Dolphin is a common name of aquatic mammals within the order Cetacea, arbitrarily excluding whales and porpoises. The term dolphin refers to the extant families Delphinidae, Platanistidae and Pontoporiidae, the extinct Lipotidae. There are 40 extant species named as dolphins. Dolphins range in size from the 1.7 m long and 50 kg Maui's dolphin to the 9.5 m and 10 t killer whale. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, they have two limbs that are modified into flippers. Though not quite as flexible as seals, some dolphins can travel at 55.5 km/h. Dolphins use their conical shaped teeth to capture fast moving prey, they have well-developed hearing, adapted for both air and water and is so well developed that some can survive if they are blind. Some species are well adapted for diving to great depths, they have a layer of blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water. Although dolphins are widespread, most species prefer the warmer waters of the tropic zones, but some, like the right whale dolphin, prefer colder climates.
Dolphins feed on fish and squid, but a few, like the killer whale, feed on large mammals, like seals. Male dolphins mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a long period of time. Dolphins produce a variety of vocalizations in the form of clicks and whistles. Dolphins are sometimes hunted in places such as Japan, in an activity known as dolphin drive hunting. Besides drive hunting, they face threats from bycatch, habitat loss, marine pollution. Dolphins have been depicted in various cultures worldwide. Dolphins feature in literature and film, as in the film series Free Willy. Dolphins are sometimes trained to perform tricks; the most common dolphin species in captivity is the bottlenose dolphin, while there are around 60 captive killer whales. The name is from Greek δελφίς, "dolphin", related to the Greek δελφύς, "womb".
The animal's name can therefore be interpreted as meaning "a'fish' with a womb". The name was transmitted via the Latin delphinus, which in Medieval Latin became dolfinus and in Old French daulphin, which reintroduced the ph into the word; the term mereswine has historically been used. The term'dolphin' can be used to refer to, under the parvorder Odontoceti, all the species in the family Delphinidae and the river dolphin families Iniidae, Pontoporiidae and Platanistidae; this term has been misused in the US in the fishing industry, where all small cetaceans are considered porpoises, while the fish dorado is called dolphin fish. In common usage the term'whale' is used only for the larger cetacean species, while the smaller ones with a beaked or longer nose are considered'dolphins'; the name'dolphin' is used casually as a synonym for bottlenose dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin. There are six species of dolphins thought of as whales, collectively known as blackfish: the killer whale, the melon-headed whale, the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale, the two species of pilot whales, all of which are classified under the family Delphinidae and qualify as dolphins.
Though the terms'dolphin' and'porpoise' are sometimes used interchangeably, porpoises are not considered dolphins and have different physical features such as a shorter beak and spade-shaped teeth. Porpoises share a common ancestry with the Delphinidae. A group of dolphins is called a "school" or a "pod". Male dolphins are called "bulls", females "cows" and young dolphins are called "calves". Parvorder Odontoceti, toothed whales Family Platanistidae Ganges and Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica with two subspecies Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor Family Iniidae Amazon river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis Orinoco river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis humboldtiana Araguaian river dolphin, Inia Araguaiaensis Bolivian river dolphin, Inia boliviensis Family Lipotidae Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer Family Pontoporiidae La Plata dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei Family Delphinidae, oceanic dolphins Genus Delphinus Long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis Genus Tursiops Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus Burrunan dolphin, Tursiops australis, a newly discovered species from the sea around Melbourne in September 2011.
Genus Lissodelphis Northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis Southern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis peronii Genus Sotalia Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis Costero, Sotalia guianensis Genus Sousa Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis Chinese white dolphin, Sousa chinensis chinensis Atlantic humpback dolphin, Sousa teuszii Genus Stenella Atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis Clymene dolphin, Stenella clymene Pantropical
The Vancouver Aquarium is a public aquarium located in Stanley Park in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. In addition to being a major tourist attraction for Vancouver, the aquarium is a centre for marine research and marine animal rehabilitation; the Vancouver Aquarium was one of the first facilities to incorporate professional naturalists into the galleries to interpret animal behaviours. Prior to this, at the London Zoo Fish House, naturalists James S. Bowerbank, Ray Lankester, David W. Mitchell and Philip H. Gosse had held "open house" events, but the Vancouver Aquarium was the first to employ educational naturalists on a full-time basis. Aquarium research projects extend worldwide, include marine mammal rescue and rehabilitation. On August 9, 2010 Prime Minister Stephen Harper and B. C. Premier Gordon Campbell announced capital funding of up to $15 million; the province would donate $10 million in funding over the next three years to help pay for a planned expansion of the 54-year-old facility, Premier Gordon Campbell said.
