L&YR Class 23
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Class 23 is a class of 0-6-0ST steam locomotive. Their main use was for short-trip freight working; the Class 23 0-6-0ST locomotives were rebuilt at Horwich Works by Aspinall between 1891 and 1900, using the frames, wheels etc. from earlier Barton Wright 0-6-0 tender engines, built 1876-1887. 230 were so converted. The class was long-lived; the first loco was withdrawn in 1926 by the London Midland and Scottish Railway, but the last survived in use until 1964 with British Railways London Midland Region. 101 were in service at Nationalisation, 20 still in service in 1961. One locomotive, L&YR 752, is preserved, having been sold to the NCB for continued operation is now under overhaul back to working order at the East Lancashire Railway. Marshall, John; the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. Volume 3. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. Pp. 87–88, 150. ISBN 0-7153-5320-9
The cylinder is the power-producing element of the steam engine powering a steam locomotive. The cylinder is made pressure-tight with a piston. Cylinders were cast in cast iron and in steel; the cylinder casting includes other features such as mounting feet. The last big American locomotives incorporated the cylinders as part of huge one-piece steel castings that were the main frame of the locomotive. Renewable wearing surfaces were provided by cast-iron bushings; the way the valve controlled the steam entering and leaving the cylinder was known as steam distribution and shown by the shape of the indicator diagram. What happened to the steam inside the cylinder was assessed separately from what happened in the boiler and how much friction the moving machinery had to cope with; this assessment was known as "engine performance" or "cylinder performance". The cylinder performance, together with the boiler and machinery performance, established the efficiency of the complete locomotive; the pressure of the steam in the cylinder was measured as the piston moved and the power moving the piston was calculated and known as cylinder power.
The forces produced in the cylinder moved the train but were damaging to the structure which held the cylinders in place. Bolted joints came loose, cylinder castings and frames cracked and reduced the availability of the locomotive. Cylinders may be arranged in several different ways. On early locomotives, such as Puffing Billy, the cylinders were set vertically and the motion was transmitted through beams, as in a beam engine; the next stage, for example Stephenson's Rocket, was to drive the wheels directly from steeply inclined cylinders placed at the back of the locomotive. Direct drive became the standard arrangement, but the cylinders were moved to the front and placed either horizontal or nearly horizontal; the front-mounted cylinders could be placed either outside. Examples: Inside cylinders, Planet locomotive Outside cylinders, GNR Stirling 4-2-2In the 19th and early 20th centuries, inside cylinders were used in the UK, but outside cylinders were more common in Continental Europe and the United States.
The reason for this difference is unclear. From about 1920, outside cylinders became more common in the UK but many inside-cylinder engines continued to be built. Inside cylinders give a more stable ride with less yaw or "nosing" but access for maintenance is more difficult; some designers used inside cylinders for aesthetic reasons. The demand for more power led to the development of engines with four cylinders. Examples: Three cylinders, SR Class V, LNER Class A4, Merchant Navy class Four Cylinders, LMS Princess Royal Class, LMS Coronation Class, GWR Castle Class On a two-cylinder engine the cranks, whether inside or outside, are set at 90 degrees; as the cylinders are double-acting this gives four impulses per revolution and ensures that there are no dead centres. On a three-cylinder engine, two arrangements are possible: cranks set to give six spaced impulses per revolution – the usual arrangement. If the three cylinder axes are parallel, the cranks will be 120 degrees apart, but if the centre cylinder does not drive the leading driving axle, it will be inclined, the inside crank will be correspondingly shifted from 120 degrees.
For a given tractive effort and adhesion factor, a three-cylinder locomotive of this design will be less prone to wheelslip when starting than a 2-cylinder locomotive. Outside cranks set at 90 degrees, inside crank set at 135 degrees, giving six unequally spaced impulses per revolution; this arrangement was sometimes used on three-cylinder compound locomotives which used the outside cylinders for starting. This will give evenly spaced exhausts. Two arrangements are possible on a four-cylinder engine: all four cranks set at 90 degrees. With this arrangement the cylinders act in pairs, so there are four impulses per revolution, as with a two-cylinder engine. Most four-cylinder engines are of this type, it is cheaper and simpler to use only one set of valve gear on each side of the locomotive and to operate the second cylinder on that side by means of a rocking shaft from the first cylinder's valve spindle since the required valve events at the second cylinder are a mirror image of the first cylinder.
