At the Drive-In
At the Drive-In is an American rock band from El Paso, formed in 1994. The band most consisted of Cedric Bixler-Zavala, Omar Rodríguez-López, Paul Hinojos, Tony Hajjar and Keeley Davis. After several early line-up changes, the band solidified into a five-piece, consisting of Bixler-Zavala, Rodríguez-López, Jim Ward and Hajjar. At the Drive-In released three studio albums and five EPs before breaking up in 2001, their third and final album before their split, 2000's Relationship of Command, received a number of accolades and is cited as a landmark of the post-hardcore genre. Following the breakup, Bixler-Zavala and Rodríguez-López formed the Mars Volta while Ward and Hajjar formed Sparta. At the Drive-In reunited in January 2012 and played the 2012 Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival, as well as the 2012 Lollapalooza Festival. In 2016, the band reunited for a second time, with guitarist and occasional lead vocalist Jim Ward no longer participating, he was replaced by Sparta's Keeley Davis.
The band released their fourth studio album, in•ter a•li•a, in 2017. At the Drive In headlined the Neon Desert Music Festival in 2018 in Texas; the band announced an indefinite hiatus in November 2018. At the drive-In was founded in 1994 by guitarist Jim Ward and vocalist Cedric Bixler-Zavala; the newly formed band played its first live show on October 15, 1994 at the Loretto High School Fair in El Paso, Texas. Not long after, At the Drive-In released its first studio recording entitled Hell Paso, a 7-inch EP issued in November 1994. Following Hell Paso’s release, the band members embarked on their first tour – a 2,000-mile trek across the state of Texas. After a drummer change, At the Drive-In released its second EP ¡Alfaro Vive, Carajo! in June 1995. The band set out on another tour, this one in a newly purchased 1981 Ford Econoline and spanning 42 days and 10,000 miles across the United States. During these tours, At the Drive-In began developing a large underground following by playing in basements and small venues across the western United States, with their popularity spread by word of mouth among fans.
One such show that changed the course of history for the band was in a now defunct bar in Los Angeles, where the band put on an explosive performance for just nine people – some of them employees of the Flipside record label. The staffers were so enthralled by the show that they offered to put out At the Drive-In’s record and there. Accepting the offer, the band first headed out on another 21-day tour of the Southwest before ending in Los Angeles again where they recorded their debut full-length album titled Acrobatic Tenement for $600; the album was released August 18, 1996, the band commenced another tour of the United States the following year spanning 100 days and 24,000 miles. This tour included shows with hundreds of other bands such as Screw 32, J Church, AFI, Still Life, Mustard Plug, Face to Face, Cosmic Psychos. At the Drive-In’s fan base began to swell with every show it performed. Following this tour, the band members took a month vacation before rehearsing for their next record and subsequent tour.
Following the recording of Acrobatic Tenement in July 1996, the final line-up of At the Drive-In fell into place with the addition of Tony Hajjar and Paul Hinojos and with Omar Rodríguez-López transitioning from bass to guitar. At the Drive-In’s third EP titled El Gran Orgo was released on September 18, 1997, “showed a more melodic side of the band, but the musical depth and heartfelt emotion was never more apparent.” Two days after its release, the band was in Boulder, Colorado playing a show with Welt to kick off its next 35-day, 11,000-mile tour that included six dates with Karp and the Young Pioneers, one-offs with Guttermouth, The Criminals, Piss Drunks, the Humpers. At the Drive-In’s popularity at this point was undeniable, with headlining shows in the Midwest drawing between 100 and 350 fans; when the time came for At the Drive-In’s next recording, Flipside quit producing records and Offtime was financially unable to, "so the band approached every indie label they could think of." When hope was lost and the possibility of another record seemed dim and Michelle Becker of Fearless Records saw At the Drive-In open for Supernova at a bar named Club Mesa.
