L&YR Class 32
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Class 32 was a small class of 0-8-2T steam locomotives, intended for heavy shunting and banking duties. From 1903 and Ivatt's Class L1, several of the UK railway companies introduced large tank engines that were eight- or ten-coupled, with few carrying axles, so as to achieve the maximum adhesive weight over their driving wheels. Although limited in their maximum speed by the lack of any pilot truck. On some lines this was put to use for accelerating suburban passenger services, in competition with the new electric railways. Other railways required heavy shunters; these were needed for the new technology of hump shunting. Although the tank engine layout restricted the coal and water capacity that could be provided, all of these uses were short ranged, so the engines did not require long endurance. In 1908, Hughes produced a locomotive of this type for the Yorkshire; these tank engines were based on the previous Aspinall Class 30 0-8-0 tender engines, although their similarities have been over-emphasised.
Their coupled wheelbase was extended by two feet to 24 feet 6 inches, requiring the two centre drivers to be flangeless, with widened tyre treads, to allow them to negotiate a tight radius curve within a marshalling yard. This was more successful than similar flangeless drivers had been with Hoy's Class 26 2-6-2Ts, where they had shown a tendency for the centre drivers to drop between the rails if track in a siding wasn't maintained as well as main-line track; the two inside cylinders were 21 1⁄2 by 26 inches and were the largest in size of any non-compound engine in the country. The type'L' boiler was again different to any other class, it was 5' 9" in a foot larger than the'J' boiler of the previous engines. A Belpaire firebox and Ramsbottom safety valves were used. A similar boiler was fitted to Hughes' 1910 large-boilered Class 9 development of the Class 30. Although this was another feature described as being in common with the 0-8-0s, they were longer than the L boiler; the L boiler was unique to the Class 32, although they were made on the same flanging plates as Hughes' Dreadnought class.
This unique boiler would lead to the class' early withdrawal, when the boilers were due for replacement at twenty years old. Superheating was an innovation at this time and not yet established owing to difficulties in providing adequate cylinder lubrication. Hughes was an advocate of superheating and used it when rebuilding the 7'3" Class 4 express 4-4-0s, fitting Schmidt superheaters and piston valves, along with Walschaerts valve gear. Despite this, he recognised that an intermittently worked shunting engine such as the 0-8-2Ts would not allow the superheater elements to reach their optimum working temperature, so retained a simpler saturated boiler. Other detail fittings included vacuum brakes and oval buffers, to avoid locking of buffer heads when working around tight curves with the engine's long overhang at each end. All five engines were ordered from Horwich Works in one batch as Lot 59 on 28 November 1907, they were delivered between March and April 1908. They carried the full'passenger' livery of the L&YR, in black with single red and double white lining.
The original intention had been to employ these engines in the hump shunting yards at Aintree. However problems with the spring hangers fouling the electric third rail system on the lines from Liverpool to Ormskirk between the engine shed and the sidings led to their withdrawal from this service.1501 & 1502 were allocated to Accrington for working the 1 in 38 Baxenden bank.1505 was first allocated to Agecroft for the Manchester Ship Canal sidings at New Barnes junction. 1503 & 1504 were allocated here, upon which 1505 joined the other engines at Accrington, as a spare. The class were nicknamed either'Egberts' or'Little Egberts'; this has been described as being after a troupe of circus elephants, although there is no obvious record of such a troupe. Another explanation could be The Egbert Brothers, a music hall double act of this time, known for their routine'The Happy Dustmen'. Despite the urgency for their building there appears to have been little need for the class in service in their years.