Pairs of cranks set at 90 degrees with the inside pair set at 45 degrees to the outside pair. This gives eight impulses per revolution, it increases weight and complexity, by requiring four sets of valve gear, but gives smoother torque and reduces the risk of slipping. This was unusual in British practice but was used on the SR Lord Nelson class; such locomotives are distinguished by their exhaust beats, which occur at twice the frequency of a normal 2- or 4-cylinder engine. The valve chests or steam chests which contain the slide valves or piston valves may be located in various positions. If the cylinders are small, the valve chests may be located between the cylinders. For larger cylinders the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in early locomotives, they were sometimes underneath the cylinders; the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in older locomotives, the valve chests were sometimes located alongside the cylinders and inserted through slots in the frames. This meant that, while the cylinders were outside, the valves were inside a
L&YR Class 25
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Class 25 is a class of 0-6-0 steam locomotive. They were introduced to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in 1876 by new locomotive superintendent William Barton Wright and 280 were built in total. Of these, 230 were converted to saddle tanks by John Aspinall, to become L&YR Class 23; the locomotives passed to the London and North Western Railway in 1922 and to the London and Scottish Railway in 1923. The LMS gave them the power classification 2F. In 1948, the surviving locomotives passed to British Railways, which numbered them 52016-52064. Withdrawals began in 1930 but 23 locomotives survived into British Railways ownership in 1948; the last engine, BR 52044 was bought for preservation in 1959 and has been based at the Keighley and Worth Valley Railway since 1965. It starred in the film The Railway Children as the Green Dragon, it was out of service from 1975 but was returned to steam in 2001 in its BR guise as 52044 before being painted in its L&YR guise as 957 a few years later.
Its boiler certificate expired in early 2013. After a couple of years on display, overhaul started in July 2016
Pounds per square inch
The pound per square inch or, more pound-force per square inch is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch. In SI units, 1 psi is equal to 6895 N/m2. Pounds per square inch absolute is used to make it clear that the pressure is relative to a vacuum rather than the ambient atmospheric pressure. Since atmospheric pressure at sea level is around 14.7 psi, this will be added to any pressure reading made in air at sea level. The converse is pounds per square inch gauge, indicating that the pressure is relative to atmospheric pressure. For example, a bicycle tire pumped up to 65 psig in a local atmospheric pressure at sea level will have a pressure of 79.7 psia. When gauge pressure is referenced to something other than ambient atmospheric pressure the units would be pounds per square inch differential; the kilopound per square inch is a scaled unit derived from psi, equivalent to a thousand psi. ksi are not used for gas pressures.
They are used in materials science, where the tensile strength of a material is measured as a large number of psi. The conversion in SI Units is 1 MPa = 0.145 ksi. The megapound per square inch is another multiple equal to a million psi, it is used in mechanics for the elastic modulus of materials for metals. The conversion in SI Units is 1 GPa = 0.145 Mpsi. Inch of water: 0.036 psid Blood pressure – clinically normal human blood pressure: 2.32 psig/1.55 psig Natural gas residential piped in for consumer appliance. Boost pressure provided by an automotive turbocharger: 6–15 psig NFL football: 12.5–13.5 psig Atmospheric pressure at sea level: 14.7 psia Automobile tire overpressure: 32 psig Bicycle tire overpressure: 65 psig Workshop or garage air tools: 90 psig Air brake or air brake reservoir overpressure: 90–120 psig Road racing bicycle tire overpressure: 120 psig Steam locomotive fire tube boiler: 150–280 psig Union Pacific Big Boy steam locomotive boiler: 300 psig US Navy steam boiler pressure 800 psi Natural gas pipelines: 800–1000 psig Full SCBA for IDLH atmospheres: 2216 psig nuclear reactor primary loop 2300 psi Full SCUBA tank overpressure: 3000 psig Full SCBA for interior firefighting operations: 4500 psig Airbus A380 hydraulic system: 5000 psig Ultimate strength of ASTM A36 steel: 58,000 psi Water jet cutter: 40,000–100,000 psig The exact conversions to and from SI are, by definition: 1 psi = Pa 1 Pa = psi As the pascal is small unit, relative to industrial pressures, the kilopascal is used.