Despite Fearless’s history of producing pop punk bands, the band members "felt comfortable with Bob and Michelle on a personal level" and a deal was signed. At the Drive-In began recording its second full-length album titled In/Casino/Out on June 3, 1998. With producer and mixer Alex Newport, the band spent four days recording at Doug Messenger's, in North Hollywood, Revolver Recordings in Costa Mesa with Engineer Andy Troy for Fearless Records, an additional two days mixing the album at Paramount, in Hollywood; this album marked a notable maturation in At the Drive-In’s sound and is special in that it was recorded live with just a small number of overdubs. In/Casino/Out was chosen to be recorded live because, according to some sources, At the Drive-In struggled to capture the intensity and emotion of its live shows in the recording studio. In/Casino/Out was released on August 18, 1998, although the band toured non-stop from July until December, playing shows with bands like Knapsack and The Murder City Devils.
At the Drive-In took a couple month break until March 1999, at which point they kicked off another tour with a two-week stint with Jimmy Eat World in the United States until they headed to Europe for a six-week European tour spanning eleven countries. Upon returning to the United States, At the Drive-In played a handful of shows b
De Facto (band)
De Facto was a dub reggae band which included Cedric Bixler-Zavala, Omar Rodríguez-López, Isaiah "Ikey" Owens and Jeremy Michael Ward. The band began as small jam sessions; the original band consisted of Omar and Jeremy playing local shows around their home town, El Paso, Texas. Cedric said, "Yeah we used to be called the Sphinktators, early De Facto, just more rock." Omar was the singer of the Sphinktators and remembers, "We used psychedelic sounds, Cedric played the bass, Jeremy played guitar, Ralph Jasso played drums." For their first recording they brainstormed the name De Facto Cadre Dub, shortened to De Facto. The lineup of the band was switched around: Cedric played drums like he did before in his earlier bands Foss and Los Dregtones, Omar played bass, Jeremy ran samples and did the sparse guitar work. Ralph Jasso soon quit the band; the self-titled recording was released as a limited vinyl pressing in 1999. You Fight for Dub. You Plug Dub In. Through Headquarter Records, now known as Restart Records.
Omar met Ikey Owens at a hip hop show. They exchanged numbers and Ikey met up with them during one of their shows and joined De Facto as their keyboard player midshow. After relocating to the west coast, Ikey joined the band full-time. Following the break-up of At the Drive-in in 2001 Omar and Cedric switched their focus on De Facto; that year saw all the band's releases come out, starting with 456132015 EP produced by Mario Caldato Jr. De Facto's first full-length album, ¡Megaton Shotblast! was released on the Gold Standard Laboratories label, received moderate success in part due to the popularity of At the Drive-In. Légende du Scorpion à Quatre Queues, which would be the last De Facto album, followed the same year, released through Modern City Records. Both albums combined band's studio recordings made in 2000 with live recordings from the European tour in 2001. In 2001, the members of the band teamed up with bassist Eva Gardner and drummer Blake Fleming to form The Mars Volta. Despite this, De Facto continued to play numerous live shows in the following years.
During that time, Omar met John Frusciante at one of the shows and the two became friends. The band however did not put out any new material, following death of Jeremy Ward in May 2003 due to drug overdose, any future re-groupings of De Facto appeared unlikely. In a radio interview conducted by Radionica Colombia on 28 October 2008, Cedric Bixler-Zavala revealed that after returning from the South American leg of the current Mars Volta tour, new De Facto material may be recorded. In the same interview, Bixler-Zavala stated that he will be returning to the drums for the production. To date, it has not been confirmed if the sessions happened. Since 2001 the only new De Facto release had been the live footage from the January 3, 2001 show at The Smell, Los Angeles, included on the Gold Standard Laboratories DVD GSL Lab Results Vol. 1 Live in 2007. Omar Rodriguez-Lopez however mentioned the possibility of releasing a documentary from the band's European tours, as well as unreleased tracks from Mario Caldato Jr. sessions.
