Galicia is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law. Located in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula, it comprises the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo and Pontevedra, being bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Cantabrian Sea to the north, it had a population of 2,718,525 in 2016 and has a total area of 29,574 km2. Galicia has over 1,660 km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, and—the largest and most populated—A Illa de Arousa; the area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, it takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people living north of the Douro River during the last millennium BC, in a region coincidental with that of the Iron Age local Castro culture. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, was made a Roman province in the 3rd century AD.
In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga. In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740. During the Middle Ages, the kingdom of Galicia was ruled by its own kings, but most of the time it was leagued to the kingdom of Leon and to that of Castile, while maintaining its own legal and customary practices and culture. From the 13th century on, the kings of Castile, as kings of Galicia, appointed an Adiantado-mór, whose attributions passed to the Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Galiza from the last years of the 15th century; the Governor presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, a royal tribunal and government body. From the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia.
This institution was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four administrative provinces with no legal mutual links. During the 19th and 20th centuries, demand grew for self-government and for the recognition of the culture of Galicia; this resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship. After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and in force, providing Galicia with self-government; the interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape. The coastal areas are an alternate series of rías and cliffs; the climate of Galicia is temperate and rainy, with markedly drier summers. Its topographic and climatic conditions have made animal husbandry and farming the primary source of Galicia's wealth for most of its history, allowing for a relative high density of population. With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, when it began to industrialize.
In 2012, the gross domestic product at purchasing power parity was €56,000 million, with a nominal GDP per capita of €20,700. The population is concentrated in two main areas: from Ferrol to A Coruña in the northern coast, in the Rías Baixas region in the southwest, including the cities of Vigo and the interior city of Santiago de Compostela. There are smaller populations around the interior cities of Ourense; the political capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña. Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality, with 292,817, while A Coruña is the most populous city, with 215,227. Two languages are official and used today in Galicia: Galician and Spanish. Galician is a Romance language related to Portuguese, with which it shares Galician-Portuguese medieval literature, Spanish, sometimes referred to as Castilian, used throughout the country. Spanish is spoken fluently by all in Galicia, in 2013 it was reported that 51% of the Galician population used more Galician on a day-to-day, 48% used more Spanish.
The name Galicia derives from the Latin toponym Callaecia Gallaecia, related to the name of an ancient Celtic tribe that resided north of the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, or Καλλαϊκoί in Greek. These Callaeci were the first tribe in the area to help the Lusitanians against the invading Romans; the Romans applied their name to all the other tribes in the northwest who spoke the same language and lived the same life. The etymology of the name has been studied since the 7th century by authors such as Isidore of Seville, who wrote that "Galicians are called so, because of their fair skin, as the Gauls", relating the name to the Greek word for milk. In the 21st century, some scholars have derived the name of the ancient Callaeci either from Proto-Indo-European *kal-n-eH2'hill', through a local relational suffix -aik-, so meaning'the hill'. In any case, being per se a derivation of the ethnic name Kallaikói, means'the land of the Galicians'; the most recent proposal comes from linguist Francesco Benozzo afte
Cotobade is a municipality in Galicia, Spain in the province of Pontevedra. It borders the municipalities of Campo Lameiro, Forcarei, A Lama, Ponte Caldelas and Pontevedra. In 2011 its population was 4,432 people, according to the INE. Cotobad is divided internally into several administrative divisions. Among the most prominent geographical features are the Lérez river, which flows through the lowlands of the municipality and its tributary and the river Almofrei. Of the mountains, the most prominent is one of the main mountains in Galicia; the name of Cotobad comes from "couto do abade." The whole region belonged to the old jurisdiction that exercised the Ranking of the Convent of Benedictine Tenorio. The municipality is located west of Galicia and east of the province Pontevedra, to which it administratively belongs
Province of Pontevedra
Pontevedra is a province of Spain along the country's Atlantic coast in southwestern Europe. The province forms the southwestern part of the autonomous community of Galicia, it is bordered by the provinces of A Coruña, Ourense, the country of Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. The official languages of the Pontevedra province are Galician. There is a public institution called the Diputación Provincial of Pontevedra, whose head office is in Pontevedra city, that provides direct services to citizens such as technical and technological support to the councils of the 62 municipalities of the province of Pontevedra; the population of the province is 941,772, of which 11.5% live in the capital, the city of Pontevedra and around 30% in Vigo. Pontevedra is cut in two parts by the Lérez River. Most of the major tourist attractions in Pontevedra are to the south of the river. Pontevedra features many historical buildings and churches. Much of the Rías Baixas Denominación de Origen is located in the province.
The province shares the Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park with neighbouring A Coruña province. This region contains the Galician islands of Cies, Sálvora and Cortegada; the province has an oceanic climate with warm and dry summers and cool and wet winters. The province's capital, with a population of 82,946 is not the largest municipality of its province, the largest municipality is the industrial Vigo with a population of 292,817. In addition, there are 62 municipalities in the province. Other relevant municipalities, based on their populations, are Marín, Vilagarcía de Arousa, Poio, Nigrán, O Porriño. O Baixo Miño county Caldas county O Condado county O Deza county O Morrazo county A Paradanta county Pontevedra county O Salnés county Tabeirós - Terra de Montes county Vigo county Galician wine Media related to Province of Pontevedra at Wikimedia Commons
A ria is a coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley. It is a drowned river valley. Rias have a dendritic, treelike outline although they can be straight and without significant branches; this pattern is inherited from the dendritic drainage pattern of the flooded river valley. The drowning of river valleys along a stretch of coast and formation of rias results in an irregular and indented coastline. There are naturally-occurring islands, which are summits of submerged, preexisting hill peaks. A ria coast is a coastline having several parallel rias separated by prominent ridges, extending a distance inland; the sea level change that caused the submergence of a river valley may be either eustatic, or isostatic. The result is a large estuary at the mouth of a insignificant river; the Kingsbridge Estuary in Devon, England, is an extreme example of a ria forming an estuary disproportionate to the size of its river. The word ria comes from Portuguese ria or Galician ría, related to Spanish and Galician río and Portuguese rio.