Soon after the Grouping in 1923, LMS policy for weeding out non-standard types made the class superfluous. Their boiler's eventual need for replacement, their unique design, led to the whole class' withdrawal between 1927 and 1929. All were allocated LMS numbers, but only 1504 was repainted in LMS black livery with its new number of 11803 painted on and losing its original cast numberplate
L&YR Class 28
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Class 28 was a class of 0-6-0 steam locomotive, designed by George Hughes for the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. It was a rebuild of Aspinall's Class 27, with the addition of a Belpaire firebox and the extension of the footplate and front sandboxes, it had larger cylinders and a superheater. It had 5-foot-1-inch wheels; the locomotives passed to the London and North Western Railway in 1922 and to the London and Scottish Railway in 1923. The LMS gave them the power classification 3F. In 1948, the surviving locomotives passed to British Railways, which numbered them 52528-52619; the Class 28 was the inspiration for the character James the Red Engine from The Railway Series books by the Rev W Awdry, the spin-off TV series Thomas and Friends. Awdry describes James as an experimental rebuild as a 2-6-0 with 5' 6" driving wheels; the other obvious visual difference from the Class 28 is the lack of the sandboxes over the front splashers. James has a Fowler tender.
The Whyte notation for classifying steam locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte, came into use in the early twentieth century following a December 1900 editorial in American Engineer and Railroad Journal. The notation counts the number of leading wheels the number of driving wheels, the number of trailing wheels, numbers being separated by dashes. Other classification schemes, like UIC classification and the French and Swiss systems for steam locomotives, count axles rather than wheels. In the notation a locomotive with two leading axles in front three driving axles and one trailing axle is classified as 4-6-2, is known as a Pacific. Articulated locomotives such as Garratts, which are two locomotives joined by a common boiler, have a + between the arrangements of each engine, thus a "double Pacific" type Garratt is a 4-6-2+2-6-4. For Garratt locomotives the + sign is used when there are no intermediate unpowered wheels, e.g. the LMS Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2. This is because the two engine units are more than just power bogies.
They are complete engines, carrying fuel and water tanks. The + sign represents the bridge that links the two engines. Simpler articulated types such as Mallets have a jointed frame under a common boiler where there are no unpowered wheels between the sets of powered wheels; the forward frame is free to swing, whereas the rear frame is rigid with the boiler. Thus a Union Pacific Big Boy is a 4-8-8-4; this numbering system is shared by duplex locomotives, which have powered wheel sets sharing a rigid frame. No suffix means a tender locomotive. T indicates a tank locomotive: in European practice, this is sometimes extended to indicate the type of tank locomotive: T means side tank, PT pannier tank, ST saddle tank, WT well tank. T+T means a tank locomotive that has a tender. In Europe, the suffix R can signify rack or reversible, the latter being Bi-cabine locomotives used in France; the suffix F indicates a fireless locomotive. This locomotive has no tender. Other suffixes have been used, including ng for narrow-gauge and CA or ca for compressed air.
In Britain, small diesel and petrol locomotives are classified in the same way as steam locomotives, e.g. 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 0-8-0. This may be followed by D for diesel or P for petrol, another letter describing the transmission: E for electric, H hydraulic, M mechanical. Thus, 0-6-0DE denotes a six-wheel diesel locomotive with electric transmission. Where the axles are coupled by chains or shafts or are individually driven, the terms 4w, 6w or 8w are used. Thus, 4wPE indicates a four-wheel petrol locomotive with electric transmission. For large diesel locomotives the UIC classification is used; the main limitation of Whyte Notation is that it does not cover non-standard types such as Shay locomotives, which use geared trucks rather than driving wheels. The most used system in Europe outside the United Kingdom is UIC classification, based on German practice, which can define the exact layout of a locomotive. In American practice, most wheel arrangements in common use were given names, sometimes from the name of the first such locomotive built.