Ikey Owens died of a heart attack in 2014. De Facto's general style was instrumental dub, influenced by the heady sounds of the likes of King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry; however they dabbled in electronica and salsa music, jazz fusion. The band's writing process was improvisational, based on an exchange of ideas using drum and bass rhythms as the songs' spines. A lot of those ideas led to, The Mars Volta. Omar Rodríguez-López — bass Cedric Bixler-Zavala — drums Isaiah "Ikey" Owens — keyboards Jeremy Michael Ward — sound manipulation, melodica, synthesizer ¡Megaton Shotblast! Légende du Scorpion à Quatre Queues De Facto 456132015 How Do You Dub? You Fight For Dub. You Plug Dub In. "120E7" Test Four 120 E7 Nova Records 2001 Test the Box 120 E7 Nova Records 2001 Audioflashcard Gold Standard Labs At the Drive-In The Mars Volta List of ambient music artists
The Mars Volta
The Mars Volta is an American progressive rock band from El Paso, formed in 2001. The band's final lineup consisted of Omar Rodríguez-López, Cedric Bixler-Zavala, Juan Alderete, Marcel Rodríguez-López and Deantoni Parks; the band formed following the break-up of Rodríguez-López and Bixler-Zavala's previous band, At the Drive-In. They were known for their concept albums. In 2009, the band won a Grammy Award in the Best Hard Rock Performance category for the song "Wax Simulacra". In 2008, they were named Best Prog-Rock Band by Rolling Stone magazine. In September 2012 the Mars Volta entered a hiatus, with Omar Rodríguez-López and Parks forming a new project, Bosnian Rainbows. Four months the band formally broke up. Bixler-Zavala and Alderete subsequently formed Zavalaz. Rodríguez-López and Bixler-Zavala reunited in 2014 for a new project, Antemasque. Cedric Bixler-Zavala stated in an interview: The Volta is taken from a Federico Fellini book about his films, what he characterizes as a changing of scene, or a turnaround.
Y' know, changing of the changeover. And Mars, we're just fascinated by science fiction so and it's something that looked as in anything I write, its meaning is always up to the listener; as the way we write songs and words, if it looks great on paper to us it's like painting, so if it looks good meaning the second people have a better interpretation than we would. The roots of the Mars Volta are found in the band At the Drive-In. ATDI imploded on the verge of breakthrough due to boredom to musical differences. Members Cedric Bixler-Zavala and Omar Rodríguez-López began to further explore their experimental, dub-influenced side project called De Facto, which featured Bixler-Zavala on drums, Rodríguez-López on bass, Isaiah "Ikey" Owens on keyboards, Jeremy Michael Ward on vocals and sound effects. Due to creative differences and discomfort with mainstream success and drug abuse, Rodríguez-López and Bixler-Zavala quit At the Drive-In in 2001; the remaining members of the band formed Sparta. During 2001 Eva Gardner joined the members of De Facto on bass, they recorded two songs with drummer Blake Fleming and producer Alex Newport, which became the first demo by the Mars Volta.
The lineup for their first public show at Chain Reaction in Anaheim, California was Rodríguez-López, Bixler-Zavala, Gardner and drummer Jon Theodore. This lineup recorded three more tracks with Alex Newport, which became the EP Tremulant, released in early 2002 by Gold Standard Laboratories. After the demise of At the Drive-In, Rodríguez-López and Bixler-Zavala found themselves once again starting from the ground up, touring and performing in smaller venues. In their early years the Mars Volta were characterized by heavy drug use. Following Tremulant, the Mars Volta continued touring with a fluid line-up while preparing to record their debut full-length album De-Loused in the Comatorium, produced with Rick Rubin and released on June 24, 2003. Whereas Tremulant had no general theme De-Loused was a unified work of speculative fiction telling the first-person story of someone in a drug-induced coma, battling the evil side of his mind. Though lyrically obscure, the Mars Volta stated in interviews that the album's protagonist is based on their late friend Julio Venegas, or "Cerpin Taxt", an El Paso poet and artist who went into a coma for several years after a deliberate drug overdose and committed suicide.