Rias are present all along the Galician coast in Spain. As defined, the term was restricted to drowned river valleys cut parallel to the structure of the country rock, at right angles to the coastline. However, the definition of ria was expanded to other flooded river valleys regardless of the structure of the country rock. For a period of time, European geomorphologists regarded rias to include any broad estuarine river mouth, including fjords; these are long, narrow inlets with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity. In the 21st century, the preferred usage of ria by geologists and geomorphologists is to refer to drowned unglaciated river valleys, it therefore excludes fjords by definition. Portugal: the country has no rias as such: the Ria de Aveiro in Aveiro, Ria Formosa in Eastern Algarve are lagoons. Atlantic coast of Spain Galicia: The Rias Baixas, including the Ria of Vigo, Ria of Pontevedra, Ria de Arousa, Ria of Muros and Noia, Ria of Corcubion and Ria de Aldán.
The Rias Altas, including the Ria of Corunna, Ria of Ares and Betanzos, Ria of Cedeira, Ria of O Barqueiro, Ria of Ferrol, Ria of Ortigueira, Ria of Viveiro, Ria of Foz and Ria of Ribadeo. Asturias: Ria of Avilés, Ria of Ribadeo, Ria of Navia, Ria of Villaviciosa, Ria of Ribadesella, Ria of Llanes, Ria of Tina Mayor. Cantabria: Ria of Tina Mayor, Ria of Tina Menor, Ría de San Vicente de la Barquera, Ría of la Rabia, Ría of San Martín de la Arena, Ría of Mogro, Ría of Solía, Ría of Carmen, Ría of Boo, Ría of Tijero, Ría of Cubas, Ría de Ajo, Ría of Cabo Quejo, Ría of Treto, Ría of Oriñón. Basque Country: Ria of Bilbao, mouth of the rivers Nervión, Cadagua. Andalusia: Ria of Carreras, Ria of Huelva at the mouth of the rivers Odiel and Tinto. Brittany: The rias in northern Brittany are called Abers: Aber Wrac'h, Aber Benoît, Aber Ildut; the Roadstead of Brest includes several rias. Ireland: Bantry Bay located on the southwest coast of Ireland is an example of an Irish ria. Wales: Milford Haven in Pembrokeshire is a ria.
England: The south coast of England is a submergent coastline which contains many rias, including Southampton Water, Poole Harbour, the estuaries of the Exe and Dart Kingsbridge Estuary, Plymouth Sound in Devon, the estuaries of the River Fowey, River Fal and Helford River in Cornwall. On the north coast is the River Taw. In Essex is the Blackwater River Crouch; the River Severn forms a large ria. Croatia: Lim, Ombla Montenegro: The Bay of Kotor Italy: The Fiordo di Furore on the Amalfi Coast in Campania is a ria, despite its name. Malta: Grand Harbour and Marsamxett Harbour Kenya: Kilindini Harbour, a deep channel between Mombasa island and South Coast mainland, is a ria. Sanriku Coast: North Japan, east coast of Honshū Island. Sendai city, Miyagi Prefecture and Iwate Prefecture are included. Ago Coast in Shima is a Ria coast, well known for its pearls. Coasts on western, southern sides of the Korean Peninsula: Rias formed by sea level rising after Ice Age; the Chinese east coast, from the Guangdong province to Shanghai.
Papua New Guinea: Rias formed by eroded volcanic lava flow are found all around the town of Tufi at Cape Nelson, in Papua New Guinea's Oro Province. Australia: The east coast of Australia features several rias around Sydney, including Georges River, Port Hacking, Port Jackson, which includes Sydney Harbour. There are many examples in Western Australia, including the Swan River around Perth and several rivers in the west Kimberley region. New Zealand: Rias of various scales abound on the eastern shores of the upper North Island. On the west coast, in contrast, they are larger. Kaipara Harbour is the country's largest, the Hokianga Harbour, further north, is of historical significance to the native Māori people; the Marlborough Sounds at the northern tip of the South Island form a large network of rias. United States: Narragansett Bay, New York Harbor, Delaware Bay, Indian River Bay, the Chesapeake Bay, Charleston Harbor are rias on the East Coast. Willapa Bay and Grays Harbo
Rivers of Galicia
The rivers of Galicia form part of a dense hydrographical network in the Spanish autonomous community of Galicia and has been described by Otero Pedrayo as “the land of a thousand rivers”. Most rivers are not deep enough to be navigable, although small boats are sailed in the lower courses of the River Minho and several others, as well as at many of the dams; the rivers flowing into the Bay of Biscay tend to be short, those flowing into the Atlantic Ocean are only a little longer, except for the Minho and the Sil, whose lengths are several hundred kilometres. There are numerous rapids. In addition to river fishing, rivers have been used to power mills, dams have been constructed both to provide hydroelectric power and for storage of water. Galicia, Spain#Hydrography Gallery Gallery Maps of river basins of Galicia Otero Pedrayo, R. Os ríos galegos. Ed. Castrelos. Vigo, 1977. ISBN 8470410482
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman