Louis Jean Joseph Charles Blanc was a French politician and historian. A socialist who favored reforms, he called for the creation of cooperatives in order to guarantee employment for the urban poor, Blancs advocacy failed and, caught between radical worker tendencies and the National Guard, he was forced into exile. Blanc returned to France in 1870, shortly before the conclusion of the Franco-Prussian war, although he did not support the Paris Commune he successfully proposed amnesty to the Communards. Even though Blancs ideas of the cooperatives were never realized. Louis Blanc was born in Madrid, his father held the post of inspector-general of finance under Joseph Bonaparte and his younger brother was Charles Blanc, who became an influential art critic. Failing to receive aid from Pozzo di Borgo, his mothers uncle, Louis Blanc studied law in Paris, living in poverty, in the Revue du progres, which he founded, he published in 1839 his study on LOrganisation du travail. The principles laid down in this famous essay form the key to Louis Blancs whole political career and he attributes all the evils that afflict society to the pressure of competition, whereby the weaker are driven to the wall.
In 1841 he published his Histoire de dix ans 1830-1840, an attack upon the monarchy of July and it ran through four editions in four years. In 1847 he published the two first volumes of his Histoire de la Revolution Française and its publication was interrupted by the Revolution of 1848, when Louis Blanc became a member of the provisional government. The revolution of 1848 was the chance for Louis Blancs ideas to be implemented. His theory of using the government to enact change was different from those of other socialist theorists of his time. Blanc believed that workers could control their own livelihoods, but knew that unless they were given help to get started the cooperative workshops would never work, to assist this process along Blanc lobbied for national funding of these workshops until the workers could assume control. To fund this project, Blanc saw a ready revenue source in the rail system. Under government control the system would provide the bulk of the funding needed for this. When the workshop program was ratified in the National Assembly, Blancs chief rival Emile Thomas was put in control of the project, Emile Thomass deliberate failure in organizing the workshops into a success only seemed to anger the public more.
The people had promised a job and a working environment in which the workers were in charge. What they had received was hand outs and government funded work parties to dig ditches, when the workshops were closed the workers rebelled again but were put down by force by the National Guard. The National Assembly was able to blame Blanc for the failure of the workshops and his ideas were questioned and he lost much of the respect which had given him influence with the public
Stanislas Laugier was a French surgeon and doctor. He was the brother of astronomer Paul Auguste Ernest Laugier and he was associated with the Hôtel-Dieu in Paris, a member of the Institut and of the Académie des Sciences and professor of the Académie de Médecine de Paris. He was buried in the cimetière du Père-Lachaise, with Gustave-Antoine Richelot, he published a translation of William Mackenzies A practical treatise on the diseases of the eye as Traité pratique des maladies des yeux. Other noted works by Laugier include, Des cals difformes et des opérations quils réclament,1841 Des varices, de leur traitement,1842 - Of strictures, Des lésions traumatiques de la moelle épinière,1848 - Traumatic lesions of the spinal cord. Laugier hernia, A hernia passing through an opening in the lacunar ligament, Laugier sign - In fracture of the lower portion of the radius, the styloid processes of the radius and of the ulna are on the same level
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon
The Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Lyon. It is housed near place des Terreaux in a former Benedictine convent of the 17th and 18th centuries and it was restored between 1988 and 1998, and despite these important restoration works it remained open to visitors. Its collections range from ancient Egypt antiquities to the Modern art period and it hosts important exhibitions of art, recently there have been exhibitions of works by Georges Braque and Henri Laurens, one on the work of Théodore Géricault. It is one of the largest art museums in France, until 1792, the buildings belonged to the royal abbaye des Dames de Saint-Pierre, built in the 17th century. The abbess always came from the high French nobility and here received the personalities of the kingdom, the institution had a particularly aristocratic slant, as is shown by its renovation by Louis XIV of France in the 17th and 18th centuries. The rest of its current scheme was designed by Nicolas Bidaut, the expulsion of the nuns and the destruction of the église Saint-Saturnin date to the French Revolution, though the abbeys other church still exists and now houses 19th and 20th century sculptures.
After the Revolution the remaining buildings housed the Palais du Commerce et des Arts, at first made up of works confiscated from the clergy and nobility, for example, it gained archaeology and natural history collections and those of the Académie des Sciences et des Lettres. The imperial drawing school was created in 1805 in the Palais du Commerce et des Arts to provide Lyons silk factories with designers and it gave birth to the famous Lyon School. In 1860, the Chambre de Commerce left the Palais Saint-Pierre, from 1875, the museums collections underwent a major expansion and had to be expanded - the staircase by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes dates to this era. The start of the 20th century was marked by a considerable opening-up of the collections, after several restoration projects, it was in the mid-1990s that the building acquired its present scheme. The paintings department has European paintings of 14th- to mid-20th-century paintings and they are arranged chronologically and by major schools in 35 rooms.