He died jumping from the Mesa Street overpass onto Interstate-10 in El Paso during afternoon rush-hour traffic. In an interview with The Aquarian Weekly in 2008, Cedric Bixler-Zavala said about working with Rubin, "Rick over-simplified some of the parts that we thought were unique, just made them digestible. He's got this thing about representing the common man's ears—I'd rather jab the common man's ears. If we don't, we'll never get to a place where future music exists."The Mars Volta had no official bassist during the recording session, but Flea played bass on nine of the album's ten songs, with Justin Meldal-Johnsen playing double bass on "Televators." Flea's bandmate John Frusciante contributed additional guitar and backing vocals to "Cicatriz ESP". After several temporary replacements, a permanent bassist for the band was found in Juan Alderete. Despite limited promotion, De-Loused earned strong reviews, appeared on several'year-end best-of' lists; the album remains the Mars Volta's best-seller, with over 500,000 copies sold.
Rolling Stone ranked a track from De-Loused, "Drunkship of Lanterns", the 91st Best Guitar Song Ever. The band released a limited-edition storybook version of the album, available by download from the Gold Standard Laboratories website; the book speaks of his suicide. While on tour with the Red Hot Chili Peppers in support of the album, founding member Jeremy Michael Ward died of a heroin overdose; the band had canceled the tour's second leg, the first single from De-Loused was dedicated to Ward. It was this event which convinced band leaders Rodríguez-López and Bixler-Zavala to purportedly quit using opioids. Bixler-Zavala recalled: "One day, we were all getting high, Jeremy asked me if I could see he had worms in his head. I never touched the s
Cedric Bixler-Zavala is an American singer and songwriter. He is the lead singer and lyricist of the Grammy Award-winning progressive rock band The Mars Volta and the only constant member of the post-hardcore group At the Drive-In, for which he is the lead singer and occasional guitarist, he is the lead singer of the band Antemasque, sings and plays guitar in his band Zavalaz. Bixler-Zavala was born in the US to Mexican parents, Antonio-Joaquin de Zabala and Francesca Maria de Navarro, his parents were bilingual, but Bixler-Zavala says his command of proper Spanish is limited to "Spanglish." His Spanish maternal surname, Zavala, is a Castilian version of Basque origin. His earliest paternal ancestors on his mother's side were fishermen and traders from the Basque region of Gipuzkoa and were employed by the Spanish government as colonists to the Spanish Louisiana. In the early 1990s, Bixler-Zavala played drums and was a vocalist for a band named Foss which included future Texas congressman, senatorial candidate, presidential candidate Beto O'Rourke on bass.
Bixler-Zavala has a tenor voice type, with a range spanning from D2 to C7. His vocal work spans many different styles, ranging from consistent rhythmic shouts to controlled falsetto and head voice singing. In 2016, it was revealed that Bixler-Zavala developed vocal nodules, causing shows to be canceled while on tour. Bixler-Zavala is fond of Frank Zappaesque humor and writes in English and Latin, his lyrics have a wide vocabulary and feature complicated wordplay. Bixler-Zavala uses portmanteaus: combining existing words, or parts of words, to create a new word; the song "Noctourniquet," for example, combines "nocturnal" and "tourniquet". He has stated: "I pervert them, mutate them a little. So you think I am singing one thing, but when you read it, it is different." When performing with At the Drive-in and The Mars Volta, Bixler-Zavala is known for his eccentric on-stage behavior. He does somersaults on stage, swings his microphone, throws objects such as cymbals, microphone stands, trash cans into the audience, salsa dances, adjusts Omar Rodriguez-Lopez's effects pedals and plays the maracas.
Under the pseudonym "Alavaz Relxib Cirdec", Bixler-Zavala contributed a two-song single to the GSL Special 12-inch Singles Series, released in December 2005. Closer to the dub of De Facto and the ambient experimentation shown in Omar Rodríguez-López's records than the prog-rock of The Mars Volta, the two songs Bixler-Zavala has produced under this alias are instrumental. In 2010, he commented on Facebook about the recording process: This is my failed attempt at ghost noted shuffeling Tony Allen beats! Ha! There is a digital tabla machine running through some DD-5 delay pedal, being played by a mini hand held tape recorder playing throughout! I wrote the bass line...hummed it to Juan... Omar came up with the guitar and chorus section and Adrian played flute on it, it was squeezed in during tracking drums for Amputechture, rushed...very rushed. I had other parts and chorus bits but I didn't want to get in the way of the record; the samples are from 2 places On "Private Booths" the samples at the start are from an interview with a psychic who participated in the Montauk Project...
