Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
L'Épiphanie, Quebec (parish)
L'Épiphanie is a parish municipality in the Lanaudière region of Quebec, part of the L'Assomption Regional County Municipality. Population trend: Population in 2011: 3296 Population in 2006: 3129 Population in 2001: 2931 Population in 1996: 2739 Population in 1991: 2421Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 1,212 Mother tongue: English as first language: 0% French as first language: 96.5% English and French as first language: 1% Other as first language: 2.5% The Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates anglophone public schools, including: Joliette Elementary School in Saint-Charles-Borromée List of parish municipalities in Quebec
Manawan named communauté Atikamekw de Manawan, is a First Nations reserve on the south-western shores of Lake Métabeskéga in the Lanaudière region of Quebec, Canada. It belongs to the Atikamekw of Manawan band of the Atikamekw Nation; the 5 kilometres long by 2 kilometres wide reserve is an enclave within the Baie-Atibenne unorganized territory 72 kilometres north of Saint-Michel-des-Saints. It is accessible by gravel road; the reserve takes its name from the Manouane River. The standardized writing of the Atikamekw language spells it as Manawan, this form was adopted on January 8, 1991, it means "place where they gather eggs". "Manawan" means "place. The real name of the place where is located the village of Manawan is "Metapeckeka"" which mean "where swamps emerge" or "savannath that emerge from a bay"; the Indian Reserve of Manawan is an enclave within the Baie-Atibenne unorganized territory in Lanaudière, Quebec. It is located at 113 kilometres northeast of Mont-Laurier and it covers an area of 774 hectares.
It is link by a gravel road to Saint-Michel-des-Saints to the south, the closest service centre. The main city the closest to the village is Montreal. At least since 1850 and earlier, the shores of Lake Métabeskéga were a gathering place for Atikamekw families from Wemotaci; this location, near their winter hunting grounds, was known in the 19th century as Metapeckeka, meaning "swamp coming from a bay". Around 1870, logging companies moved into the area, prompting several families to permanently settle on the site. A year the Hudson's Bay Company opened its post, but damming of Kempt, Châteauvert Lakes in the early 1900s inundated the old village. A new village formed downstream at the current site. Establishing a reserve for themselves proved difficult for the Atikamekw; the repeated requests of Chief Louis Néwashish for this portion of their territory were rebuffed by the Canadian Government, saying that the Maniwaki reserve, created in 1850, was reserved for them. The Atikamekw refused to live there.
The federal government still declined to establish a reserve, arguing that Wemotaci was for them. After years of correspondence followed by numerous trips in birch-bark canoe to Ottawa and lengthy negotiations for federal services, the government agreed. On August 29, 1906, the Manouane Reserve was founded with 1,906 acres of land and having some 50 inhabitants; the Hudson's Bay Company general store closed circa 1941. The village experienced further growth in the 1950s when more families settled down as a result of growing forest exploitation and the construction of large dams. In 1973, Manawan was connected by road to Saint-Michel-des-Saints. 1861-01-31: Act of 1861, aside land not exceeding 93,080 hectares for the use of Indians. 1906-05-25: Surveying land for reserve Manowan. Undivided land. Area: 771.32 hectares. 1906-08-29: Order in Council 532, transfer of the management and administration of the Government of Quebec to Government of Canada. Undivided land. Area: 771.32 hectares. Current Situation Lands undivided, land acquired under the 1861 Act Transferring the management and administration of the Government of Quebec to Government of Canada by Order in Council 532.
Area: 771.32 hectares Historic populations: Population in 2001: 1646 Population in 1996: 1416 Population in 1991: 1224Mother tongue: English: 0.2% French: 2.4% Atikamekw: 97.1% Other: 0.2% There are 2 schools on the reserve: École Simon P. Ottawa, pre-kindergarten to Elementary grade 6 École secondaire Otapi, grades Secondary 1 to Secondary 5 Atikamekw of Manawan Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw André Quitich 100 year anniversary of the Manawan reserve Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw
Deux-Montagnes is a suburban municipality in southwestern Quebec, Canada on the north shore of the Rivière des Mille Îles where it flows out of Lake of Two Mountains. It is the seat of the Deux-Montagnes Regional County Municipality in the greater Montreal region, it is located 40 km from Montreal. 10,000 years ago, the Champlain Sea covered a large part of southern Quebec and left behind the clay and peat soil, now under the city of Deux-Montagnes. When the sea retreated to the Atlantic Ocean, along the channel, now the St-Lawrence River and its tributaries, the Rivière-des-Milles-Iles and the Lake of Two-Mountains, southern Quebec became a favourable area for hunting and gathering; the name "Deux-Montagnes" dates to 1674 when it was given to the lake bordering on the municipality, to the seigneury which stood north of the lake. Founded as the Village Municipality of Saint-Eustache-sur-le-Lac in 1921, it became a city in 1958, changed its name to Deux-Montagnes in 1963. Deux-Montagnes LibraryIn 1946, when the parish of St-Agapit was established, Father Chartrand, the parish’s first curate donated his selection of books to start a public library.