1000 kPa = 147 psi. Approximate conversions are shown in the following table. Conversion of units: Pressure or mechanical stress Pressure: Units Pressure measurement primer Online pressure conversions ksi to psi conversions
The Whyte notation for classifying steam locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte, came into use in the early twentieth century following a December 1900 editorial in American Engineer and Railroad Journal. The notation counts the number of leading wheels the number of driving wheels, the number of trailing wheels, numbers being separated by dashes. Other classification schemes, like UIC classification and the French and Swiss systems for steam locomotives, count axles rather than wheels. In the notation a locomotive with two leading axles in front three driving axles and one trailing axle is classified as 4-6-2, is known as a Pacific. Articulated locomotives such as Garratts, which are two locomotives joined by a common boiler, have a + between the arrangements of each engine, thus a "double Pacific" type Garratt is a 4-6-2+2-6-4. For Garratt locomotives the + sign is used when there are no intermediate unpowered wheels, e.g. the LMS Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2. This is because the two engine units are more than just power bogies.
They are complete engines, carrying fuel and water tanks. The + sign represents the bridge that links the two engines. Simpler articulated types such as Mallets have a jointed frame under a common boiler where there are no unpowered wheels between the sets of powered wheels; the forward frame is free to swing, whereas the rear frame is rigid with the boiler. Thus a Union Pacific Big Boy is a 4-8-8-4; this numbering system is shared by duplex locomotives, which have powered wheel sets sharing a rigid frame. No suffix means a tender locomotive. T indicates a tank locomotive: in European practice, this is sometimes extended to indicate the type of tank locomotive: T means side tank, PT pannier tank, ST saddle tank, WT well tank. T+T means a tank locomotive that has a tender. In Europe, the suffix R can signify rack or reversible, the latter being Bi-cabine locomotives used in France; the suffix F indicates a fireless locomotive. This locomotive has no tender. Other suffixes have been used, including ng for narrow-gauge and CA or ca for compressed air.
In Britain, small diesel and petrol locomotives are classified in the same way as steam locomotives, e.g. 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 0-8-0. This may be followed by D for diesel or P for petrol, another letter describing the transmission: E for electric, H hydraulic, M mechanical. Thus, 0-6-0DE denotes a six-wheel diesel locomotive with electric transmission. Where the axles are coupled by chains or shafts or are individually driven, the terms 4w, 6w or 8w are used. Thus, 4wPE indicates a four-wheel petrol locomotive with electric transmission. For large diesel locomotives the UIC classification is used; the main limitation of Whyte Notation is that it does not cover non-standard types such as Shay locomotives, which use geared trucks rather than driving wheels. The most used system in Europe outside the United Kingdom is UIC classification, based on German practice, which can define the exact layout of a locomotive. In American practice, most wheel arrangements in common use were given names, sometimes from the name of the first such locomotive built.