I sampled it from a UK TV show called Disinformation The other sample is from a movie called Shock Corridor by the late Sam Fuller. Side 2 "Sapta Loka" is a bit of an homage to ambient German music from the... it's one long drone spliced in four places and stacked on each other playing at the same time. A shitty Casio and a banged up Chaos pad are being run and it's all recorded through a hand held mini recorder dumped onto a ProTools file. Omar co-wrote the piece. Late 2011 saw the release of the first 7-inch record from Bixler's new project Anywhere, a collaboration with Christian Eric Beaulieu of Triclops! and Mike Watt of The Stooges/Firehose/Minutemen. Their self-titled debut album was released by ATP Records in June 2012. Bixler has stated that he has been working on an album with the last Mars Volta drummer Deantoni Parks, although it remains unreleased to date. Since 2011 Bixler was working on another album, which he described as "mostly ballady type stuff... a sunday morning record. Soft".
The solo project turned into a full-fledged band named Zavalaz, which features Bixler on lead vocals and guitar, Dan Elkan on guitar, Juan Alderete on bass and Gregory Rogove on drums. The band is set to play a number of West Coast tour dates throughout June, supported by Dot Hacker and EV Kain. On June 3, 2013, a snippet from song "Blue Rose of Grand Street" off their upcoming album All the Nights We Never Met was released on YouTube. Cedric has been back into the studio after reuniting with Omar Rodríguez-López due to Red Hot Chili Peppers bassist, wanting them to reunite, they have now formed a supergroup together called Antemasque with ex-Mars Volta drummer Dave Elitch. The band recorded and released their debut in 2014. Fans have cited that as Flea and Dave have played with the Mars Volta prior, a Mars Volta reunion could be in the works. In February 2018, Bixler Zavala confirmed on Twitter that the Mars Volta will reunite, but clarified that At the Drive-In activity will take precedence for the immediate future.
In 2009, Bi
Omar Alfredo Rodríguez-López is an American multi-instrumentalist, producer, writer and film director. He is known for being the guitarist and band-leader of the Mars Volta from 2001 until their breakup in 2012, is the guitarist for the alternative rock groups At the Drive-In, Antemasque and Bosnian Rainbows, he was the bassist for the dub band De Facto. He has embarked on a solo career, both in studio and in concert described as experimental, avant-garde and/or progressive, he has collaborated with numerous artists spanning from John Frusciante to El-P. Rodríguez-López was born in Puerto Rico and grew up in El Paso and spent some of his childhood in South Carolina, he began playing the bass at age 12, but switched to guitar at 15 because he "needed more strings". It was during this time that Rodríguez-López met Cedric Bixler-Zavala while practicing with friend Paul Hinojos. Since Rodríguez-López has spent most of his career living and working with his close friend Bixler-Zavala. During this time he collaborated with his friends and future bandmates from El Paso, which included people such as Paul Hinojos, Cedric Bixler-Zavala, Julio Venegas and the late Jeremy Michael Ward.
He attended Coronado High School in El Paso. He says he enjoys the company of his close friends and family when not fulfilling obligations to his many bands and projects. Rodríguez-López has been a vegetarian for most of his life. At 17, Rodríguez-López left El Paso to hitchhike around the country for a year in the early 1990s, during which he acquired an addiction to opiates, he got in touch with friend Cedric Bixler-Zavala who suggested he come back to El Paso. With the help of Bixler-Zavala, he was able to return to El Paso where he could begin to reclaim his life from addiction and join At the Drive-In as backup vocalist and bass guitarist. After receiving a record deal with Flipside Records and recording Acrobatic Tenement with the band, he became their full-time bassist before switching to guitar. After several years and two more critically acclaimed albums, for a variety of reasons, Rodríguez-López and Bixler-Zavala left At the Drive-In and the band went on "indefinite hiatus"; the remaining members, Paul Hinojos, Tony Hajjar, Jim Ward went on to form Sparta while the duo focused on other projects.