For example, the 2-2-0 type arrangement is named Planet, after the 1830 locomotive on which it was first used. The most common wheel arrangements are listed below. In the diagrams, the front of the locomotive is to the left. AAR wheel arrangement Swiss locomotive and railcar classification UIC classification Wheel arrangement Boylan, Richard. "American Steam Locomotive Wheel Arrangements". SteamLocomotive.com. Retrieved 2008-02-08. Media related to Whyte notation at Wikimedia Commons
Fleetwood is a coastal town in Lancashire, England, at the northwest corner of the Fylde, with a population of 25,939 at the 2011 census. Fleetwood acquired its modern character in the 1830s, when the principal landowner Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood, High Sheriff and MP, conceived an ambitious plan to re-develop the town to make it a busy seaport and railway spur, he commissioned the distinguished Victorian architect Decimus Burton to design a number of substantial civic buildings, including two lighthouses. Hesketh-Fleetwood's transport terminus; the town expanded in the first half of the 20th century with the growth of the fishing industry, passenger ferries to the Isle of Man, to become a deep-sea fishing port. Decline of the fishing industry began in the 1960s, hastened by the Cod Wars with Iceland, though fish processing is still a major economic activity in Fleetwood; the town's most notable employer today is Lofthouse of Fleetwood, manufacturer of the lozenge Fisherman's Friend, exported around the world.
The lozenges are popular in Germany and Asia. Ptolemy's Geographia in the 2nd century AD records a tribe known as the Setantii living in what is believed to be present-day West Lancashire, a seaport built by the Romans called PORTVS SETANTIORVM abutting Moricambe Aestuarium. There is evidence of a Roman road running from Ribchester to Kirkham which makes a sharp turn to the northwest. Together, these suggest. No direct evidence of the port has been found, but in 2007, an Iron Age settlement was discovered at Bourne Hill, just south of present-day Fleetwood, suggesting the area was populated in pre-Roman times. There is evidence that the eastern side of the River Wyre was occupied during the Danish invasions of the 9th and 10th centuries, by the time of the Domesday Book in 1086, the land on which Fleetwood now stands was part of the Hundred of Amounderness. A manor house at present-day Rossall, in the southwest of the town, was in the possession of the Allen family by the time of Henry VIII.
The Allens were prominent Roman Catholics, Henry VIII repossessed the land. Cardinal William Allen was born at the manor house in 1532, it was sold to Thomas Fleetwood, comptroller of the Royal Mint, whose son Edmund, expanded the house into Rossall Hall. The land remained in the Fleetwood family for 300 years. By the 1830s, the house and estate was in the ownership of Edmund's descendant Peter Hesketh, High Sheriff of Lancashire and MP for Preston. A man of somewhat liberal views for his time, Hesketh believed that the sheltered harbour and views over Morecambe Bay gave the area the makings of a busy seaport and popular resort for the less-affluent. With no rail link between London and Scotland, he envisaged Fleetwood as the transfer point between the railway and the steamers to Scotland, set about encouraging a railway link from Preston. With a new career in parliament to prepare for, he engaged Frederick Kemp as his agent, he considered naming the new town Wyreton or New Liverpool, but after changing his name to Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood in 1831, he settled on the name Fleetwood.
After some delays, he recruited the prominent architect Decimus Burton, whose work in St Leonard's-on-Sea he had admired, to lay out what would be the first planned town of the Victorian era. The plans were complete by 1835, construction of the first buildings and the railway line began in 1836. Burton's plan was to use the largest of the sand-dunes on the north-facing shore as the focus of a half-wheel street layout; this was landscaped, became known as the Mount. It served as the hub of Burton's half-wheel design, the main residential streets acted as the spokes, the main commerce area of Dock Street was the rim of the wheel; the oldest surviving building in the town, once the custom house the town hall and latterly Fleetwood Museum, dates from 1836 and housing from as early as 1838 still exists in the town. The crown jewel was the North Euston Hotel, built in 1841, a fine semi-circular building overlooking the bay and the river's estuary; the hotel was built to serve overnight guests making the railway journey from Euston, was close to the point of departure for the steamers to Scotland.