Harper added that Ottawa would hand over up to $5 million to the aquarium for infrastructure upgrades. The aquarium, remains a nonprofit organization; the property is owned by the City of Vancouver and rented to the Aquarium for $40,000 a year since 1991. In October 2009 the Vancouver Aquarium was designated as a Coastal America Learning Center by the US Environmental Protection Agency; as the first Learning Center in Canada, this designation is intended to strengthen the Canadian/U. S. Partnership for protecting and restoring shared ocean resources; the Vancouver Public Aquarium Association was formed in 1950 by UBC fisheries and oceanography professors Murray Newman, Carl Lietze and Wilbert Clemens. After receiving the help of timber baron H. R. MacMillan and businessman George Cunningham and $100,000 from each of the three levels of government, it opened on June 15, 1956 with the ribbon being cut by federal Minister of Fisheries James Sinclair. Sinclair's daughter 7-year-old Margaret was present at the ribbon cutting ceremony.
Canada's first public Aquarium, the Vancouver Aquarium has become the largest in Canada and one of the five largest in North America. The Vancouver Aquarium was the first aquarium in the world to display an orca. Other whales and dolphins on display included belugas and dolphins. In 1975, the Vancouver Aquarium was the first aquarium accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums; the Aquarium is accredited by the Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquariums and in 1987 was designated Canada's Pacific National Aquarium by the Canadian Federal Government. On July 23, 1995, a beluga whale named, she was the first beluga to be both born in a Canadian aquarium. A second calf, was born on July 30, 2002, but died unexpectedly with no previous sign of illness on July 17, 2005. In 1996, the Vancouver Park Board instituted a municipal bylaw that prevents the Vancouver Aquarium from capturing cetaceans from the wild for display purposes, only obtain cetaceans from other facilities if they were born in captivity, captured before 1996 or were rescued and deemed un-releasable after this date.
On June 15, 2006 Canada Post issued a 51 cent domestic rate stamp to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Aquarium. For many years, the primary attraction for visitors was the orca show; the Aquarium was the first to capture and display a killer whale, Moby Doll, in a pen at Burrard Drydocks, for 3 months in 1964. Since it was home to Skana, Hyak II, Finna and three of Bjossa's calves; when Finna died and Bjossa was left without other orca companions, the Aquarium attempted to acquire one or more female orcas from other marine parks. However, no suitable companions were found, Bjossa was moved to SeaWorld, San Diego, in April 2001 where she died due to a chronic respiratory illness; the Aquarium has since moved to emphasize the educational aspects of the displays rather than the public spectacle of the shows. They have highlighted their research and rehabilitation efforts; the aquarium has played a significant role in the research of wild orcas in BC. John Ford, a respected researcher who focuses on orca vocalizations, worked there for many years and they still fund a lot of the study.
The Wild Killer Whale Adoption Program, which funds research, is run out of the aquarium. After considerable public discussion and some opposition from an animal rights group, the Vancouver Park Board voted in favour of a proposal to expand the Aquarium at a cost of $100 million, funded by the Aquarium, private donors, infrastructure grants. A public consultation process, led by the aquarium and their own consultants, showed 89% of local residents were in favour of the expansion; the proposal will extend its lease by 20 years. Construction was expected to begin in the fall of 2007. Vancouver Aquarium has not kept any orcas in captivity since 2001 and has pledged not to capture wild animals, but to instead rely on captive animals for breeding; the aquarium covers 9,000 square metres and has a total 9,500,000 litres of water in 166 aquatic displays. There are a number of different galleries, several of which were built at different times throughout the aquarium's history; this central indoor exhibit consists of a 260,000 litres (57,000 im
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
Palma Aquarium is a commercial aquarium and park that first opened in 2007 in Palma, Spain. The aquarium is the property of Coral World International; the aquarium is 500 m from Playa de Palma beach, includes 55 tanks which are home to over 700 different species from the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. One tank, "Big Blue" is 8.5 m deep, the deepest shark tank in Europe, it contains the largest collection of live coral in Europe The park was awarded "Best Business Initiative in the Balearics 2007", awarded by Actualidad Económica magazine, was awarded the "2007 Accessibility Prize" by the Consell de Mallorca. The aquarium organises environmentally focused activities, takes part in protection and conservation campaigns. Palma Aquarium has more than 400,000 visitors every year, with an average of over 1000 visitors a day. 50% of its visitors are local and national, while the rest are of European origin. Palma Aquarium has received several awards, including the “Best Business Initiative in Balearics 2007” award, awarded by Actualidad Económica magazine and the “2007 Accessibility Award”, awarded by the Consell de Mallorca.