These books were located in the rectory and moved to the church basement. The books were transferred to the local Club Femina where Annette Magnan offered many services in the St-Eustache-sur-le-lac library until her death in 1975; the books were sold and the Club Femina moved to other premises. A group of citizens formed a committee in order to create a public library and the city adopted a by-law establishing the Municipal Library of Deux-Montagnes on January 12, 1978; the new books bought by the city council, were moved to the new premises in the community center on March 1, 1978. Internet access was introduced in the library in 1997 to further modernize the premises; the municipality has two commuter train stations, on the Deux-Montagnes line: Deux-Montagnes and Grand-Moulin. The Commission scolaire de la Seigneurie-des-Mille-Îles operates Francophone schools; the Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates Anglophone schools. The little yellow schoolhouse, located at the corner of 14th avenue and Chemin d’Oka, was the only educational institution during the 1940s.
At the time and French students were accepted. A teacher was provided lodging on the second floor; the school was shut down in the 1960s because of a population increase in the area and the new construction of St-Jude School. Lake Of Two Mountains High School The original Lake of Two Mountains High School was at the corner of 14th avenue and Chemin d’Oka where its first class graduated in 1954. A new building was built in 1981 on Guy street and still stands here today; the Lake of Two Mountains High School serves students from neighbouring towns including Deux-Montagnes, Mirabel, Pointe-Calumet, St-Joseph-du-Lac St-Eustache, St-Placide and St-Marthe-sur-le-lac. St. Jude Elementary SchoolIn 1949 Saint-Jude Elementary School was built on Saint-Jude Street, behind the Saint-Agapit Church because the town was experiencing a population boom. In 1953, the school reached its total capacity of students and resulted in the building of the Sauvé School. Mountainview Elementary SchoolBuilt in the early 1960s on the corner of Guy Street and 20th Avenue, St-Eustache sur-le-Lac Elementary School served the English-speaking, non-catholic community, before the implementation of the non-denominational school board system throughout Quebec.
The school still operates today, as Mountainview Elementary, as part of the Sir-Wilfrid-Laurier School Board.. École Polyvalente Deux-Montagnes École SauvéSauvé Elementary School, opened in 1953, taught children from grades 1 to 9. In 1957 a second floor was added to the building because of the growing number of children in St-Eustache-sur-le-Lac. In the 1959-60 school year, French primary students were taught on the first floor and English primary students were taught on the second floor; because of the ongoing population growth, it was decided in 1961 that all French students would attend Sauvé School and all English Students would attend Saint-Jude School. École Emmanuel-Chénard École des Mésanges Centre de formation professionnelle, l'Émergence École des Érables The Lions ClubThe Deux-Montagnes Lions Club is part of the service club organization Lions Club International. The Lions Club International was founded in 1917 by Melvin Jones and today has 1.35 million volunteers in more than 46,000 clubs.
Its mission is to "empower volunteers to serve their communities, meet humanitarian needs, encourage peace and promote international understanding through Lions clubs." 4 Korners4 Korners Family Resource Center is a non-profit organization that seeks to provide English resources for children and seniors in the Laurentian region. The services offered by 4 Korners are information, interpretation and support. In 1930 a new chapel was built in response to a request from parishioners of St-Eustache-sur-le-lac, where Monseigneur George Gauthier, Archbishop of Montreal gave permission to replace the small Bélair chapel, "located on the Chemin du Grand-Moulin at the foot of De La Chapelle street, on the banks of the Rivière des Mille Îles"; the Parish of Saint-Agapit was founded on July 7, 1946. On April 12, 1961 a violent explosion occurred in the basement of the church while 150 children were inside; the children all ran out, only the chimney remained from this incident. On August 28, 1962 the new Saint-Agapit Church was inaugurated after p
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Saint-Roch-de-l'Achigan is a Quebec municipality located in the Montcalm Regional County Municipality located in the Lanaudière region. It is on the banks of a tributary of the L'Assomption River. According to the town's website, the population is 4 500 and growing as a result of the suburban sprawl in the northern crown of the Greater Montreal area; the first settlers arrived near the 1770s and built a flour mill on a township located alongside the Rivière de l'Achigan. The area was located on the northern edges of the first developed lands that were located along both sides of the Saint Lawrence River. In 1787, the Saint-Roch-de-l'Achigan Parish was formed and in 1832, its post office opened, three years after the construction of its first school. In 1845, the parish municipality was established, it was abolished in 1847 when it became part of the County Municipality of Lachenaie, but was reestablished in 1855 as the Parish Municipality of Saint-Roch. In 1921, Saint-Roch lost a part of its territory when the Municipality of Saint-Roch-Ouest was formed.
In 1957, it regained its original name when "de-l'Achigan" was added in order to distinguish it from other places named "Saint-Roch". In 2006, it became the Municipality of Saint-Roch-de-l'Achigan; the town is accessible via Autoroute 25 which links Laval and Montreal towards the northeastern suburbs including Terrebonne and Mascouche. Since the Olivier-Charbonneau Bridge connecting Montreal and Laval was opened to traffic in 2011, it has a direct link to the south shore of Montreal and Autoroutes 20 and 40; the municipality is located near the northern terminus of the Autoroute which continues further north via Route 125 towards the Mont-Tremblant Provincial Park north of Saint-Donat and Rawdon. Population trend: Population in 2011: 4892 Population in 2006: 4449 Population in 2001: 4164 Population in 1996: 4305 Population in 1991: 3795Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 1936 Mother tongue: English as first language: 0.3% French as first language: 97.9% English and French as first language: 0.2% Other as first language: 1.6% Commission scolaire des Samares operates francophone public schools: École secondaire de l'Achigan École Notre-DameThe Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates anglophone public schools, including: Joliette Elementary School in Saint-Charles-Borromée Joliette High School in Joliette List of municipalities in Quebec Website of the Municipality