This journey was made by Queen Victoria in 1847, but by the mid-1850s the completion of the western railway link between London and Scotland over Shap Fell rendered Fleetwood's role as a transport terminus obsolete. Burton designed two lighthouses for the town: The Upper Lighthouse referred to as the Pharos, can be seen for 13 miles and Beach Lighthouse is visible for 9 miles. Both opened in 1840. A third lighthouse, Wyre Light, built in 1839–40 by blind engineer Alexander Mitchell, offshore on the northeast corner of North Wharf, was the first screw pile lighthouse to be built in Great Britain. Fleetwood is the only town in the United Kingdom to possess three lighthouses and the two within the town itself remain operational. Wyre Light has now fallen into a state of disrepair. Fleetwood Market, still a prominent permanent market, first opened in 1840. By 1838, Hesketh-Fleetwood had run into serious financial difficulties, with costs for the railway in particular exceeding £300,000, he had numerous financial arguments with Frederick Kemp, who borrowed against the estate revenues to finance the expansion of the town, was suspected of taking financial advantage of Sir Peter.
Hesketh-Fleetwood was forced to mortgage his properties. Depressed, he withdrew from the project, by 1844 he
L&YR 2-10-0 (Hughes)
The L&YR 2-10-0 was a prospective design for a class of 2-10-0 steam locomotives on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. Initial designs were made by George Hughes between 1913 -- 1914. If they had been, these would have been the UK's first 10-coupled locomotives in regular service. Locomotives with ten driving wheels were rare in British railway history. One specialist exception, the GER Decapod, had been built in 1902, but the main heavy mineral locomotive design was the 0-8-0, on both the L&YR and the LNWR. Train weights were increasing though and there was some demand for a more powerful locomotive for the steep gradients across the Pennines from the Lancashire Coalfield to the port of Goole, it was felt that a more powerful single locomotive would avoid the need for double-heading on coal trains. In August 1913, John Aspinall was on holiday in the railway town of Bad Homburg, Germany. Impressed by the capacity of the new Prussian G 10 0-10-0 heavy freight locomotives, Aspinall wrote to Hughes requesting a report on the extent of double-heading for the trans-Pennine coal traffic, which Hughes provided in September.
Inspired by recent work in Belgium, which had shown savings of 19% in coal consumption by avoiding it, Hughes suggested the use of a single large locomotive, emphasised the need to use it at full capacity and rejected a proposed concept for a 2-8-2 in favour of a 2-10-0. At the Brussels International exhibition of 1910 the Belgian engineer Jean-Baptiste Flamme exhibited his new Type 10 pacific, the most powerful European locomotive of the time; this was a four-cylinder superheated passenger locomotive with a distinctive tapered boiler of Flamme's design. Flamme used the large Belgian loading gauge to its most and made the round-topped boiler high; the tapered section ahead of the firebox reduced to a boiler barrel which allowed enough height above for the steam dome. Hughes had been influenced by Flamme, by his views on superheating and on the testing of locomotives by the use of dynamometer cars. Flamme's design had the novel feature of a mechanical integrator to calculate drawbar horsepower-hours directly.
He was encouraged to build such a car for the L&YR. In 1911 a party of senior L&YR officials from Horwich had visited Flamme in Belgium, they were interested in the Type 10 and the related Belgian State Railways Type 36 2-10-0. These two designs shared the same boiler; the L&YR had little use for such a powerful passenger locomotive, but the 2-10-0 was of great interest. The 2-10-0 was of conventional layout, with the two rear driving axles set beneath the firebox grate and ashpan; the pacific though, with the same boiler, required its higher axles to be placed ahead of the firebox. This required a carrying axle below the firebox and placed the four cylinders ahead of the smokebox, beneath a prominent flat platform. Hughes' first design proposal in September 1913 put forward a number of principles. None of these were radical, but they represented the best features of British locomotive design at the time, together with Flamme's influence. Although Horwich would be overshadowed by Stanier's work during the LMS period, at this time they considered themselves to be one of the leading British locomotive designers.
Superheating, a developing practice at the time, which Hughes had experience of with smaller classes, although the valve and lubrication problems were still an issue. The use of piston valves was a response to this, their piston ring sealing working better at these increased steam temperatures than the flat faces of slide valves had done. Large grate area, large boiler. A large grate allowed a shallow fire, capable of burning the hard local coal; the large boiler surface avoided the need to'force' the boiler, the excess coal consumption that entailed. Improved cylinder design and porting, with improved valve gearThe importance of this was recognised at this time, by those engineers such as Hughes and G J Churchward, who were following developments in continental best practice. Churchward's Star class and its combination of superheating with long-travel, large-diameter piston valves represented the best front-end performance yet achieved in Britain. Walschaerts valve gear was another Belgian influence and was a change from the previous Stephenson or Joy valve gears used previously.