On January 9, 2012, At the Drive-In announced that they were reforming for a tour. They refocused their efforts on the dub outfit called De Facto which included Jeremy Michael Ward and Isaiah "Ikey" Owens which they had started years before while still in At the Drive-In; the same collective of musicians in De Facto would be expanded into Rodríguez-López's new band, The Mars Volta. Once again starting from scratch he wrote and toured with the band which consumed all his time and money. On May 25, 2003 less than a month before the release of their first full-length album, De-Loused in the Comatorium and close friend Jeremy Ward was found dead of a heroin overdose; this event, coupled with the memories of the suicide of his friend Julio Venegas years earlier convinced both him and Bixler-Zavala to quit using opiates. Since he has been clean and credited his newfound musical work ethic on his new lifestyle; the Mars Volta's second album, Frances the Mute, would be dedicated to Ward. During the early years of the band he worked on a low budget movie called A Manual Dexterity which starred Jeremy Ward.
The soundtrack A Manual Dexterity: Soundtrack Volume 1 was released in 2004. The release of the second volume, planned for Spring of 2005, the film were both delayed indefinitely due to legal problems. Conflicts over ownership of certain footage and Rodríguez-López's reluctance to revisit the project which featured his late friend Jeremy Michael Ward were both cited as reasons for the delay. However, Rodríguez-López stated that he does intend to release both Volume 2 and the film at some point in the future. On February 8, 2009, he and his fellow The Mars Volta bandmates won the Grammy for Best Hard Rock Performance. On January 23, 2013, The Mars Volta announced that they had broken up, following a series of tweets posted by Cedric Bixler-Zavala stating that he had departed the band, their future was uncertain at this point, although Rodriguez-Lopez has not ruled out the possibility of reuniting in the future. In 2005 Rodríguez-López relocated to Amsterdam, where he wrote and recorded four separate albums.
His first solo project was the "Omar Rodríguez-López Quintet". Rodríguez-López played several live shows in Europe with his quintet, which in 2005 included three members of The Mars Volta Group and Money Mark; the songs featured on this tour appeared on the album Omar Rodriguez. It was characterized by improvisational songs with Dutch titles and no lyrics; the Quintet performed live with Damo Suzuki, parts of which were recorded and incorporated into a 25-minute EP titled Please Heat This Eventually, released in 2007. During this time Rodríguez-López was working on The Mars Volta's 2006 record Amputechture and composing the score to the film El Búfalo de la Noche, a film by Guillermo Arriaga and Jorge Hernandez Aldana to his work with the quintet. On May 29, 2007 Se Dice Bisonte, No Búfalo was released, it was the third full-length solo album by Rodríguez-López. It featured performances by Mars Volta members Cedric Bixler-Zavala, Marcel Rodríguez-López, Juan Alderete, Adrián Terrazas-González as well as cameos by Money Mark, John Frusciante, John Theodore.
It was recorded between 2005 -- 2006 in California and Amsterdam. The Quintet resurfaced in 2007, now known as "The Rod
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s. The term denotes the modern popular music of Jamaica and its diaspora. A 1968 single by Toots and the Maytals, "Do the Reggay" was the first popular song to use the word "reggae," naming the genre and introducing it to a global audience. While sometimes used in a broad sense to refer to most types of popular Jamaican dance music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style, influenced by traditional mento as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues the New Orleans R&B practiced by Fats Domino and Allen Toussaint, evolved out of the earlier genres ska and rocksteady. Reggae relates news, social gossip, political comment. Reggae spread into a commercialized jazz field, being known first as ‘Rudie Blues’ ‘Ska’ ‘Blue Beat’, ‘Rock Steady’, it is recognizable from the counterpoint between the bass and drum downbeat, the offbeat rhythm section. The immediate origins of reggae were in rocksteady. Reggae is linked to the Rastafari, an Afrocentric religion which developed in Jamaica in the 1930's, aiming at promoting Pan Africanism.