For example, the 2-2-0 type arrangement is named Planet, after the 1830 locomotive on which it was first used. The most common wheel arrangements are listed below. In the diagrams, the front of the locomotive is to the left. AAR wheel arrangement Swiss locomotive and railcar classification UIC classification Wheel arrangement Boylan, Richard. "American Steam Locomotive Wheel Arrangements". SteamLocomotive.com. Retrieved 2008-02-08. Media related to Whyte notation at Wikimedia Commons
Horwich Works was a railway works built in 1886 by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in Horwich, near Bolton, in North West England when the company moved from its original works at Miles Platting, Manchester. Horwich Works was built on 142 hectares of land bought in April 1884 for £36,000. Rivington House, the first of several workshops was 106.7 metres long by 16.8 metres wide and opened in February 1887. The long brick built workshops had full-height arched windows and were separated by tram and rail tracks. Work to construct the three bay, 463.3 metres long by 36 metres wide, erecting shop began in March 1885. Inside were 20 overhead cranes. An 18-inch gauge railway, with 7.5 miles of track was built to carry materials around the works complex, modelled on a similar system at Crewe Works. Two small 0-4-0 tank locomotives were bought from Beyer, Peacock & Company in 1887 to haul stores trains around the site, six more were acquired at intervals to 1901; the first of these was bought from Beyer Peacock.
From 1930 they were withdrawn from service, the last, was withdrawn in 1961 and is preserved at the National Railway Museum. The first locomotive built by the LYR at Horwich was a 2-4-2 tank engine designed by John Aspinall; this locomotive was L&YR 1008. By 1899 a further 677 locomotives had been built, another 220 under Henry Hoy. Between 1891 and 1900, 230 0-6-0 tender engines designed by Barton Wright were rebuilt as 0-6-0ST saddle tanks, LYR Class F16. In 1899, the Aspinall-designed'Atlantic' 4-4-2 express passenger locomotive was introduced and forty had been completed by 1902. Horwich works produced its 1,000th engine in 1907, a four-cylinder compound 0-8-0. In 1923 when the railway became part of the London and Scottish Railway, its Chief Mechanical Engineer was George Hughes. In 1926 he was responsible for the design of a 2-6-0 mixed traffic locomotive of unusual appearance, which became known as the "Horwich Crab." The class proved successful, 245 locomotives were built, 70 at Horwich, including the first 30 examples.
The "Crabs" continued in service with British Railways' London Midland and Scottish regions until the last two survivors were withdrawn in early 1967. Three of the four future Chief Mechanical Engineers of the post-grouping railways learned their craft at Horwich: Nigel Gresley, Henry Fowler and Richard Maunsell, as well as aviator Alliott Verdon-Roe who went on to found the Manchester-based Avro aeroplane company. During World War II, the works built nearly 500 Cruiser and Matilda tanks. After nationalisation in 1948, locomotive construction at Horwich continued at a high level for ten years. During 1948 twenty LMS Ivatt Class 4 tender engines were completed, twenty-seven followed in 1949, with twenty-four in 1951, followed by a single locomotive in early 1952. Between 1945 and 1950, 120 LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0 tender engines were built at Horwich by the LMS and British Railways; the last BR Standard design steam engine to be built was outshopped in 1957. BR continued to overhaul steam engines for several more years.
The last steam locomotive was despatched after overhaul on 4 May 1964. In October 1969 it became part of British Rail Engineering Limited. Horwich continued in use as a works for other rolling stock up until it closed in December 1983; the foundry and the spring shop continued in use after this date, although the work force was reduced from 1,400 to 300. In an effort to publicise the redevelopment of the site into small industrial units on 20 June 1985 locomotive 47491 was named Horwich Enterprise by Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Transport David Mitchell at Horwich Works; the site was sold by BREL to the Parkfield Group in 1988 and the rail connection to the works was removed in 1989. The site is now an industrial estate, appropriately named "Horwich Loco Industrial Estate", with most of the buildings still in use. Horwich railway station in the town centre used by employees at the works, was opened in 1887, it closed in 1965 with the last passenger train departing on 27 September 1965, hauled by 2-6-4T number 42626.
The locomotive works site was designated a conservation area by Bolton Council in 2006. The site was proposed for mixed-use development in 2010 to include 15 to 20 hectares of land for employment and up to 1,600 houses within a timescale extending from 2013 to 2026; the proposal was adopted as council strategy in 2011, supplementary planning guidance was released in 2012 designating part of the site for preservation. An initial planning application was approved by Bolton Council in 2016. Work began in 2018. Horwich photos, National Railway Museum "Horwich Locomotive Works", www.warmemorials.org