in lower age groups. Many smokers begin during early adulthood. During the early stages, a combination of perceived pleasure acting as positive reinforcement and desire to respond to social peer pressure may offset the unpleasant symptoms of initial use, which include nausea and coughing. After an individual has smoked for some years, the avoidance of withdrawal symptoms and negative reinforcement become the key motivations to continue.
A study of first smoking experiences of seventh-grade students found out that the most common factor leading students to smoke is cigarette advertisements. Smoking by parents and friends encourages students to smoke. Smoking's history dates back to as early as 5000–3000 BC, when the agricultural product began to be cultivated in Mesoamerica and South America; the practice worked its way into shamanistic rituals. Many ancient civilizations – such as the Babylonians, the Indians, the Chinese – burnt incense during religious rituals. Smoking in the Americas had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was adopted for pleasure or as a social tool; the smoking of tobacco and various hallucinogenic drugs was used to achieve trances and to come into contact with the spirit world. To stimulate respiration, tobacco smoke enemas were used. Eastern North American tribes would carry large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item and would smoke it in ceremonial pipes, either in sacred ceremonies or to seal bargains.
Adults as well as children enjoyed the practice. It was believed that tobacco was a gift from the Creator and that the exhaled tobacco smoke was capable of carrying one's thoughts and prayers to heaven. Apart from smoking, tobacco had a number of uses as medicine; as a pain killer it was used for earache and toothache and as a poultice. Smoking was said by the desert Indians to be a cure for colds if the tobacco was mixed with the leaves of the small Desert sage, Salvia dorrii, or the root of Indian balsam or cough root, Leptotaenia multifida, the addition of, thought to be good for asthma and tuberculosis. In 1612, six years after the settlement of Jamestown, John Rolfe was credited as the first settler to raise tobacco as a cash crop; the demand grew as tobacco, referred to as "brown gold", revived the Virginia joint stock company from its failed gold expeditions. In order to meet demands from the Old World, tobacco was grown in succession depleting the soil; this became a motivator to settle west into the unknown continent, an expansion of tobacco production.
Indentured servitude became the primary labor force up until Bacon's Rebellion, from which the focus turned to slavery. This trend abated following the American Revolution as slavery became regarded as unprofitable. However, the practice was revived in 1794 with the invention of the cotton gin. Frenchman Jean Nicot introduced tobacco to France in 1560, tobacco spread to England; the first report of a smoking Englishman is of a sailor in Bristol in 1556, seen "emitting smoke from his nostrils". Like tea and opium, tobacco was just one of many intoxicants, used as a form of medicine. Tobacco was introduced around 1600 by French merchants in what today is modern-day Gambia and Senegal. At the same time, caravans from Morocco brought tobacco to the
A cigarette known colloquially as a fag in British English, is a narrow cylinder containing psychoactive material tobacco, rolled into thin paper for smoking. Most cigarettes contain a "reconstituted tobacco" product known as "sheet", which consists of "recycled stems, scraps, collected dust, floor sweepings", to which are added glue and fillers; the cigarette is ignited at one end, causing it to smolder and allowing smoke to be inhaled from the other end, held in or to the mouth. Most modern cigarettes are filtered. Cigarette manufacturers have described cigarettes as a drug administration system for the delivery of nicotine in acceptable and attractive form. Cigarettes are addictive and cause cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, other health problems; the term cigarette, as used, refers to a tobacco cigarette but is sometimes used to refer to other substances, such as a cannabis cigarette. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of processed leaf, paper wrapping, white.
Cigar wrappers are composed of tobacco leaf or paper dipped in tobacco extract. Smoking rates have declined in the developed world, but continue to rise in developing nations. Cigarettes carry serious health risks, which are more prevalent than with other tobacco products, nicotine is highly addictive. About half of cigarette smokers lose on average 14 years of life. Cigarette use by pregnant women has been shown to cause birth defects, including low birth weight, fetal abnormalities, premature birth. Second-hand smoke from cigarettes causes many of the same health problems as smoking, including cancer, which has led to legislation and policy that has prohibited smoking in many workplaces and public areas. Cigarette smoke contains over 7,000 chemical compounds, including arsenic, cyanide, nicotine, carbon monoxide and other poisonous substances. Over 70 of these are carcinogenic. Additionally, cigarettes are a frequent source of mortality-associated fires in private homes, which prompted both the European Union and the United States to ban cigarettes that are not fire-standard compliant from 2011 onwards.