Soon after the Rastafarian movement appeared, the international popularity of reggae music became associated with and increased the visibility of Rastafarianism spreading the Rastafari gospel throughout the world. Reggae music is an important means of transporting vital messages of Rastafarianism; the musician becomes the messenger, as Rastafarians see it,"the soldier and the musician are tools for change."Stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues, mento and draws influence from traditional African folk rhythms. One of the most recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms; the tempo of reggae is slower paced than ska but faster than rocksteady. The concept of call and response can be found throughout reggae music; the genre of reggae music is led by the bass. Some key players in this sound are Jackie Jackson from Toots and the Maytals, Carlton Barrett from Bob Marley and the Wailers, Lloyd Brevett from The Skatalites, Paul Douglas from Toots and the Maytals, Lloyd Knibb from The Skatalites, Winston Grennan, Sly Dunbar, Anthony "Benbow" Creary from The Upsetters.
The bass guitar plays the dominant role in reggae. The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized; the guitar in reggae plays on the off beat of the rhythm. It is common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, Iyaric dialects. Reggae is noted for its tradition of social criticism and religion in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love and socializing. Reggae has spread to many countries across the world incorporating local instruments and fusing with other genres. Reggae en Español spread from the Spanish speaking Central American country of Panama to the mainland South American countries of Venezuela and Guyana to the rest of South America. Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, has evolved into several subgenres and fusions. Many reggae artists began their careers in the UK, there have been a number of European artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica and the Caribbean community in Europe.
Reggae in Africa was boosted by the visit of Bob Marley to Zimbabwe in 1980. In Jamaica, authentic reggae is one of the biggest sources of income; the 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as "a estab. Sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row". Reggae as a musical term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit "Do the Reggay" by The Maytals which named the genre of Reggae for the world. Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois word streggae into reggae. However, Toots Hibbert said: There's a word we used to use in Jamaica called'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy; the girls would say that about the men too. This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said,'OK man, let's do the reggay.' It was just something. So we just start. People tell me that we had given the sound its name.
Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records. Bob Marley is said to have claimed that the word reggae came from a Spanish term for "the king's music"; the liner notes of To the King, a compilation of Christian gospel reggae, suggest that the word reggae was derived from the Latin regi meaning "to the king". Although influenced by traditional mento and calypso music, as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues, reggae owes its direct origins to the ska and rocksteady of 1960s Jamaica; the generic title for Jamaican music recorded between 1961 and 1967, ska emerged from Jamaican R&B, based on American R&B and doo-wop. Rastafari entered some countries through reggae music; the Rastafari moveme
Isaiah "Ikey" Owens
Randolph Isaiah "Ikey" Owens was an American Grammy Award winning keyboardist known for his work with The Mars Volta, Jack White and an array of bands from the Long Beach music scene. He notably performed as a member of Long Beach Dub Allstars, but in 1998 it was an encounter with Cedric Bixler-Zavala and Omar Rodríguez-López of At the Drive-In at a concert in Irvine which proved fateful. In 1999 Owens lost his job at a financial management firm in Huntington Beach that "helped handle billion-dollar accounts for Disney and the Catholic Church", but he received an invitation to join the dub reggae band De Facto and found himself touring Europe with Omar and Jeremy Ward. Not long after that he was once again invited to join their new project, The Mars Volta. Since Owens was notable for being the longest tenured member of the Mars Volta outside Bixler-Zavala and Rodriguez-Lopez, having continually recorded and performed with the band since their 2001 inception, although this came to an end in 2011 when he was not asked by Rodriguez-Lopez to accompany The Mars Volta on their summer tour.