With the 4-6-0 Dreadnoughts of 1908, Hughes' reputation as an engineer and innovator had suffered and these locomotives would be improved by rebuilding, part of, to change their Joy valve gear to Walschaerts. Four cylinder simple, rather than compound. Although he had experimented with compounding, Hughes chose to use four simple cylinders here; these gave better balance and permitted just two sets of outside valve gear, with the inside valves being operated by rockers. This freed up more space between the frames, allowing for a stronger crank axle, connecting rods and big ends. Despite this being the era for the adoption of the Belpaire firebox, which Hughes had introduced on his other designs and rebuilding work, Flamme now considered it'obsolete'. Flamme's new design was for a round-topped firebox of the maximum possible size, with radial firebox stays rather than the older and troublesome girder stays; the tapered rear ring of the boiler allowed the highest firebox to be used with a practical diameter of boiler though the British loading gauge meant that there could be no dome.
Flexible wheelbaseThe new layout and the length of the wheelbase were a concern, a means was needed to provide some flexibility. Flamme had used a Krauss-Helmholtz bogie where the front carrying axle and the leading driver were articulated as a bogie. Alloy steels, with nickel and chromium additives, were in development at this time and they were
On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel, driven by the locomotive's pistons. On a conventional, non-articulated locomotive, the driving wheels are all coupled together with side rods. On diesel and electric locomotives, the driving wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors. Coupling rods are not used, it is quite common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives. On an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive, driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set. Driving wheels are larger than leading or trailing wheels. Since a conventional steam locomotive is directly driven, one of the few ways to'gear' a locomotive for a particular performance goal is to size the driving wheels appropriately. Freight locomotives had driving wheels between 40 and 60 inches in diameter; some long wheelbase locomotives were equipped with blind drivers.
These were driving wheels without the usual flanges, which allowed them to negotiate tighter curves without binding. The driving wheels on express passenger locomotives have come down in diameter over the years, e.g. from 8 ft 1 in on the GNR Stirling 4-2-2 of 1870 to 6 ft 2 in on the SR Merchant Navy Class of 1941. This is. On locomotives with side rods, including most steam and jackshaft locomotives, the driving wheels have weights to balance the weight of the coupling and connecting rods; the crescent-shaped balance weight is visible in the picture on the right. In the Whyte notation, driving wheels are designated by numbers in the set; the UIC classification system counts the number of axles rather than the number of wheels and driving wheels are designated by letters rather than numbers. The suffix'o' is used to indicate independently powered axles; the number of driving wheels on locomotives varied quite a bit. Some early locomotives had as few as two driving wheels; the largest number of total driving wheels was 24 on the 2-8-8-8-4 locomotives.
The largest number of coupled driving wheels was 14 on the ill-fated AA20 4-14-4 locomotive. The term driving wheel is sometimes used to denote the drive sprocket which moves the track on tracked vehicles such as tanks and bulldozers. Many American roots artists, such as The Byrds, Tom Rush, The Black Crowes and the Canadian band Cowboy Junkies have performed a song written by David Wiffen called "Driving Wheel", with the lyrics "I feel like some old engine/ That's lost my driving wheel."These lyrics are a reference to the traditional blues song "Broke Down Engine Blues" by Blind Willie McTell, 1931. It was directly covered by Bob Dylan and Johnny Winter. Many versions of the American folk song "In the Pines" performed by artists such as Leadbelly, Mark Lanegan, Nirvana reference a decapitated man's head found in a driving wheel. In addition, it is that Chuck Berry references the locomotive driving wheel in "Johnny B. Goode" when he sings, "the engineers would see him sitting in the shade / Strumming with the rhythm that the drivers made."