L'Anse is a village in northwest Michigan, United States, the county seat of Baraga County. The population was 2,011 at the 2010 census; the village is located within L'Anse Township. In French, L'Anse translates as "the cove", a reference to its location on Keweenaw Bay, at the base of the Keweenaw Peninsula. French explorers sighted this area in the 17th century, they established a Jesuit mission there and a fur trading post. The village grew up around it; the village is located within the L'Anse Indian Reservation, the base of the federally recognized Keweenaw Bay Indian Community, part of the Lake Superior Band of Ojibwa people. This area was long occupied by people of the Lake Superior Band of Ojibwa, their village was recorded in the 17th century by French explorers. Colonists established a fur trading post here and a Jesuit mission, naming it L'Anse. Following treaties with the United States in the 19th century, the Ojibwa/Chippewa ceded extensive amounts of land in Michigan; the L'Anse Indian Reservation was established by the US here as the largest and the oldest in Michigan.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.53 square miles, all of it land. US 41 runs through the southernmost portion of the village. M-38 begins across the bay from L'Anse. Indian Trails bus lines operates daily intercity bus service between Hancock and Milwaukee with a stop in L'Anse. At the 2010 census, there were 2,011 people, 874 households and 502 families residing in the village; the population density was 794.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 988 housing units at an average density of 390.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 88.7% White, 1.4% African American, 5.0% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 4.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 874 households of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.6% were non-families.
37.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age was 41.7 years. 22.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 47.6% male and 52.4% female. At the 2000 census, there were 2,107 people, 894 households and 540 families residing in the village; the population density was 821.9 per square mile. There were 981 housing units at an average density of 382.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 91.22% White, 0.09% African American, 5.55% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population. 27.9% were of Finnish, 11.6% German, 9.4% French, 7.5% Norwegian, 5.9% French Canadian and 5.1% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 894 households of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.4% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families.
34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.86. 21.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 21.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. The median household income was $31,406 and the median family income was $38,984. Males had a median income of $31,583 and females $20,929; the per capita income was $15,857. About 6.6% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. Baragaland Bicentennial 1776-1976. Baraga, Michigan: The Lumberjacks. 1976. 100 Years of History: L'Anse/Skanee Centennial. Ishpeming, Michigan: Baraga County Historical Society Pageant Division. 1971. Village of L'anse official Site The L'Anse Sentinel Ojibwa Tribe
Keweenaw Bay is an arm of Lake Superior in North America. It is located adjacent to the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state to the southeast of the Keweenaw Peninsula. It is the name of a small community near the bay. Towns near Keweenaw Bay include L'Anse and Assinins. Indian Trails bus lines operates daily intercity service between Hancock and Milwaukee, Wisconsin with a stop in the Keweenaw Bay at Carla's Lakeshore Motel. Media related to Keweenaw Bay at Wikimedia Commons
Baraga County, Michigan
Baraga County is a county in the Upper Peninsula in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 8,860; the county seat is L'Anse. The county is named after Bishop Frederic Baraga, a Catholic missionary who ministered to indigenous peoples of the area during the period when Michigan was obtaining statehood; the L'Anse Indian Reservation of the Ojibwa is located within this county. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,069 square miles, of which 898 square miles is land and 171 square miles is water; the county is located in the state's Upper Peninsula on the shore of Lake Superior, at the southeast base of the Keweenaw Peninsula. The villages of Baraga and L'Anse are located at the base of Lake Superior's Keweenaw Bay. Point Abbaye projects north into the lake; the eastern two-thirds of the county includes much of the Huron Mountains, including Mount Arvon—the highest natural point in Michigan at 1,979 feet. US 41 – runs north-south through the upper central part of county.
Enters at the NE corner of the county on the west shore of Keeweenaw Bay, runs south along the shoreline to Baraga and L'Anse turns inland past Alberta east through Nestoria and Three Lakes. Exits into Marquette County at Imperial Heights. US 141 – runs south from its intersection with US-41 south of Alberta. Runs south into Iron County. M-28 – enters west line of county at 6 miles north of SW corner of county runs east and ENE to intersection with US-141 at Covington. M-38 – runs east-west through NW part of county. Enters from Alston in Houghton County runs east to intersection with US-41 at Baraga. Marquette County Iron County Houghton County Keweenaw National Historical Park Ottawa National Forest The 2010 United States Census indicates Baraga County had a population of 8,860; this increase of 114 people from the 2000 United States Census. is a 1.3% population growth. In 2010 there were 3,444 households and 2,209 families in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 5,270 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile.
75.0% of the population were White, 13.1% Native American, 7.2% Black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 4.4% of two or more races. 1.0% were Hispanic or Latino. 22.5% were of Finnish, 9.1% German, 8.8% French, French Canadian or Cajun, 5.6% English and 5.5% Irish ancestry. There were 3,444 households out of which 25.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families. 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.82. The county population contained 20.2% under the age of 18, 7% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 29.7% from 45 to 64, 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.9 years. 54.9% of the population was male, 45.1% was female. The median income for a household in the county was $40,115, the median income for a family was $50,996.
The per capita income for the county was $19,076. About 9.5% of families and 13% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.2% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Baraga County has tended to vote Republican through the years. Since 1884 its voters have selected the Republican Party nominee in 64% of the national elections through 2016. Baraga County operates the County jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services; the county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions – police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance etc. – are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Baraga L'Anse Zeba The L'Anse Indian Reservation occupies two sections of Baraga County within portions of Baraga, L'Anse, Arvon townships.
The reservation has small portion in Chocolay Charter Township in neighboring Marquette County to the east. List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Baraga County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Baraga County, Michigan Baraga County Government website Baraga County Profile, Sam M Cohodas Regional Economist Western Upper Peninsula Planning & Development Region
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Zeba is a census-designated place in L'Anse Township of Baraga County in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is located on the southern shore of Keweenaw Bay at 46°48′09″N 88°24′52″W, about halfway between L'Anse and Pequaming; the community was named Zeba because of a small stream. The 2010 census recorded a population of 480 inhabitants. Zeba has a history similar to that of nearby L'Anse, since the same missionaries and traders were established in both places; the American Fur Trading Company had a post in Zeba, was a major shipping point for furs and sandstone. Zeba was founded in 1831 when Father Frederic Baraga, a Catholic priest and established the area's first mission along the southern shore of Lake Superior's Keweenaw Bay near present-day L'Anse. Early settlers included Peter Marksman Sr, Peter Hall, William Bass, Benjamin George; as of the census of 2010, there were 480 people, 183 households, 132 families residing in the CDP. The racial makeup of the CDP was 45.2% White, 46.9% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 7.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. The ancestry make up was 10.55% German, 3.96% Irish, 3.43% Ukrainian, 2.37% Canadian, 1.85% Welsh, 1.32% Dutch, 1.32% English, 1.32% French, 1.06% Croatian, 1.06% European, 70.71% other. A post office operated here from September 3, 1910, until June 30, 1912, from April 16, 1913, until November 30, 1933. Zeba is. On the bluff overlooking the lake, the Gothic-style Zeba Indian United Methodist church known as the Kewawenon Mission and constructed in 1888, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Two miles inland, the cemetery on Indian Cemetery Road in the Pinery dates from the 1840s, is unique in its use of spirit houses instead of the more traditional gravestones. Today, the community is part of the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community of the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa Indians; the 8-mile series of cross-country ski trails known as the Pinery Lakes Trail are nearby. "ZEBA". Hunts' Guide to Michigan's UPPER PENINSULA. Retrieved 2006-10-29.
"Zeba Indian United Methodist Church". Michigan Historical Markers. Retrieved 2006-10-29
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United