The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to the cigar. Cigarettes appear to have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes; the Maya, the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and other psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in the Caribbean and Central and South America until recent times; the North American, Central American, South American cigarette used various plant wrappers. The resulting product was called papelate and is documented in Goya's paintings La Cometa, La Merienda en el Manzanares, El juego de la pelota a pala. By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France; the French word was adopted by English in the 1840s. Some American reformers promoted the spelling cigaret, but this was never widespread and is now abandoned; the first patented cigarette-making machine was invented by Juan Nepomuceno Adorno of Mexico in 1847.
However, production climbed markedly when another cigarette-making machine was developed in the 1880s by James Albert Bonsack, which vastly increased the productivity of cigarette companies, which went from making about 40,000 hand-rolled cigarettes daily to around 4 million. In the English-speaking world, the use of tobacco in cigarette form became widespread during and after the Crimean War, when British soldiers began emulating their Ottoman Turkish comrades and Russian enemies, who had begun rolling and smoking tobacco in strips of old newspaper for lack of proper cigar-rolling leaf; this was helped by the development of tobaccos suitable for cigarette use, by the development of the Egyptian cigarette export industry. Cigarettes may have been used in a manner similar to pipes and cigarillos and not inhaled; as cigarette tobacco became milder and more acidic, inhaling may have become perceived as more agreeable. However, Moltke noticed in the 1830s that Ottomans inhaled the Turkish tobacco and Latakia from their pipes.
The widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is a 20th-century phenomenon. At the start of the 20th century, the per capita annual consumption in the U. S. was 54 cigarettes, consumption there peaked at 4,259 per capita in 1965. At that time, about 50% of men and 33% of women smoked. By 2000, consumption had fallen to 2,092 per capita, corresponding to about 30% of men and 22% of women smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year, by 2006 per capita consumption had declined to 1,691; the adverse health effects of cigarettes were known by the mid-19th century when they became known as coffins nails
Patchouli is a species of plant from the family Lamiaceae called the "mint" or "deadnettle" family. The plant grows as a bushy herb, with erect stems reaching around 75 centimetres in height and bearing small, pale pink-white flowers, it is native to tropical regions of Asia, is now extensively cultivated in China, Japan, Myanmar, Maldives, Mauritius, Madagascar, the Philippines, Vietnam, South America and the Caribbean. The heavy and strong scent of patchouli has been used for centuries in perfumes and, more in incense, insect repellents, alternative medicines; the word derives from ellai. In Assamese it is known as xukloti. In Kannada it is known as Pachhethene. Pogostemon cablin, P. commosum, P. hortensis, P. heyneasus and P. plectranthoides are all cultivated for their essential oil, known as patchouli oil. Patchouli grows well in warm to tropical climates, it thrives in hot weather but not direct sunlight. If the plant withers due to lack of water, it will recover well and after rain or watering.
The seed-producing flowers are fragrant and blossom in late fall. The tiny seeds may be harvested for planting, but they are delicate and crushed. Cuttings from the mother plant can be rooted in water to produce additional plants. Extraction of patchouli's essential oil is by steam distillation of the dried leaves, requiring rupture of its cell walls by steam scalding, light fermentation, or drying; the main chemical component of patchouli oil is a sesquiterpene alcohol. Leaves may be harvested several times a year and, may be exported for distillation; some sources claim a highest quality oil is produced from fresh leaves distilled close to where they are harvested. Germacrene-B Patchoulol Norpatchoulenol Patchouli is used in modern perfumery, by individuals who create their own scents, in modern scented industrial products such as paper towels, laundry detergents, air fresheners. Two important components of its essential oil are norpatchoulenol. One study suggests. More the patchouli plant is claimed to be a potent repellent against the Formosan subterranean termite.