A visit to the aquarium is presented as if it were a journey through the world's oceans. The first stage of the "journey" shows Mediterranean marine fauna and flora including starfish and slipper lobsters, scorpion fish, groupers and shrimps, eels, seahorses, conger eels and coral. Visitors can have direct contact with some of these animals, such as the starfish, in the Touch Pools. There are 25 aquariums in this section showing animals from the tropical parts of the Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean; these animals include the fire fish, the clown fish, the black widow tetra, the surgeon fish, the blacktip reef shark, bright colourful coral. The Palma Aquarium live coral includes gorgonians, fragile saucer and honeycomb, it is one of the few aquariums in Europe where all the coral decorating the tanks is real and alive, one of the few aquariums to have its own coral reproduction program, which has resulted in the birth of new coral colonies on site. There is a garden area which combines Mediterranean plants with tanks containing turtles, koi fish, gilthead bream and stingrays.
Available here is a cafeteria and a children’s play area with a "pirate ship". During the summer, the park has children’s entertainment every day of the week, featuring face-painting, water fights and shows; the Jungle area is designed to resemble a tropical rainforest. It is the largest roof-top garden in Spain, one of the largest in Europe. A waterfall and several vaporizers create a humid atmosphere; the Big Blue is the deepest shark tank in Europe, at 8.5 m 33 m long and 25 m wide. The tank holds 3,500,000 l of saltwater. Six sand tiger sharks, 5 sandbar sharks and over 1000 fish live inside this tank. Visitors descend to the central aquarium’s observation area via a transparent tunnel, while sharks and rays swim over their heads; the Jellyfish tank is a cylinder-shaped aquarium containing about fifty jellyfish all of which belong to the Mediterranean’s common species, Aurelia aurita. A number of different activities are available: "Dive with the Sharks". An activity for adults and children. "Underwater".
In the summer, visitors over the age of eight can swim in the stingray tank, located in the Mediterranean Gardens. "Shark Sleepover'". Children between the ages of 6 and 16 spend the night camping out in front of the Big Blue, the shark tank. "Birthdays'. Children can celebrate their birthdays at the park with themed pirate parties; the Palma Aquarium is home to over 700 different species from the Mediterranean Sea, the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The Mediterranean Sea: Asteroidea Palinurus elephas Scyllarides latus Trachinus draco Symphodus tinca Epinephelus marginatus Caridea Muraena helena Rajiformes Hippocampus species, Octopoda Conger conger Actiniaria Pennatulacea Corallium rubrum Caulerpa species Ascidiacea Holothuria species Paracentrotus lividus Tropical Seas: Alcyonacea Fungia scutaria Pseudanthias squamipinnis Labridae Amphiprion ocellaris Pterois antennata Zebrasoma flavescens Ensis species Syngnathinae Synchiropus splendidus Ostracion cubicus Gobio Porifera Carcharhinus melanopterus Hypostomus species Serrasalmus species Mediterranean Gardens: Eretmochelys imbricata Cyprinus carpio Big Blue: Rhinobatidae Carcharias taurus Carcharhinus plumbeus Dicentrarchus labrax Sparus aurata Seriola dumerili Mugil Myliobatis aquila Dasyatis pastinaca Dentex dentex Diplodus vulgaris Coris julis Centracanthidae Chromis chromis Jellyfish Tank: Aurelia aurita Palma Aquarium has a series of research and investigation programs including developing coral reef reproduction and rehabilitation p
City of Arts and Sciences
The City of Arts and Sciences is an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex in the city of Valencia, Spain. It is the most important modern tourist destination in the city of Valencia and one of the 12 Treasures of Spain; the City of Arts and Sciences is situated at the end of the former riverbed of the river Turia, drained and rerouted after a catastrophic flood in 1957. The old riverbed was turned into a picturesque sunken park. Designed by Santiago Calatrava and Félix Candela, the project began the first stages of construction in July 1996, was inaugurated April 16, 1998 with the opening of L'Hemisfèric; the last great component of the City of Arts and Sciences, El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia, was inaugurated on October 9, 2005, Valencian Community Day. Budgeted at €300 million, it has cost nearly three times the initial expected cost; the complex is made up of the following buildings, in order of their inauguration: L'Hemisfèric — an IMAX Cinema and laserium. The building is meant to resemble a giant eye, has an approximate surface of 13,000 m².