The reasons for this decision are unknown, although on July 2 Mars Volta bassist Juan Alderete claimed that Owens was "producing bands these days." Juan noted, "He had some conflicts in his scheduling, it all just evolved into what it is today. Ikey is awesome. I miss dinners with him."Owens was very active outside the Mars Volta. Beginning in 2002, Owens wrote and recorded solo material under the moniker Free Moral Agents, releasing a vinyl-only EP on Pete Records, as well as a GSL split 12" with Subtitle, they released their full-length "Everybody's Favorite Weapon" in 2004. He played with Pocket Lent, Teen Heroes and did session and work and live shows with El-P, Dave Sitek from TV on the Radio, Shuggie Otis, The Aquabats, Barrington Levy, Gravy Train!!!!, Born Jamericans, Wailing Souls, Heavens, Prefuse 73, Bob Forrest, poet/spoken word artist Saul Williams. Owens worked with 2Mex as hip hop duo the Look Daggers. In 2007, Ikey produced First You Live by Orange County progressive-folk band Dusty Rhodes and the River Band.
Owens was seen playing with the Long Beach experimental band Crystal Antlers. Free Moral Agents released their second full-length album Control This in the fall of 2010, the first album with the band's expanded line-up. Owens became part of Jack White's all-male backup band The Buzzards, playing keyboards and piano, he took part in the world tour in support of White's album Blunderbuss, also performed on White's second album and was in the middle of the supporting tour of the album at the time of his death. On October 14, 2014, Owens was found dead due to a heart attack in his hotel room in Puebla, aged 39. Two remaining concerts in Mexico in support of Jack White's album, were cancelled; the band had played in Mexico City three days earlier, in Puebla one night before the incident, were scheduled to perform in Guadalajara the day of his death. Looking for Lauryn Hill In Lakewood as Isaiah Ikey Owens Everybody's Favorite Weapon The Special 12 Singles Series Momma's Gun Club Vol. 1 Looking for Lauryn Hill in Lakewood Free Moral Agents 7" EP "Free Moral Agents 10" single "North Is Red" b/w Tony Allen remix Control This The Honey in the Carcass of the Lion That Look – EP The Patience – EP Suffer in Style – LP How Do You Dub?
You Fight For Dub, You Plug Dub In EP 456132015 EP Megaton Shotblast LP Légende du Scorpion à Quatre Queues LP Tremulant – EP De-Loused in the Comatorium – LP Live – EP Frances the Mute – LP Scabdates – LP Amputechture – LP The Bedlam in Goliath – LP Octahedron – LP – credited but didn't play on the album Turn the Radio Off – Reel Big Fish Forget the World – The Hippos Second-hand Smoke – Sublime "Audio Satellite" – Teen Heroes A Manual Dexterity: Soundtrack Volume 1 – Omar Rodríguez-López Saul Williams – Saul Williams Shifting Gears – Z-Trip Blood Mountain – Mastodon Revisions Revisions: The Remixes 2000-2005 – DJ Nobody Wednesday: Modern Folk and Blues – Bob Forrest Patent Pending – Heavens The Moreye – the Visionaries Flight of the Bass Delegate – The Jai-Alai Savant RoadKillOvercoat – Busdriver I'll Sleep When You're Dead – El-P The Inevitable Rise and Liberation of NiggyTardust! – Saul Williams Imaginary Foe – Reason To Rebel Ctrl Alt Delete – Free the Robots Cancer 4 Cure – El-P Jack White live in NY – Jack White Venus Breakdown EP – Milk+ "Creation's Finest" – Mother's Cake Band on Wire – Milk+ Run The Jewels – Run The Jewels Rival Sons – Great Western Valkyrie Lazaretto – Jack White Srange Planes of Surveillance – Buzzmutt Once More'Round the Sun – Mastodon Run The Jewels 2 – Run The Jewels Arañas en La Sombra – Omar Rodríguez-López "The Radio Listener Remixes" - Various Artists "Hello Doctor" – Gravy Train!!!
First You Live – Dusty Rhodes & The River Band Suffer in Style – Look Daggers A Future to Kill the Habits on the Witch's Tongue – Mode 2008 "S/T ep" – Crystal Antlers "All the Colors" – Greater California 2009 "Control This" – Free Moral Agents 2010 Family