The collection features, Ancient French painting, at the heart of the abbey, the former cloister is now a municipal garden, right in the centre of the town, on the peninsula. The highlights of the collection are its display of sarcophaguses and the gates of Ptolemy III, the rest of the objects throw light on everyday life in ancient Egypt. Room 2, The divine and its rites Along this rooms length a temples decoration is recreated, culminating with the gates of Ptolemy III, the other bas-reliefs in this room come from Koptos - eight are dated to the Middle Kingdom and come from a temple to Min. They were discovered by Adolphe Reinach in 1909 in the foundations of a late building,11 other fragments come from the end of the Ptolemaic era, and more precisely the reign of Cleopatra VII. Room 3, The cult of the divine Entered through the gate of Ptolemy IV, on the walls are shown 3 fragments of bas-reliefs from the 28th Dynasty, found in Koptos. One whole case is devoted to representations of Osiris and another to those of the pharaoh, here can be seen a head of a pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty, attributed to Nectanebo II, a Middle Kingdom bust and a scarab with the name of Amenhotep II.
Room 5, Pharaoh and his servants In one case are 18 wooden models of the 23rd Dynasty from Assiout from tombs, representing scenes from everyday life, in the opposite case are two with displays on writing and on the pharaohs servants respectively
Montparnasse Cemetery is a cemetery in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, part of the citys 14th arrondissement. Created from three farms in 1824, the cemetery at Montparnasse was originally known as Le Cimetière du Sud, cemeteries had been banned from Paris since the closure, owing to health concerns, of the Cimetière des Innocents in 1786. At the heart of the city, and today sitting in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower, is Passy Cemetery, Montparnasse Cemetery is the resting place of many of Frances intellectual and artistic elite as well as publishers and others who promoted the works of authors and artists. There are graves of foreigners who have made France their home, as well as monuments to police. The cemetery is divided by Rue Émile Richard, the small section is usually referred to as the small cemetery and the large section as the big cemetery. Although Baudelaire is buried in this cemetery, there is a cenotaph to him, because of the many notable people buried there, it is a highly popular tourist attraction.
Divisions 5 and 30 were originally Jewish enclosures and contain many Jewish graves, the main entrance to the cemetery is on Boulevard Edgar Quinet which leads to the big cemetery. There are smaller entrances to both the big and small cemeteries on Rue Émile Richard, list of burials at Montparnasse Cemetery A list of many buried at the cemetery Montparnasse Cemetery at Find a Grave Information and help in touring Montparnasse cemetery In English
The Sorbonne is an edifice of the Latin Quarter, in Paris, which was the historical house of the former University of Paris. The name is derived from the Collège de Sorbonne, initiated during 1257 by the eponymous Robert de Sorbon as one of the first significant colleges of the medieval University of Paris. The university predates the college by about a century, and minor colleges had been founded already during the late 12th century, during the 16th century, the Sorbonne became involved with the intellectual struggle between Catholics and Protestants. The Collège de Sorbonne was suppressed during the French Revolution, reopened by Napoleon during 1808 and this was only one of the many colleges of the University of Paris that existed until the French revolution. After months of conflicts between students and authorities at the University of Paris at Nanterre, the administration closed that university on May 2,1968. Students at the Sorbonne campus in Paris met on May 3 to protest against the closure and the threatened expulsion of several students at Nanterre.
More than 20,000 students and other endorsers marched towards the Sorbonne, still sealed off by the police, who charged, wielding their batons, as soon as the marchers approached. While the crowd dispersed, some began to make out of whatever was at hand, while others threw paving stones. The police responded with tear gas and charged the crowd again, may 10 marked the Night of Barricades, where students used cars and cobblestones to barricade the streets of the Latin Quarter. Brutal street fighting ensued between students and riot police, most notably on Rue Gay-Lussac, early the next morning, as the fighting disbanded, Daniel Cohn-Bendit sent out a radio broadcast calling for a general strike. On Monday,13 May, more than one million workers went on strike, negotiations ended, and students returned to their campuses after a false report that the government had agreed to reopen them, only to discover police still occupying the schools. When the Sorbonne reopened, students occupied it and declared it an autonomous Peoples University, during 1970, the University of Paris was divided into thirteen universities, managed by a common rectorate, the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris, with offices in the Sorbonne.
The building houses the École Nationale des Chartes, the École pratique des hautes études, the Cours de Civilisation Française de la Sorbonne, the use of the name refers more often to Panthéon-Sorbonne University for French public especially students in France. But, all Parisian universities like to refer as their ancestor, some alliances of universities use that name, like Sorbonne University. Listing of the works of Alexandre Falguière List of works by Henri Chapu La Sorbonne
Augustin-Alexandre Dumont, known as Auguste Dumont was a French sculptor. He was one of a line of famous sculptors, the great-grandson of Pierre Dumont, son of Jacques-Edme Dumont. In 1818, he started studies at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, in 1823, he was awarded the Prix de Rome for his sculptures, and went to study at the French Academy in Rome. In 1830, he returned to France, in 1853 he became a teacher at the École des Beaux-Arts. A disease kept him from working after 1875, doctrines, catalogue, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris,2003, p.146 Media related to Augustin-Alexandre Dumont at Wikimedia Commons