The Hemesferic known as the planetarium or the "eye of knowledge," is the centerpiece of the City of Arts and Sciences. It was the first building completed in 1998, its design resembles an eyelid. The bottom of the pool is glass; this planetarium is a half-sphere composed of concrete 110 meters long and 55.5 meters wide. The shutter is built of elongated aluminum awnings that fold upward collectively to form a brise soleil roof that opens along the curved axis of the eye, it opens to reveal the dome, the "iris" of the eye, the Ominax theater. The City of Arts and Sciences is divided in half by a set of stairs that descend into the vaulted concrete lobby; the underground spaces are illuminated with the use of translucent glass panels within the walking path. The transparent roof is supported by concrete arches. There is a miraculous echo inside of the building and if two people stay on the two opposite pillars inside of the eye they can seamlessly speak with each other. El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe — Is an interactive museum of science that resembles the skeleton of a whale.
It occupies around 40,000 m² on three floors. The hotch-potch of exhibits is designed more for'entertainment value' than for science education. Much of the ground floor is taken up by a basketball court sponsored by a local team and various companies; the building is made up of three floors. The first floor has a view of the Turia Garden; the second floor hosts "The Legacy of Science" exhibition by the researchers. The third floor is known as the "Chromosome Forest" which shows the sequencing of human DNA. On this floor is the "Zero Gravity," the "Space Academy," and "Marvel Superheroes" exhibitions; the building's architecture is known for its geometry, use of materials, its design around nature. The building is about 42,000 square meter and 26,000 square meters of is exhibition space, the largest in Spain, it has 20,000 square meters of glass, 4,000 panes, 58,000 m³ of concrete, 14.000 tons of steel. This magnificent building stands 80 meters wide and 55 meters high. L'Umbracle — an open structure enveloping a landscaped walk with plant species indigenous to Valencia.
It harbors in its interior The Walk of the Sculptures, an outdoor art gallery with sculptures by contemporary artists.. The Umbracle is home to numerous free-standing sculptures surrounded by nature, it was designed as an entrance to the City of Sciences. It is 60 meters wide, located on the southern side of the complex, it includes 54 floating arches that stand 18 meters high. The plants displayed were picked to change colour with each season; the garden includes 78 small palm trees, 62 bitter orange trees. There are 42 varieties of shrubs from the Region of Valencia including Cistus, Buddleia, Pampas grass, Plumbago. In the garden there are 16 species of the four-o'clock plant. Honeysuckle and hanging Bougainvillea are two of the 450 climbing plants in the L'Umbracle. There are 5,500 ground cover plants such as Lotus, Spanish Flags, Fig Marigolds. There are over a hundred aromatic plants including Lavender. L'Oceanogràfic — an open-air oceanographic park, designed by Félix Candela, it is the largest oceanographic aquarium in Europe with 110,000 square meters and 42 million liters of water.
It is the work of architect Félix Candela. Each building represents different aquatic environments including the Mediterranean, Wetlands and Tropical Seas, the Antarctic, the Arctic and the Ted Sea; this aquarium is a home to over 500 different species including dolphins, sawfish, starfish, sea urchins, sea lions, penguins, sharks,and rays. It inhabits wetland bird species. El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia — an opera house and performing arts center, it contains four large rooms: a Main Room, Magisterial Classr
Seagrasses are flowering plants which grow in marine environments. There are 60 species of marine seagrasses which belong to four families, all in the order Alismatales. Seagrasses evolved from terrestrial plants which migrated back into the ocean about 75 to 100 million years ago; the name seagrass stems from the many species whose leaves are long and narrow, who grow by rhizome extension and spread across large "meadows", which resemble grassland: many species superficially resemble terrestrial grasses of the family Poaceae. Like all autotrophic plants, seagrasses photosynthesize, in the submerged photic zone, most occur in shallow and sheltered coastal waters anchored in sand or mud bottoms. Most species complete their life cycle underwater. Seagrasses beds/meadows can be either monospecific or in mixed beds. In temperate areas one or a few species dominate, whereas tropical beds are more diverse, with up to thirteen species recorded in the Philippines. Seagrass beds are diverse and productive ecosystems, can harbor hundreds of associated species from all phyla, for example juvenile and adult fish and free-living macroalgae and microalgae, bristle worms, nematodes.