Patchouli is an important ingredient in East Asian incense. Both patchouli oil and incense underwent a surge in popularity in the 1960s and 1970s in the US and Europe as a result of the hippie movement of those decades. Patchouli leaves have been used to make an herbal tea. In some cultures, patchouli leaves are used as a seasoning. In 1985 Mattel used patchouli oil in the plastic used to produce the action figure Stinkor in the Masters of the Universe line of toys
Virginia Slims is an American brand of cigarettes owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA in the U. S. and Philip Morris International outside of the U. S. Virginia Slims were introduced on July 22, 1968 and marketed as a female-oriented spinoff to their Benson & Hedges brand; the blends, color scheme, overall marketing concepts followed the Benson and Hedges model. Early packs read "Hedges Park Avenue New York", near the bottom. Virginia Slims are narrower than standard cigarettes, are longer than normal "king-sized" cigarettes, sold only in longer 100 and 120 mm lengths, to give the cigarettes a more "elegant" appearance and ostensibly to reduce the amount of smoke they produce, they are sold in "Superslims", "Light,", "Ultra-light," varieties. All packings are available in non-menthol; the original packaging was designed by Walter Landor, was white with colored stripes running lengthwise along the left side. In 2016, the package design was updated to replace the stripes with a more floral, mottled appearance.
The first test market was California. Scheduled for six months, it was cut short after seven weeks due to the success of the introduction - a nearly 3% market penetration. Distribution and marketing was implemented nationwide, by September 30, 1968, the entire U. S. was covered. In 1976, a 120 mm full-flavor packing was test-marketed in California. Designed to compete with RJ Reynolds More brand, the test failed and this entry was withdrawn. In 1978, Virginia Slims Lights were introduced, with good success. Although early marketing concepts included soft pack, Philip Morris decided to use a box-pack design only. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, growth and market penetration was significant, drawing the attention of competitors who introduced their own slim, female-oriented brands. In 1984, Virginia Slims Ovals were test marketed in Rochester, NY, Birmingham, AL, Las Vegas, NV, but were unsuccessful and withdrawn. Ovals were light, had an oval-shaped cross section. In 1985, Virginia Slims Luxury Light 120s were introduced - a 120 mm length packing again intended to better compete with RJ Reynolds More brand, as well as other 120s on the market.
After test marketing in Portland, OR and Nashville, TN was successful, the new style was rolled out nationally. While concerned that 120's might'cannibalize' customers from other packings, this proved to be unfounded, as the 120's appeared to attract a older demographic; the packing has since become a mainstay of the smoking glamour community. It is arguable as to whether VS120s are truly'light', since their rating numbers compare more to full-flavor. In 1987, Ultra-Light 100s were introduced, in keeping with changing consumer tastes, other competitive entries, the Benson and Hedges model. Marginally successful, this packing remains on the market today. In 1989, Ultra-Light SuperSlim 100s were introduced, in response to ultra-thin competition and consumer demand for a'low-smoke' product entry; these were marginally successful, remain on the market. In 1993, a 10-Pack version of Light 100s were introduced, with 10 cigarettes per pack, costing half the price of a 20-pack; this entry came under attack from critics.
It was withdrawn. In 1994, Virginia Slims Kings were designed as a discount entry and to compete with other king-size entries such as RJ Reynolds' Camel brand, it is not clear whether Kings were test marketed, but they were never introduced on a nationwide basis. In 2003, a box-pack was introduced in response to consumer demand; this packing is displacing the classic soft-pack. In 2003, the package graphics were altered, changing the colors and striping along the edge. In 2004, Ultra-Light 120s were introduced with marginal success, it is that this packing will continue to be supported. In 2008, Virginia Slims Superslims were introduced in a smaller-sized "Purse Pack". In 2016, the package graphics for all styles were altered, changing the stripes along the edge to a more mottled and floral-like appearance. All packings were introduced in both Menthol and Non-menthol varieties. Unlike most other brands, Menthol represents 40–55% of the total sales of a particular packing. In all, there have been 11 packings introduced or test marketed in the US, of which 7 are still on the market.
There are other varieties marketed in the Asian-Pacific region and South Africa. Virginia Slims has never had a significant South American presence. From inception, Virginia Slims have been designed and marketed as a female-oriented fashion brand targeted towards a younger demographic. While various themes emerged in the marketing campaigns over the years, the basic threads have been independence, slimness, glamour, taste, a contrast to men's cigarettes. Thus, Virginia Slims functioned as a pioneer brand, which implemented an empowering female-centered marketing strategy known as femvertising. A report by the Surgeon General of the United States has interpreted these marketing strategies as attempting to link smoking "to women's freedom and emp