Few species were considered to feed directly on seagrass leaves, but scientific reviews and improved working methods have shown that seagrass herbivory is an important link in the food chain, feeding hundreds of species, including green turtles, manatees, geese, sea urchins and crabs. Some fish species that visit/feed on seagrasses raise their young in adjacent mangroves or coral reefs. Seagrasses trap slow down water movement, causing suspended sediment to settle out. Trapping sediment benefits coral by reducing sediment loads, improving photosynthesis for both coral and seagrass. Although overlooked, seagrasses provide coastal zones with a number of ecosystem goods and services. Seagrasses are considered ecosystem engineers; this means. This adjusting occurs in both chemical forms. Many seagrass species produce an extensive underground network of roots and rhizome which stabilizes sediment and reduces coastal erosion; this system assists in oxygenating the sediment, providing a hospitable environment for sediment-dwelling organisms.
Seagrasses enhance water quality by stabilizing heavy metals and excess nutrients The long blades of seagrasses slow the movement of water which reduces wave energy and offers further protection against coastal erosion and storm surge. Furthermore, because seagrasses are underwater plants, they produce significant amounts of oxygen which oxygenate the water column; these meadows account for more than 10% of the ocean’s total carbon storage. Per hectare, it holds twice as much carbon dioxide as rain forests and can sequester about 27.4 million tons of CO2 annually. The storage of carbon is an essential ecosystem service as we move into a period of elevated atmospheric carbon levels. However, some climate change models suggest that some seagrasses will go extinct – Posidonia oceanica is expected to go extinct, or nearly so, by 2050. Seagrass meadows provide physical habitat in areas which would otherwise be bare of any vegetation. Due to this three dimensional structure in the water column, many species occupy seagrass habitats for shelter and foraging.
It is estimated that 17 species of coral reef fish spend their entire juvenile life stage on seagrass flats. These habitats act as a nursery grounds for commercially and recreationally valued fishery species, including the gag grouper, red drum, common snook, many others; some fish species utilize variaus stages of life cycle. In a recent publication, Dr. Ross Boucek and colleagues discovered that two sought after flats fish, the common snook and spotted sea trout provide essential foraging habitat during reproduction. Sexual reproduction is energetically expensive to be completed with stored energy, they require seagrass meadows in close proximity to complete reproduction. Furthermore, many commercially important invertebrates reside in seagrass habitats including bay scallops, the horseshoe crab, shrimp. Charismatic fauna can be seen visiting the seagrass habitats; these species include West Indian manatee, green sea turtles, various species of sharks. The high diversity of marine organisms which can be found on seagrass habitats promotes them as tourism attraction and a significant source of income for many coastal economies in along the Gulf of Mexico and in the Caribbean.
Seagrasses were collected as fertilizer for sandy soil. This was an important use in the Ria de Aveiro, where the plants collected were known as moliço. In the early 20th century, in France and, to a lesser extent, the Channel Islands, dried seagrasses were used as a mattress filling - such mattresses were in high demand by French forces during World War I, it was used for bandages and other purposes. In February 2017, researchers found that seagrass meadows may be able to remove various pathogens from seawater. On small islands without wastewater treatment facilities in central Indonesia, levels of pathogenic marine bacteria – such as Enterococcus – that affect humans and invertebrates were reduced by 50 percent when seagrass meadows were present, compared to paired sites without seagrass, although thi
Barcelona Zoo is a zoo in the Parc de la Ciutadella in Barcelona, Spain. The zoo used to be internationally known as the home of Snowflake, the only known albino gorilla, who died in 2003; the zoo's attractions include a primate house, a terrarium, a "Land of Dragons" featuring Komodo dragons and an "Aquarama" for dolphin shows. On 8 December 2014, a 45-year-old man jumped into the lion enclosure, he was bitten and scratched, but was rescued and recovered from the injuries. Media related to Barcelona Zoo at Wikimedia Commons Official website